« AnteriorContinuar »
saw that it was too strong work for them. He brought home his plow, with the ox in the condition mentioned the roth of NovemBER: but whether he abeyed me in the other instance or not, I am doubtful; I rather think the ox was purposely over-drove; for oxen were then quite a new kick.-But this is presumptive evidence only.
• What is to be learnt from this ?
• A young, Nender ox, not in exercise, may be worked too hard, in a close field, on a hot day. • A fulky cruel servant is dangerous.
Perhaps, an ox in collar can exert his strength more than in yoke.
• The lame ox. This was caused by a piece of fint getting between his claws, and infinuating itself into his foot.
• Perhaps, in future,-pick their feet every night.
' The inflated ox: (See the Minute of the 17th of AUGUST.) This was evidently the carelessness of the carter.
• Memorandum. A THINKING SERVANT is very valuable; but rarely to be met with.
The furfeited bull. This probably was caused by over-heating him the first day he was harnessed. • In future - Use them gently, and break them in by degrees.
The bull in the red water. He was taken in time, and easily cured.
• The ox which scours. I am totally at a loss for the cause. His food of late has been very good clover-and-rye-grass hay. He has not worked harder than the rest of the team (which, look, and are very well), for he was always a llug. I am apprehenfive that he was fold as an ailing ox: his skin and coat were never kind ;-and I recollect his frequently moaning, while he was in the house last spring ; yet he never refused his meat, and worked tolerably.
• Out of the four Gloucestershire oxen, two of them are remarkably plain ; and this is the third.
In future, “Never trust to a dealer to buy in oxen. « The two borfes tined. The cause was the carelesness of the carter, and the viciousness of one of the horses.
• Memorandum. Carelessness is not easily guarded against ; bat a vicious horse may be fold.
• The lame horse. This was a wrench in the hip, by drawing mud out of a pond, and the cause, ted to one-carelejnefs.
• The horse which went blind.' The cause seemed to be in Nature, Every means was taken to prevent the bad effect. • The borse which died of age. - Upwards of thirty years old.
• The cow which died of the red water. Being totally unacquainted with the nature of the disease or the remedy, I left the management entirely to the cow.leech ; through whose carelesness, rather than mismanagement, ļ believe the suffered.
• I have never since left the care of a fick or lame brutę wholly to the Leech or Farrier; for though I have not administered, I have attended the administrations -and have seen that the patient was not neglected,
• The cow which scours. I conjecture, that the disorder was caused by the quickness of transition from the low feed of the Com: mon, to the rich fucculent after grass.
• In future, -Raise them from the Common to richer feed by degrees. Perhaps, turn them into the after-grass, as soon as the - hay is out of the field, before the bite is got too long.
Perbaps, in future, - Never refuse two guineas for a scouring barener again.
• The hogs which were bung. I blame myself more in this inftance, than in all the reft.-Not for coupling hogs, generally ; but for fuffering hogs, of their value, to remain in couples in acorn-time. But I have the pleasure of reflecting, that my motive was good aeighbourhood; for Neighbour gave me to understand, that they were unwelcome guests in a field of his turnips. I therefore kept them in couples, though in the yard, to guard against that carele refs of servants, which was the immediate cause of their death.
• In future, -Be the consequence what it may, clip, mark, and uncouple such as remain unsold, when the acorns begin to fall.
• The barley. Had the feed been got into the ground three weeks or a month sooner, the dry weather would not have hurt it so much, and it might have been carried before the wet fet-in: but would it not have been truly ridiculous to have missed so favourable an opportunity of getting the land clean, in expe&tation of such a dry summer and wet barvest as may never happen again ? The soil received a tilth equal to a summer-fallow; its face now shews the good effect : and were the same circumstances to happen again I Mould most cer. tainly act in the same manner, and expect a tolerable summer, and tolerable harvett, and, of course, get-in my barley in tolerable time.
• This article muft therefore go to the fide of bad luck, not to that of bad management.
• Thus, of fixteen casualties, seven originated in Nature, (without any apparent factitious cause) and nine in positive or presumptive carelessness.- Does not this prove,
THE HAZARD OF FARMING,
AND THE VALUE OF CAREFUL SERVANTS ?
