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REDCLIFFE, K.G., &c. From his Memoirs and Private and Official Papers. By STANLEY LANE-POOLE. With 8 Portraits. % vols. 890. 368.

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assertion; and in a more recent and eminently

careful and practical work on 'The Vine,' by Mr. CONTENTS.-N° 148.

William Thompson (ninth edition, 1879), it is NOTES: The Vine in England, 321-Scotoh Mining Terms. I

322-Yorkshire Field-names, 323-Charles I.-Milton-Oral Tradition-The Plague of London, 324-Aerolite-Letter of "the grape-vine can only be grown in the open air with Hook-Coin of Charles X.-Robert Wyer, 325-Scotch Super- | very partial success, even in the most favoured of the stition-Turtle for Tortoise - Wooden Walls - Chaucer's southern counties, and then it must be trained against a • Balade of Gentilnesse'-"To Malinger," 326.

wall with a southern aspect." QUERIES:- Names in De Banco Roll-Englefield Baronetcy

- Sailors-Poison-Genealogical-Oil Painting, 327-Name In the valuable work by Sir Henry Ellis on the Wanted "A standing joke"-Tailed Africans-Don Sal Domesday Survey there are several pages respecting tero's Coffee-House-Metz-Dicey-Defender of the FaithSaunder Family-Stars and Stripes-Yorkshire Expressions,

the culture of the vine in this country at the Con328-Indian Pale Ale -Brewe, & Bird - Charles Blair- The Hunt is Up'-Inscription in & Scotch (?) Abbot's House

is that wine of native growth was formerly used in Elsibeth Players-Authors Wanted, 329. REPLIES :--The Great Cryptogram, 329-Old Ships-Wal-England, but could not have been produced in

pole Collection-Parliament of 1571-England reproduced in America, 330-Worsen-Cromwell and Carlisle Cathedral

habitants; and “its inferiority was probably the _" Cousin " for " Niece"_Roke-Heraldic-Rutland House “Wamiliarity breeds contempt" —Wallace's 'Shakespearean produce.” - Earldom of Carrick, 331 - Railway Tickets - Wild

Sir H. Eiis brings together nearly all Sketches'- American Notes and Queries'-Ritson-Damant Family, 332 - Greenhay - Cerago : Ceramic : Cerberus

the authorities for the existence of vineyards in Epitaph-Employ-English and Scottish Correspondence, 333-Arms of Cities and Towns-A Highlander's PromiseEdward Williams --Rowlandson, 334-Ancient Toilet Table Giraldus Cambrensis, who asserts of the castle -Piastre - Portraits of Penn, 335 - Eclipses-Dorchester of Manorbeer, the place of his birth, that it posWill - Fusty-Belgian Custom-Idiot, 336- Posts at Cross Roads_ Diversions of Bruxelles '-Sully-Champaigne-Miss Foote - William Pitt. 337 - Lord Archibald Hamilton | latere, hinc vivario, inde nemore conclusum." . Dollarg-Friar's Lanthorn, 338-Authors Wanted, 339

The English translation (Hoare and also Wright) NOTES ON BOOKS:-Byegones relating to Wales and the

Border Counties ' Brierley's Cymru Fu'- Rye's L'Es renders vivario by vineyard, which will hardly bear trange's Calendar of the Freemen of Norwich' Wotton's

that meaning. Perhaps the real word is vitiario; Word Portraits of Famous Writers '-Buckley and Madan's Brasenose Calendar.'

but it is noticeable that in a subsequent sentence Giraldus implies that wine came from abroad,

"Terra triticea, piscibus marinis, vinoque venali Potes.

copiose referta." THE VINE IN ENGLAND.

In the appendix to the same author's 'Vita S.

Hugonis Lincoln.'(Dimock's edition, 1877), the will In the interesting tract entitled 'Oxoniensis in of Š. Hugo is given, in which he provides out of Anglia Descriptio,' by N. Fitzherbert, chaplain to

his vineyards for the settlement of his debts. Cardinal Allen, published at Rome in 1602 and

The earliest reference to vineyards in England recently reprinted for the Oxford Historical Society, I would seem to be in Vopiscus (*Vita Probi Emp. I find the following :

XVIII.'), “ Gallis Omnibus et Hispanis ac Bri- Solum ipsum multis olim in locis vineis abundabat; tannis ut vites haberent vinumque conficerent." nunc vite, nisi umbræ et delectationis gratia (rarò enim

It is worthy of remark that the emperors of neglecta maturescit), penitus caret; olea itidem et similibus, quæ sunt regionibus calidis, et magis tran

Italian birth discouraged the cultivation of the quillis propria."

vine out of Italy. Probus was a Pannonian, and This occurs in a general description of English pro

after his conquests he issued the edict, according ductiong. Is there any sufficient evidence of the to Vopiscus, quoted above. This would be about cultivation of the vine and of wine-making in this

A.D. 280. . country? Would the decline of the vine be due to

Bede ('H. E.,' i. 1) refers to the culture of the the destruction of the monasteries?

