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dying, this compact was made with his son Cathluan, and from whom the Piets were also called Caledones ; *e, the posterity of Catbluan ; for Don in Irish fignifies a family. Such was the rise of these people, whose posterity made so brilliairt a figure in Britich history!

We shall not controvert any of these points with our Author. That he esteems these and other accounts of his ancestors remarkable and striking is evident from the frequency of his notes of admiration, as well as from the reflections he often makes.

The death of Heremon is followed by a long lift. c Irish kings of the Milesian race, and chiefly the Heberean and theremonean line. Of several of these kings we find little belides their names, of others larger accounts are given. From some of them we shall insert a few particulars, first observing that the narration is interrupted by a chapter concerning their deitice and doctrine, from whence we shall only take one short paflage relating to their worship of the sun and moon. Some remains of this worlhip may be traced, even at this day; as particularly borrowing, if they should not have it about them, a piece of filver on the first sight of a new moon, as an omen of plenty during the month; and at the same time saying in Irish, you

have found us in peace and prosperity, so leave us in grace and mercy.” Some notion of this kind, we think, is not wholly uncommon in England.

In the reign of Tighernmas (2815) we are told of what is called a wholsome though simple sumptuary law : ' By this law, it is said, which his successors were sworn to maintain, and which was called Ilbreachta, the peasantry, soldiers, and lower order of people, were to have their garments but of one colour; military officers and private gentlemen, two; commanders of battalions, three; Beatachs, Brughnibhs, or keepers of houses of hospitality, four ; the prime nobility or military knights, five; and the Ollamhs, or doctors learned in different sciences, fix, being one less than the chief rulers !'

Cochaidh II. who reigned in 2009 was, we are informed, surnamed Faobharglas, or of the green edge, because in his days the art of giving different colours to fwords and arms was found out, and we are told that the points of his javelins' and blades of his swords were coloured green. During the reigns from 2993 to 3075, we read of Thields of pure filver, helmets ornamented with gold, particularly with crescents in the front of that metal, corslets cased with pure ductile gold, golden chaios and collars ; concerning all which, this Writer remarks, the very great plenty of gold in Ireland in these early days, and in times much nearer our own, will not be disputed but by such as shut their ears to the voice of truth. They acquired it from native mines, and they extracted both it and silver from their mines of H 3

copper

copper and lead. They accumulated quantities of gold by their traffic with Spain, and with Africa, hence their fhields of pure filver, hence their helmets and corflets caled with gold; bence the number of spords of mixt metal, with gold handles, to this day found a bogs and moralies; hence the hoftages detained at the courts. of our monarchs, having their fhackles of pure gold; hence the very harnesses for horses were arnamented with

gold!"

We. remember that in our account of Wynne's History of Irelarid. ive have taken_notice of the institution of the royal assembly of Teamor or Tara, in the reign of Oilam-Fodhla, or the learned doctor*: this Writer naturally enlarges on the memotable appointment; but we observe that he and Mr. Wynne

Jiffer much in point of chronology; while the latter fixes it about A. M. 3266, and our Author about the year 3082. In: this August convention, says Mr. O'Halloran, all the different records of the kingdom were examined, and this was the first rise of the famous Pralter of Tara, being an epitome of unerring facts, drawn from the other records of the kingdom, and which it was looked on as criminal to form the least doubt of! Here it was that this great prince delivered in the origin, the exploits, and migrations of the Milefian race, till their landing in Ireland, all wrote with his own hand, and entered into the Senachas More, the great antiquity or Pfalter of Tara, so called from this place of their meeting.'

