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and partly during the debate to which it refers. • Some circumftances,' it is added, prevented its being delivered at the time. Immediately on coming home from the house, the Author committed the principal heads and out-lines of it to writing ; and has occasionally employed his leisure-time since, in extending and drawing them ous in that free ftyle of discourse, in which he would have addressed the Speaker of the House of Commons. In that form it is now submitted to the public judgment, with the addition of some notes and illustra. tions.
In this treatise, for we must no longer call it a speech, the Author ranges
the whole field of our American disputes ; he defends the con. duct of government with regard to the main question, the first coercive measures against the colonies, but condemns them on certain fubordinate points, particularly the late unsuccessful commission, which he censures as the worst of all poslible measures. He is fevere or the gentlemen in opposition, whom he confiders as largely accessary to the existence, protraction, ill success, and evil consequences of the war. He concludes with advising a continuance of our military efforts in America, with such degrees of energy or moderation as opportunities may happen to require: which, we imagine, is pretty nearly the cae binet idea at.present. Mr. G. writes well, and reasons plausibly, at leaft, if not conclusively.
AMERICAN CONTROVER s Y. Art. 15. An Address to the Natives of Scotland residing in America,
being an Appendix to a Sermon preached at PRINCETON, on a general Fajt appointed by the Congress. By John Witherspoon, D. D. Proa fident of the College at New Jersey. 8vo." 6d. Fielding and Walker. 1778.
This shrewd and able writer has distinguished himself in the cause of the Americans, and it is said, is admitted a member of the Congress. The Fast fermon at Princeton, to which this Address is an Appendix, we noticed at the time of its republication in England * The Appendix then omitted, has since been published separately. The Writer first attempts a vindication of his countrymen, the Scots, from the reproach so generally cast upon them in the Ameri. can controversy; and expresses himself with what fome will think a more than just severity against John Wilkes, Esq; and his adberents. He then endeavours to itir up the minds of the natives of Scotland, resident in America, to unanimity in opposing the claims of the British government, and sets before them the following arguments in favour of American independency:-That it is become absolutely necessary--that it will be honourable and profitable to America-and that it will be no injury, but a real advantage to the island of Great Britain. Under the fecond of these heads, he reprefents in a very flattering light, the opportunity the Americans will have for forming plans of government upon the most rational, just, and equitable principles. Iconlels (fays he) I have always looked upon this with à kind of enthusiastic fatisfaction. The case never happened fince the world began. What the Author urges on the last head, the advantages of American independence to Great Britain is felf,' ap. pears, if it be not yet too late, worthy the serious confideration of the • Vid. Rev. March, 1778, p. 246.
British legislature. He shews that the taxation intended would in. crease the influence of the crown, and the corruption of the people ; and that for every snilling gained by taxes, we should lose ten in the way of trade. In answer to the cbjcction against allowing the Americans a free trade, he fnews, that an exclusive trade is not easily maintained, and that where it is, the restriction is commonly more hurtful than beneficial.' But the circumstance which he apprehends will contribute most to the interest of Great Britain in American independence is, its influence in peopling and enriching that great continent. For what he advances on that head we must refer to the pamphlet itself.
N. B. We are informed that a afth edition of the fermon has been advertised with this Appendix, price is. Art. 16. A Proposal for Peace between Great Britain and North
America; upon a New Plan. In a Letter io Lord North. By D. M. Knight. 8vo. 6 d. Baldwin. 1779.
The plan proposed by Mr. Knight is--that the American's be acknowledged by Great Britain, a free and independent people; that the whole be united into one body, and a great council or parliament established in America like that of Great Britain; that an arıny and Bavy be kept by them for their protection; that no article be demanded by Great Britain from America, but what should be reciprca cally granted by Great Britain to America ;-that the United Colonies in America shall acknowledge George, Prince of Wales, for the Sovereign of their empire, with all the powers and privileges enjoyed by the Kings of Great Britain, and under the same regulations as the kingdom of Great Britain ; that the government of the mothercountry should serve as a model for that to be erected in America. Those who wish to see the rest of our Author's proposals, must have recourse to the pamphlet. Art. 17. Genuine Abstracts from two Speeches of the late Earl of
Chatham; and his Reply to the Earl of Suffolk. With some in. troductory Observations and Notes. Svo. Is. 6d. Dodfley. 1779.
