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it up for the chance of a rising market. For he incurs a certain less of measure; and a certain risk, if it can poflibly be come at by Carters.
To quarrel with them about it is idle ; for, in this respect they are thieves to a man, and glory in their thievery; and the only way to keep them honest is, to treat them in character. One lock is scarcely a sufficient security: to leave scattered parcels here-and, there is throwing before them temptations too powerful to be withstood.
· Notwithstanding I keep a regular account of every bushel of every species of grain made up, and of every bushel fairly vended; and although I take a great deal of pains to prevent pilfering, and pretend to make a very serious affair of it whenever it is found out; yet
I never can make the two accounts tally. What, then, must be the fate of those who do not keep a minute account, neither of the yield nor of the vent, and whose servants are aware of this neglect? who know, that if they are not caught in the fact, they are clear even from fufpicion ?'.
April 25, 1777. My vow to Ceres is performed! It is three years to-day since I first slept in this house, and three years and a-day fince I slept last in London: nor have I dined in town thrice, nor seen it ten times during the last two years ; though within an hour's ride of it.
• My sole employment, and almost my sole AMUSEMENT, has been FARMING. Day-for-day, I have been a FARMER upwards of a thousand days; on which'my sole attendance and attention have been duly paid to FARMING: therefore, if I know nothing of FARMING, I am a blockhead *'
We entirely agree with our Author: in thinking that no man can be a farmer without self-application. It is perhaps more doubtful whether attendance and attention will make any man a (good) farmer; at least, in a short time. A thousand days attendance and attention have, no doubt, taught our enterprising farmer some knowledge; but much, very much, is still wanting to complete that knowledge. We are even doubtful if he is yet advanced so far as to have had a glimpse of the innumerable objects which he does not know, and thus obtaining a feeling impression of the little that he actually does know. If he perseveres, like Socrates, he will at length attain to that point; but like him too, he will perceive, that he is then only at the threshold of the hcuse of wisdom. In agriculture, as in every other pursuit of knowledge, the poet's advice is truly applicable :
“ A little learning is a dangerous thing:
* Is an explanation wanted? ATTENDANCE and ATIENTION will make any Man a Farmer: Nó Man can be a Farmer without self
Unfortunately, men are seldom so defirous of displaying their wisdom to the world, as when they are in the state of intoxication, Nor are any persons fo walpilh at being warned when they are running their heads against a post, as these intoxicated gentry are ;-- as we poor Reviewers often experience,-to our great mortification, no doubt,
Few employments are subjected to a greater variety of disappointments than farming; and these often cut so very deep in point of expence, that it constitutes a principal part of the character of one who hopes successfully to practise agriculture, to foresee evils at a distance, to guard against them by every possible precaution, and to improve these disasters to the best advantage when they cannot be avoided. This is perhaps the most painful.department of the practice of agriculture ; a department which never can be properly filled, but by one whose bread in some measure depends on his success. To such a one, how painful must it be to see the labours of a whole season ruined by the inclemency of the weather.—How many active days, and perhaps sleepless nights, muft he experience, in trying to guard against it! Yet neither activity nor attention, though often successful, can at all times prove effectual: and he must with patience submit to the will of Heaven. Juftly then, does our Author complain of those, who with a view to induce the unexperienced to enter upon this profession, industriouly keep this object out of sight. Not so with our Author. Like an honest man he brings it full into view, and fairly states the hazard of farming, as an object demanding the most serious attention of every man concerned in that employment.
We select a few of the numerous observations on this head, which occur in Mr. Marshall's performance :
HAZARD OF FARMING. Aug. 17, 1775 The tares being all caten, turned the oxen into the clover after grass, of Ley-lands, last Thursday-a week ago ;-but, to prevent their blowing, let them first fill themselves on the meadow after-grafs of River-Mead ;-and for the first day or two, I attended them myself; keeping them ftirring.
• While these precautions were taken, all was well; but last night, the Carters in a hurry to get to Croydon, to see their brother-blackguards, the Felons from New Gaol, carelessly (Carelessness! thou spawn of Ignorance ! chou haggard pandar of Ill.luck!) turned them hungry from the plow immediately into the clover.-This morning Bran lies dead.