White's or Newmarket.' • Jan. 16, 1776. The scouring ox. The farrier first employed could not relieve him: I employed another. He told me that he was certain he could ftop it; but that scouring cattle are subject to relapses, which generally carried them off precipitately; and that the only method of creatment is to get them in flesh as fast as poffible, and fell them off.
• He ordered him a drench every morning (a compound of pow. der and dried leaves, given in a quart of fresh human urine) : as an addition, I desired that he might have a decoction of oak-bark given him in his water.
* At the fortnight's end the fcouring flopped ;-he recovered his appetite ;-his hide loosened ;--his eyes brightened ;--and he recovered his cud :--but he was so much redaced, that he could not rile without affistance; and though he eat well-dunged well-and looked well, he remained thus for a fortnight or three weeks. Ic was fix or eight men's buliness to get him up: he would not help himself in the least, until three or four days ago, when he began to get up with iittle help. But notwithitanding he eat half a truss of hay a day, he diờ not thrive ; and although I wilhed him dead (he was so low he would have taken more fatting and attendance than he would have been worth, when fat;-beiides the risk of a relapse) yet I was unwilling to give him up.
Early this inorning he awoke me with lamentable groans.-I rung up the servants :--they came, and told me that he was dying, for that he was “ swelled ready to burit.” I bade them slab him behind the ribs : this eased him for a while; but he soon began to divell and moan as bad as ever. I got up, and, seeing him in great agony, ordered him to be fluck.
'I jent for the Farrier, and we have opened him. His heart, Jiver, entrails, and nutriment in each flate, bear every mark of perfect sanity; except that his entrails, initead of rolling out, on his being opened, were tied fast to the coats of the vertebræ, and were obliged to be separated from them by a knife-a fleth-like subitance had formed; --and except that his maw was remarkably full of aliment, and was pierced by the knife with which he was stabbed. .
• Perhaps, the adhesion of the viscera accounts for his weakness, and for his disorder. Perhaps, the several members of the abdomen were rendered unable to perform their respective functions properly, without the aid of medicine. The Butcher observed, that this is a common case, when an ox has been strained, or has received a wrench in the back. This too brings on a scouring; it therefore seems very clear, that a strain, or wrench, was ihe finit cause of his disorder; and, from various circumitances, I am of opinion, it is of long standing, and brought to the crisis by time and hard-working.
"But how is the sufllation, which was obviously the immediate cause of his death, to be accounted for? His meat was clover-andrye-grass hay ;-his drink, water, with a small quantity of the decoction of oak bark, to prevent a relapse. But it was old hay which had been cut very full of sap, and got well into a large stack; fo that it was dry, and rich to a high degree; and he eat it very greedily as he lay.
We are sorry we cannot follow our Author in his investigation of the cause of this disorder.
· Lait year, N. 4. was fummer-tares, on an old clover-ley dunged. When in bloom, they were a beautiful crop, worth for verdage 41. or 5 l, an acre. They podded well; but the dry weather, perbaps, prevented many of them from filling.--The wet weather fet.in just as they were ready to be cut :-the heavy rains beat them fat to the ground, and the weeds soon became predominant :-they Here obliged to be reaped during the rainy weather, and repeatedly turned to keep them from rotting on the ground — The reaping and turning did not cost less than 1o s. an acre; besides thedding ninetenths of the few which matured.
* Last week they were thraihed, and lo! the three acres produced eleven bubels!
• Is not this another positive evidence of the Hazard of Farming? -A crop dunged for, and which, with an ordinary season, would have yielded from 41. to 6 1. an acre, is but barely able to discharge the expence of reaping and shraihing.