In several succeeding reigns our Historian introduces the great connections between the Irish and the Carthaginians, and informs us of the fhare which the former had in the wars between the latter and the Romans. It would have an odd found to most of our Readers to say that ancient Rome had been taken by the Irish : but hear what this gentleman, enamoured with the antiquity and glory of his country, declares. 6 Plutarch in his life of Camillus, says he, tells us, as foon as the account of Rome's being taken by the Gauls reached Greece, that Heraclides of Pontus, who lived at the very time (though this Author ; i. e. Plutarch, fays soon after) in his book De Animâ, relates is that a certain report came from the West, that an army of Hyperboreans had taken a Greek city called Rome, seated some where on the Great Sea." But I do not wonder, says Plutarch, ¢ that so fabulous 4 writer should embellish his account of the taking of Rome with such turgid words as Hyperborean and Great Sea.And yet, adds Mr. O'Halloran, for these remarks Plutarch is himself censured by Dacier, Dryden, and other translators. For nothing is more certain, than that the ancients called the Mediterranean sea Mare Magnum, as conveying

# Vid. Review, vol. xlviii. p. 470.

passengers

passengers to all parts of the world, in opposition to the Euxine, and other adjoining feas. Nor is Plutarch's remark on the Hyperboreans better founded; since they were at that time, and long before and after it, a great and powerful people. Nor are these commentators on our Author to be at all justified, when they affirm that the Greeks called all northern nations indiscriminately Hyperboreans. It is evident, that by Hyperboreans, the early Greeks understood the inhabitants of a single island only; and which island I have shewn in the present, as well as in a former work, to be Ireland. As then Rome was feated on the Great Sea, and the Hyperboreans at this time a powerful maritime state, we may conclude, that Heraclides was better informed in these matters (especially being a contemporary) than our Author supposes; and that the Iril made a dirtinguished figure in this war.'

It must be acknowledged fair and candid in this Writer when he lays before us the above quotation, to give at the same time the reflection which Plutarch himself makes on it, which appears sufficient to prevent, at this distance of time, our Jaying any great ftress on it, or at least our applying it in the manner Mr. O'Halloran wishes to do. But whether or not the Milesian Irish might have any share in the taking of Rome by the Gauls, it is not at all improbable that they should maintain fome connection with the Carthaginians, and perhaps were parries in some of their wars,

In his zeal for the honour and glory of Ireland, our Author, in his account of the reign of Aongus III. (about A. M. 2780) acquaints us, that from Fiacha, a son of the above prince, the royal line of Scotland are descended, and from him by the female line his present Majesty is descended.' However honourable he may esteem this to his Irifh list, it does not appear very greatly so to the royal families he mențions; for this Fiacha proves to have been the son of Aongus III. by his own daughter. In another place he farther observes, • I have taken great pains to clear up this part of the history, so honourable to his present Majesty, and to the North Scots. We shall not dispute with him about his authorities, or the exactness of his derivation, but we are rather diverted by his ardour for the honour of King George III.

In a chapter on chivalry and the early orders of knights in Ireland, we find the following relations, * In the bloody battle of Maigh-Lena, in the King's county, fought in the second century, it was proposed by some officers in the imperial army, to attack the troops of Munster, or indeed rather of LeathMogha, at night, by a kind of coup de main; but Gaull, the fon of Morni, and chief of the knights of Connaught, niade this heroic answer: “ On the day that I received the honour of H 4

knightknighthood, I vowed never to attack an enemy at night, by furprize, or under any kind of disadvantage.”-In the third century, Mac Con, an exile, invades Ireland; but instead of immediately attacking his enemy, as yet unprepared, he sends his embassadors to Art, the then monarch, notifying his arrival and his intentions. Their demands and his answer are worth reciting. " We come, said they, from Mac Con, to you Art Mac Cuin, requiring you in his name, to divide Ireland with him, or to meet him on the plains of Moicruimhe, where he will wait for you, with thirty battalions.” 66. I will never consent to divide the kingdom, replies Art, nor will. I decline the battle. He is unworthy of a crown who declines the fight. My father waded to the monarchy through torrents of blood, and the sword only shall deprive me of it !” The next question was, as to the time of fighting. Art demanded twelve months, to "enable his allies to join him. But the numbers of foreigners in the army of Mac Čon made it impoflible to grant this request, By mutual agreement it was fought in a fortnight, and a most bloody and decisive battle it proved ! For in it fell Art, by the sword of Mac Con; the king of Connaught, by that of Beine Briot, prince of Wales; seven fons of the king of Munster, and many heroes of prime note fell that day, as is particularly related in the history of this war.' These and such like instances are adduced to prove the honour and faith of his ancestors; these are followed by some account of their learning, mufic, poetry, &c.