• It seems a little ftrange, that a field of only fix acres, after having been eaten down, near a week, with from four to eight oxen, and some days with four or five horses, should now have this effect. Nothing but turning them in bungry can account for it.
' In future,-on the lighteft iufpicion of blowing, feed them well with hay or verdage, betore they go out of the table; and never suffer clover, whether red or white, to get too high, before they be turned to it.'
D&t. 1, 1775. About three weeks ago, Farmer S-fent in 102 sheep to eat off the turnips for wheat-to run in the stubble, &c. at 2 d. a-head a-week; with a shepherd to attend them.
Perhaps this, though a low price, is more profitable management than buying-in lean stock, and
selling it out again, when the aftergrass and stubbles are fed off. There is no aitendance-no fending to market—no ris attends it. Last night, two pointers, belonging to a sporting Inn-keeper, bit several of these sheep ;-two of them were torn very much, and were obliged to be butchered. These dogs, it is true, were traced home, and satisfaction demanded; but Farmer M - had three ewes worried the night before, without being able to recover any damages.' O&. 10.
Although my heart is more at ease to-night, than it has been fince the late rainy weather set-in-yet I cannot suppress my astonishment, that not one Writer on Agriculture has touched on the hazard of Farming. They suppose the crop in the barn before it is cut-and calculate the quantity of produce, according to the state of the soil; without taking in the idea of the uncertainty of weather.
• But how ignorant! Our barley this year, including loss of fodder and exira labour, is at least 25 per cento worse for the weather at harveft, and 20 per cent. more for the drought after seed-time. One neighbouring Farmer turned his hogs to his barley, and another's was scarcely worth carrying home. I had some second cut of clover offered me;- I calculated the hazard of a late crop, and would not give the price demanded. It was sold, cut and cocked; but rotted in the field, and was left as a dresling for a future crop.
Yet a Y-g or a V
-O would have laid it, rain, snow, or sun-fhine, at 30 s. or 40 S. an acre.
• Insurers have averages--Merchants bad debts-and Farmers bad weather.'
• Dec. 4. Terrible luck! The coupled hogs have gone on remarkably well all stubble-time. They were usually turned into a field in the morning, and fetched home in the evening, without any other attendance. Since the stubbles have been done, they have run after the acorns. I was apprehensive of an accident; and they having broke into Mr. R. -'s fields, I ordered them to be kept in the yard, and fed with cabbages which are spoiling.
• But there is no dependance on fervants; they were let out, no further care taken of them, and two of the best found 'hung * in their couples this morning.At the high rate which lean hogs now sell at, they are worth at least four guineas.
• What is to be done? I propose putting up five or fix to fatten, and selling off the remaining shoots as fast as I can. But what is to
* Hanged is more folemn-and we wish to see that adopted in all cases when it denotes ftrangling. Flung, used in this sense, is a fort of modifh modern phrase, which occasions a needless ambiguity. We would naturally fay, that a man bung by a branch, meaning that he voluntarily laid hold of it, or was accidentally caught by it. Although we say he was han ed on a tree-meaning he was Atrangled by being suspended from it by the neck, N 3
be done next year? Either rear none, or as many as will repay a boy's attendance? Let me calculate--a boy at 5 s. a week is 131.Fifty hogs at 5 s. is 121. 10s. So that an otherwise clear profit of 5 s. a head on fifty-two hogs will go to pay the boy. We have noc room in the yard for above fifty store-pigs; and five shillings a-bead will cut deep in the profit,
Perhaps, in future,- keep two or three open fows ;-breed all the year:-at three months old couple them, and let them run on tke common, or in some other hog pallure till they be worth 20 s. a head. - As they reach this value, uncouple them. -As soon as ten are at large, hire a boy to atiend them ;--give them the stubbles, acorns, &c. - Sell such as are suleable in autumn,-keep ihe young pigs over the year, and breed on.