2 The Abbot of vine in England thus: “Vineas quibusdam in locis

The Abbot of Vibe ! Westminster must have possessed a vineyard, which germin has left its name in Vine Street, just as his orchard. A vineyard at Smithfield is mentioned in Rymer's has left its name in Orchard Street in my neigh

neich'Federa, vol. i. p. 17; and in the Historia' of bourhood.

Henry of Huntingdon, i. 6, we read, " Vineæ ferIn the valuable treatise of Clement Hoare, On bilis est sed

cotice of Clamont. Hoara intilis est sed raro." the Cultivation of the Vine on Open Walls, it is

It is open to question, however, whether some of asserted that

these “ vineyards” were not orchards, and whether “bistory amply proves that, for a long series of ages,

when vinum is mentioned in old writers it may vineyards were very common in the southern parts of

not have a wider sense than the true juice of the England, and that the quantity of wine produced from grape, as oivos had in Greek them was so great as to be considered one of the staple That our Anglo-Saxon ancestors drank bat little products of the land."-P. 4.

wine is clear from Ælfrid's 'Colloquy' (Mayer's No evidence, however, is given to support this edition), written in the tenth century :



" Quis bibis ? Cervisiam, si habes, vel aquam si non called from its shape. It is in two parts, working habeo cervisiam. Nonne bibis vinum ? Non sum tam lon each side of a pivot between them, after the dives ut possim emere mihi vinum; el vinum not est

fashion of the wings of a butterfly, the body of potus puerorum sive stultorum, sed senum et sapientum."

which would represent the pivot. A writer in the Quarterly Review, vol. lxvi.

Deil, a tool for unscrewing broken rods in a bore p. 50, declares that

hole. Maybe this is a taking of Old Nick's name "the Normans called the Isle of Ely the Isle of Vines; l in vain. and its bishop soon after the Conquest appears to have received tithe of wine to the amount of three or four

Harp, a sparred shovel for filling coal. The tuns annually."

spars suggest the strings, and the framework the No authorities are given. I should much like to ou

| outline of a harp. know the sources of these statements.

Hedgehog, a broken strand or wire of a rope torn The vineyard attached to the Bishop of Ely's

Lold out while in motion and drawn up into a bundle. London house is thus referred to in Betham's

The metaphor is obvious. It has been a very 'History of Ely Cathedral,' vol. i. p. 157. In

serviceable one. Barbour's 'Bruce' (book viii.

line 1012) tells how Randolph's men fought back 1327

to back before Bannockburn, “ Bishop Hotham purchased a house and lands, including

That, as ane hyrchoune, all his rout a vineyard, contiguous to bis manor of Holborn, in the suburbs of London, which (together with other pro

Gert set owt speris all about. perties) he settled on the church of Ely; dividing them Chaucer has it in the 'Romaunt of the Rose, between his successors, the bishops and the convent." line 3135,

Lastly, I quote the following from Prof. Thorold Like sharpe urchons his haire was grow. Rogers's Six Centuries of Work and Wages,' the Hamlet's “quills upon the fretful porpentine " are one-volume edition of 1886, p. 101:

a variant of this expressive figure. “It is probable that the summer of the thirteenth cen- Jigger, an apparatus for attaching butches to a tury, and for some generations later, was better than haulage rope, which holds by twisting or biting that of modern experience. Wheat was grown much the rope. Lately I read an article beginning with farther north than in the eighteenth century. Vineyards are found in Norfolk, and wine made from English

“I'm jiggered if I don't love Jane," the words of, grapes is sold at a price not much less than that given I think it said, a West Indian song. In that for ordinary Bordeaux. There are traditions of similar locality the jigger is an insect of mosquito proplantations over many of the southern counties. In the pensities, and to be jiggered would seem to be no fifteenth century wine was made in Devonshire, and in

joke. But the West Indian jigger obviously can the sixteenth, after the dissolution of the monasteries, a vineyard of five acres is scheduled as part of the pos

have nothing to do with the Scotch miner. To sessions of Barking nunnery."

| jick is an old Scotch word meaning te jerk. This subject is partially discussed in Archæo "Jicker is a noun of kindred significance, and jicker logia, vol. ii.; and in N. & Q.;' 5th s. xi. 185, and jigger may be the same. Perhaps this is the 256 ; xii. 55, 172, 397; 6th S. i. 45: vi. 389 : vii. J origin of the miner's jigger, but its position. 56.


standing upright at the end of the hutch, may Emanuel Hospital, Westminster,

have suggested a resemblance to the nautical jigger, which is used to steady a cable in heaving

it aboard ship. Hence there is a strong chance SCOTCH MINING TERMS.

that the term is borrowed from the sea. (Concluded from p. 265.)