JUNE 23, 1777 • The spring feed-time was moist, but not remarkably wet; the clouds reserved their bounty for May and June.-The middle of May was very vet, and so is the middle of June.-The last ten days have been (except one) uniformly rainy.-- Last night it poured for eight or nine hours : perhaps, never so much rain fell in lo little time. The wheats which are good are beaten into the ground ; mihe grass which was cut, swims in every furrow; -- and the fallows are ready to flow out of the fields,-Low-land pastures are overlowed, and the ftock obliged to be taken into the house to prevent their poaching.– Work is now at a stand ; we cannot make hay, nor even weed.The teams cannot plow, nor can they carry out dung, even when it is fair, with any propriery. The ground was never fo wet since Noah's flood. The springs and rivers only may rejoice — The poor are starving for want of work,
• Wheat, which a fortnight ago was worth ten pounds an acre, will not, except the weather at harveit prove favourable indeed, be worth harvesting; and clover, which was nearly made when the rains set-in, will be reduced in its value more than hait, if not totally spoiled; for there are not as yet any signs of fair weather : the wind changes to every quarter, but the weather is invariably rainy,rainy,-rainy !
Many other casualties occur in these Minutes, which, for brevity, we omit. These are sufficient to convince any fenfible man that whoever does not include this class of expences in his calculations, commits a most essential error.
We meet with so many interesting particulars in this volume relating to the economy of rural affairs, that we are induced to extend this Article to an unusual length.
In farming, so many servants are necessary, that not only the success but the comfortable enjoyment of life, in a great measure, depends upon them. The man who, in that profeffion, knows not how to manage servants properly, must be ruined, and ruined in the most comfortless way, without enjoying one ray of pleasure in going through life: this, therefore, is an object of the highest importance, and ought to be studied with care; but, unfortunately, it requires such an intimate knowledge of the human heart, and the springs that usually infuence the actions of men, as falls to the Thare of very few, early in
life. From this fource spring many of those distresses in which young adventurers in agriculture are often suddenly involved before they are aware of it, and out of which they are never able to extricate themselves. Several hints relative to this fubject occur in this work, from which we feled the following:
MANAGEMENT OF SERVANTS. Mankind are by NATURE undoubtedly equal; but by chance they are, at present, widely distinct.-Masters and Servants are anavoidably necessary to the present state of Agriculture.-Subordination is essential to good government, whether public or private.Anarchy and subordination are allied, as light and darkness; when one increases, the other decreases; when one wholly succumbs, the other wholly predominates.
• If one man hire himself-fell himself temporarily--to another, unconditionally, he is, by the law of right, wholly subordinate to his equitable commands : if conditionally, the conditions are of course reciprocally binding,
· The Mafter who is bound to satisfy the cravings of his Servant with wholesome food, is equally bound to feed his mind with whole. fome morals. He has two motives to it; his own fatisfaction tem. porarily, and his Servant's welfare during life.-Youth calls particularly loud for this mental aliment; and a parsimony in its supply is more heinously criminal than are scanty meals and a bed of clods.
• About two years ago, I took a lad, who was puny and unfit for hard labour, from the plow, and placed him in the house. The first year he behaved very well; the second tolerably; but a falling. off was obvious. His brother, the preceding year, had suffered much for want of correction, and I clearly saw that he was ftriding away apace to the same path.-I therefore, though reluctantly, begaa to administer the necessary discipline; and during that year it had the desired effect.
• His vice commenced with idle excuses ;-—from these he crept on to falsehood; and, perhaps, this may be held as a general maxim:
The first step to destruction is evafon ;--the second, lying ;-the third, pilfering ;-thieving, -murder, -and the gallows, follow of course :
: cunning or impertinence is generally an accomplice. • This, the third year, he has behaved very ill.-I was aware of evil counsellors, but could not identify them.–At length the horse. whip totally lost its efficacy; and I, tired of correcting, sent to his friends : buc he, in the mean time (by the advice of his council) went to a magistrate, under the pretence of recovering his liberty and wages.
• The magistrate, whose head is as good as his heart is honest, presently saw through the rascality, and sent him home; and generously affitted his friends in discovering the incendiaries. Aftonish. ing! one of them, a man who has worked for me upwards of two years, and whom I have, lately, been daily endeavouring to serve ; the other (the principal) a fellow whom I have employed near twelve months, and who, in the height of his tutorship, fetched his son out of a distant county, to enjoy from me the advantages of constant einployment and good usage! Nor is the boy, though he promises implicit obedience in future, free from guilt ; for if the advice had