. As to the couples, I am clear that they rather forward than hin. der the growth of the shoots. They seem to contend and drag each other about, on the road; but while i hey feed, they are quite amicable. This obstinacy, off their feed, prevents their wandering, and preserves them in condition.- No hogs can inok better, nor can have been reared at less expence than mine this year, and I am by no means fick of couples: I only blame myself for letting hogs of so much value run through the woods and hedges with fo little lookingafter. And for this I cannot blame myself, but the servant; and who can guard against the carelesness of servants?
• I am not quite fatisfied with the preceding process. -- Perhaps, in future, make rearing, not fattening, the object of the hog proces, at least while lean hogs hold their present prices. Keep three or four breeding fows ;-rear all their pigs, winter and summer; treat them as an object ;-give them all the milk that can posibly be spared ;give them the damaged and tail barley, peafe and beans. Buy pol. Jard, linseed and graves, damaged fugar.and molasses. On walh, and the Common, keep them till harveit ;--give them the run of the ftubbles,-plump them up with potatoes and acorns (if any), -and send them to market.
Keep them coupled, without constant attendanče, till the acorns begin to fall. Be careful to see them at home and well-littered every night, and mind as they grow, that the couples be eased.
Fifteen shoots, at 155. a piece, is not equal to a boy at 5 s. a week. Our loss by couples, even this year, does not nearly amount to half a boy's constant attendance; besides, perhaps, there is an advantage to the hogs by coupling.
• It is not certain how the two last were hung; their fellows had dragged them from the place where it happened; but they were found near each other, and I am of opinion that they were both hung in the fame place, beiween two hurdles. A more ingenious trap could hardly be contrived to hang coupled hogs in. The hurdles over-lapt each other about the length of the couples, and were fallened as usual at the top, but not at the bottom.
This was their muce into an oaken wood. Perhaps, the master-hog forced his way between the hurdles; the other, inltead of following (indeed it was imposible he could), got his head on the outside, and being unable to draw back his fellow, was of course strangled. The survịvor, tired with pulling, retreated, and dragged about the de
ceased.-Or, perhaps, the foremost doubled him felf, and get through, and, by struggling, got his head on the outside of the other hurdle ; thus it became a matter of life and death, and the weakest of course fell :- This gave the other an opportunity of extricating himself, and dragging about his dead partner. They were both found within ten yards of these hurdles. Let this be a lesson, in future, to beware of burdle places. If hurdles are found necessary, mind that they be fastened at both top and bottom. • Within fifteen months we have lost
£. 2. A cow, worth
8 A horse, worth An ox, worth
9 Four hogs, worth
· Des. 4; 1775.
£,. 32 10 Befides losses by the weather, and fifty other leffer calualties. · All farmers must have some ;-yet it seems unfashionable to talk of the hazard of Farming, or make use of the word loss in calculations on agriculture
Laft weck Jolly, one of the team, was taken with a violent scouring. The Farrier has drenched and bled him, but he does not recover. • This is the 6th casualty of working-cattle within nine months. An ox ftrained
died. An ox lamed
laid by a month. An ox blowed
died. A bull surfeited
laid by a fortnight. A buil had the red water
three weeks. An ox fcours
dubious. In the same space of time we have had A horse tined
died. A horse rined
laid-by a month. A horse lamed in the hip
useless (came round.) A horse
went blind. An old horse
Within fifteen months, 6 A cow died of the red water. • A cow now scours-her life doubtful. · Two large hogs hung, through mere casualty.
• Thirty acres of barley, thirty per cent. worse for the weather, &c. &c. &c. &c. &c. &c.
What a collection of haggard evidences of the hazard of farming! • But surely they can never be the ordinary casualties of agriculture; they must proceed from extraordinarily bad luck, or from bad management.
'Let me endeavour to trace back their causes; and, if poflible, raise LESSONS ON FUTURE MANAGEMENT.
• The strained ox.- This was done in Norwood-fields. - The two ox teams were hunting a fallow. I remember I went up to them in the middle of the day.-10 was very hot. —This ox lolled the tongue a good deal ;-he was in the weaker team. I ordered the plowman to go gently, and to bring home his plow at night; for I
died of age.