The first of the speeches, of which we have here an abstract, was made on January 20th, 1775, accompanying a motion for removing his Majesty's troops from Boston.— The second was made on No. vember 20th, 1777, and his Majesty's molt gracious speech of that day is prefixed, that the confidence and hopes expressed in it by his Majesty's ministers, may fairly stand in contrast, says the Editor, with the opinions of Lord Chatham. He leaves it to history to form the comment. · As few, if any of our Readers, can be fuppofed to be unacquainted with the fentiments which Lord Chatham expressed, with so much spirit and energy, on these two memorable days, we shall give no extra&t from his speeches,--of the authenticity of which there is no reason to doubt.
In his preface the Editor explains the manner in which the abstracts have been preserved, and tells us with what allowances they must be read. The encomiems he passes on Lord Chatham's oratory are such as in our opinion, must force a smile from the most enthusiastic of his admirers.
HORTICULTURE, &C. Art. 18. The Planter's Guide; or, Pleasure Gardener's Companion :
giving plain Directions, with Observations, for the proper Dispo. lition and Management of the various Trees and Shrubs for a Pleasure Garden-Plantation. To which is added, a Litt of hardy Trees and Shrubs for ornamenting such Gardens : concisely exhibiting at one View, the Genera, Class, Order, and Species of each Kind; the Countries they are Natives of; the Height each usually grows 10; their Foliage, Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds; the Soil they thrive beft in ; and their Propagation.-Embellished with Copper-plates. By James Meader, late Gardener to the Duke of Northumberland. · Price 3 s. 6 d. Robinson. 1779.
This Book is intended to reform a glaring impropriety, which we have often remarked, even in our most celebrated GREAT GARDENS, or ornamental Plantations; and which our Author thas reprehends in his Preface: The reason,' says he, 'why many plantations after eight or ten years planting, appear unsightly, is owing to an improper intermixture of the plants; whereas, had they been rightly dirposed, we should not see so many hollows or openings, nor bottoms of trees with decayed branches, but che whole covered with verdure, down to the very front, in an easy, theatrical manner, and in summer fcarce a ftem visible; but how often may be seen a tall growing tree near the front of a plantation, and further back various humble fhrubs, rendered ftill more diminutive by the over spreading branches of such tree, whose proper place should have been behind those less growing plants, where they might more freely enjoy the benefit of fun and air, so necessary for vegetables.'
The Author adds many observations on this circumstance of injudi. cious arrangement; likewise on the common error of mixing, where the plantations are not very large, deciduous trees with evergreens. He lays down particular directions with respect to the methods of planting, --the seasons—the soils, &c. &c. and gives a catalogue of the principal varieties of each species of the trees and shrubs proper
for such plantations as are here treated of.
PHILOSOPHICAL, Art. 19. A Physical and Moral Enquiry into the Causes of that in.
ternal reflefness and disorder in Man, which bas been the complaint of all Ages. By James Vere, Esq. 12mo. 2 s. 6 d. White. 1778.
A grave but not very profound attempt to explain the structure and operations of the human mind, in which those who are accustomed to metaphysical speculations, will meet with nothing new or interesting. The Author indeed talks much concerning certain somethings which make a part of the human conftitution, to which he gives the title of animal or corporeal spirits, and which he describes as pasive agents auxiliary to the soul: but till he has more clearly proved their existence, explained their nature, and ascertained the laws by wbich they act, he will not be thought to have contributed materially to the extension of science, on the difficult subject of human nature.
M E DICA L. Art. 20. An Elay on the evil Consequences attending injudicious.
Bleeding in Pregnancy. By George Wallis, M. D. 8vo. 1 s. 6 d. Bell. We are far from understanding, with this gentleman, that indifcriminate bleeding in pregnancy is the general practice at present in this country. We are certain that if the agreement of all the best modern writers and lecturers on the subject, have weight with the public, it cannot. If any thing is wanting to confirm the dictates of their experience, we fear it must not be expected from the diffuse reasonings in the present work, which is only a prolix commentary on a very simple aphorism, viz. that when the state of body is weak, it is hurtful to weaken it further by the loss of blood. Art. 21. A Physical Journal kept on Board his Majesty's Ship
Rainbow, during three Voyages to the coast of Africa and the Weft Indies, in the Years 1772, 1773, and 1774 : To which is prefixed, a particular Account of the remitting Fever which happened on Board of his Majesty's Sloop Weasel, on that Coaft, in 1769. By Robert Robertson, Surgeon of his Majesty's Navy. 410. 25. Diliy, &c.