Concerning the Druids and Bards he remarks in another place, "In all the wars antecedent to christianity, we see the incantations, spells, and magic of the Druids introduced, and scarce a battle gained without their assistance. From this recital, what shall we think, it is added, of Macpherson, who boldly affirms, that in all the relations of the early bards, not the least mention of religious ceremony is to be found! Shall we affirm that these are his own suggestions, not the dictates of truth; and shall we apply to him what the great Usher says of his countryman and fellow-labourer Dempster * ? “ Tam fufpectæ fidei hominem illum fuiffe comperimus, & toties tefferam fregiile, ut oculatas nos esse oporteat, & nifi quod videmus, nihil ab eo acceptum credere." Other opportunities are embraced of attacking Macpherson, O'Connor, and others.

Connaire the Great is supposed to have reigned about the time of the Christian æra : “The first act of his reign, it is faid, was an unexampled punishment on the people of Leinster, for the murder of his father. He ordered that every first of November three hundred swords mounted with gold, three hundred

* Priinord, Eçcles. Brit. p. 379.

COWS,

So great,

cows, three hundred purple cloaks, and three hundred steeds should be delivered in at his palace, as an eric from that province. From this it becomes evident, that his father was murdered by a party, not killed in battle, since there was no law or precedent to justify this impost otherwife. In revenge for this, we read soon after, of his own palace in Meath's being burnt to the ground, and he himself with difficulty escaping. Barring this, our annals loudly proclaim the uncommon bleflings of this reign.'

A. D. 46 Fearaidhach reigned in Treland. His immediate predecessor was not of the Milesian line, and liad been placed on the throne amidst opposition and anarchy; when he died the crown was offered to his son Moran, who with unexampled heroism and constancy, says this Writer, refused it. But he proves á steady friend to Fearaidhach, who was called the most just, and to the interests of his countrymen.

Under such governors, as our Author quotes from Dr. Warner, to confirm his own account, Ireland could not be otherwise than happy. it is added, was the reputation of Moran for wisdom and justice, that the gold collar he wore round his neck was used by all his successors; and so wonderful were the effects attributed to it, that the people were taught to believe, that whoever gave a wrong decree with this round his neck, was fure to be compressed by it, in proportion to his diverging from the line of the truth, but in every other instance it would hang loose and easy.

The supposed virtue of this collar was a wonderful preservative from perjury and prevarication ; for no witness would venture into a court to support a bad cause, as he apprehended the effects of it, if placed round his neck. This cannot be better illustrated than by observing, that, even at this day, to swear,“ Dar an loadh Mhoran; i.e. by the collar of Moran,” is deemed a moft solemn appeal.'--Moran's collar is to be withed for in every senate and court of justice.

• It is fingular enough, says Mr. O'Halloran, that Cormoc, who reigned A. D. 259, and appears to have been a great prince, notwithstanding the many improvements te made in the police of Ireland ; notwithstanding his reducing Connaught into an Irish province, and transferring in a manner the crown of it from the Damnonii to his own family, &c. yet still by the lofs of an eye, though in the cause of his country, he was judged unworthy of sovereign authority, and obliged to make a surrender of the crown.

From the time of the establishment of christianity in Ireland under the direction of St. Patrick, the history of this country is better known, and has been particularly treated by different writers. Here, therefore, we thall take leave of this

Author;

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