The Author of this work evidently appears to be a man of industry and observation, and well killed in the branch of his profession which he has undertaken. He offers several practical remarks to his brethren in the same line, which we doubt not, they may attend to with advantage ; at the same time we are obliged to observe, that they are so confounded in a mass of tedious and uninteresting materials, as to be much less striking and useful than a better writer might have rendered them. The long diaries of weather, longitude and latitude, &c. will, we apprehend, be thought extremely dry and uninstructive by the generality of readers; and of the cases related, we imagine a great proportion will fall under the same imputation.
Some reasons offered for a government supply of that invaluable remedy the bark to the ships of war employed on foreign service, appear deserving of the attention of those in power. The Author has clearly thewn, that the navy furgeons, cannot possibly afford out of their pay to purchase such a quantity of it as may be necessary in the malignant epidemics of hot climates, and for the want of which a fhip's crew may suffer more severely, than from all the other casualties to which they are exposed. Art. 22. A Letter to Dr. Hardy, Physician, on the Hints he has
given concerning the Origin of the Gout, in his late Publication on the Devonshire Cholic. By Francis Riollay, Physician at Newbury, Berks, and late Fellow of Hertford College, Oxford. Oxford printed ; and fold by Rivington, London.
When Dr. Hardy sported his hypothesis that lead taken internally was the cause of the gout, we thought it too manifestly chimerical and extravagant to excite any public notice. The Author before us, bowever, has thought it a bafis sufficient to build a pamphlet upon, which will at least serve to shew that he has made his fashionable diftemper the subject of his contemplation. It costs him little pains to refute Dr. Hardy's idle notion ; which he does by a few remarks
that lead him into a train of reasoning, the purpose of which is to prove, that arthritic disorders rather proceed from debilitation of the nervous system, than any morbific matter received into the constitution.' His arguments on this head are sensible enough, but such as are well known to every Edinburgh student, who has attended Dr. Callen's lectures; the copious source whence so many new opinions in medicine (often as unacknowleged as in the present infance) are derived.
One piece of information, however, we have gathered from the work before us, which is, that people of middling condition are people of no condition at all. This evidently appears, from comparing two passages within three pages of each other. The Writer first asserts, p. 10, that ' most people of any condition make a daily moderate use of wines;' and then, p. 13. that there is not an hundredth part even of those of middling condition, that can be said to make a common use of wine. These middling people therefore are nobody; an idea that seems, indeed, at present, very generally to prevail.
Poe TICA L. Art. 23.. An Epistle from the Rector of St. Anne, to the Vicar of
Rochdale. Dedicated, without Permission, to the Lord Bifhop of London. 4to.
Bew. 1779 More * fruit from the tree of Discord planted some time ago, in the parish of St. Anne, Westminster. The produce of this tree,of which we have, more than once, given our Readers a taste, hath proved harsh and disagreeable to fome palates, though perhaps not altogether unpleasant to others. " It is bitter," quoth my Lord of London : “ It is four,” saith Dr. Richardson : " It is both bitter ard four," exclaimeth Dr. Hind I: “ It' bath a fine flavour,” cry the friends of Mr. Martyn--[the Gentleman fuppofed to have been chiefly concerned in plucking and distributing this fruit] : “ It hath somewhat of the sub-acrid, to which we are not much averfe," say the Monthly Reviewers.
In plain fpeech, the dedication to a Bishop, of this Epille to a Vicar, is a long, laboured, biting satire, in prose ; founded, if we rightly collect, from the dedication itself, on his Lordship’s having (officially) interfered in the quarrel between the late Rector of St. Anne's and his Curate,-contrary to what the latter had been led to expect from a declaration made by his Diocesan, that he would not interpose at all, personally, in the dispute.- How far the Bishop's afterward licensing a successor to Mr. Martyn, in the curacy, was a breach of this promise, we leave to the decision of thofe who are more deeply versed than we are in ecclefiaftical casuistry.
The Epistle to the Vicar of Rochdale is a poetical fight to the tune of
66 Ye Commons and Peers
" Come lend me your ears. And is equally severe upon the Doctor who is supposed to fend it, and the Doctor to whom it is fent; but we do not think it is quite
* See Review for November last, p. 392.