Kirning, boring with a hand jumper or kirner. This closing instalment deals with certain words As kirn=churn, it is plain that the action of the which are chiefly modern, but are metaphorically old-fashioned vertical churn has given name to the applied.

| boring process, which is not unlike it. Banjo, an iron frame for carrying a false clack Monkey, an appliance for mechanically gripping or fixed valve. Term suggested, no doubt, by re- or letting go the rope in rope haulage. Perhaps semblance to the musical instrument which is the the quasi-human character of the gripping and letChristy Minstrel's joy.

ting go explains this term. Billy Fairplay, a machine which weighs drogs Policeman, a movable guard over or round a pit passing through a scree. “Billy” has often been mouth or at mid-workings. It may be constructed haled before the court for alleged unjust weighing, of either wood or iron. The fame of the active but his reputation for fair play has been vindicated and intelligent officer has penetrated so far that his

Blinded, not opposite. Ends from opposite name has become an allegory in the very bowels of sides of a plane, and not opposite, but nearly so, the earth. are said to be blinded. “Blind pit” or “blind Proud, not cohesive. Coal is said to be "proud" shaft" is an analogue to "blind alley." It is a when it bursts off the working face. Here, again, shaft which ends in a kind of cul de sac, because it the metaphor has been made poot's property. In does not reach the surface.

| Burns's Hallowe'en,' when Willie and Mary burnt Butterfly valve, a kind of check valve. It is so their nuts,

Mall's nit lap out, wi' pridefu' fling

An' ber ain fit, it brunt it.

White horse, intruded white trap in a coal
seam. “The white horses of the Solway" are its

There is preserved at the Kirkleatham Estate foam-topped waves riding in with the tide. How

Office & very interesting map of the manor of elastic words are !

| Kirkleatham, in Yorkshire, belonging to Chomley In conclusion, I note Mr. Barrowmad's definition

Turner, who was in possession from 1719 to 1757. of “Arles," "Money given in former times to the

The map is undated, but I think from internal colliers at the baptism of their children as a token

evidence that it was probably made for him soon of the children being attached, like their parents,

after his succession to the property. Most of the to the coal-pit.” Arles are still well enough known

fields are named, and these names seem worthy in the hiring of farm servants, but in no other con

of record in ' N. & Q.' I therefore send a list tract. Their former connexion with colliers opens

of them, and in a few instances I have been so up an interesting subject. The condition of villen

rash as to venture on a possible explanation of a age adhered longer to colliers and salters in Scot

name. Old manorial maps of this kind are, I am land than to any other class. In other cases it

told, not uncommon. If they are at all like that of died out, apparently considerably earlier than in

the Kirkleatham manor they deserve more care England, but colliers and salters continued to be

J and attention than they seem to have received. In astricti glebce-they passed as a pertinent of the

the present instance the map is carefully drawn on ground when it was sold, and the right to their

a scale of twelve inches to the mile, and it shows labour was an implied fundo annexum until

even the relative sizes and character of the houses very nearly the present century. The first step

and buildings. It is, in fact, a twelve-inch "Ordtowards their enfranchisement was taken by the

nance map of the parish of Kirkleatham of the Act 15 George III., c. 28. On the preamble that

early part of last century. My thanks are due to “many Colliers and Coal-bearers and Salters are

Mr. J. Rutherford, the agent of the estate, for an in a State of Slavery or Bondage, bound to the oppor

opportunity afforded me of carefully noting it. SubCollieries and Salt-works where they work for Life,

I joined is a list of the field-names :transferable with the Collieries and Salt-works,"

Kirkleatham field-names. this statute, for the purpose, inter alia, of removing

Hall Close.

Nether Barton. “the Reproach of allowing such a Servitude to

Upper Barton. exist in a free Country," enacts that, after varying Duckett Butts.-Qy. dovecot butts ? periods of continued service, proportioned to age, Lady Orchard (adjoins the church). all colliers and salters shall be free on obtaining a

Stone Flat, decree before the sheriff of the county. Section 11

How Close.

Megits. provides that when such decree has been obtained

Frample. --Cp. “Frampole fences" in Halliwell's by any colliers or salters "their Wives and Chil. Dict. Archaic and Provincial Words.' dren in family with them, and all others who make Blakelands.-Qy. bare lands? Part of their Family and are Coal-bearers or other

Wellburg. wise assistant to them, shall likewise be free.” A

Harvy Close.

Stump Close. second Act, however, was needed to emancipate Flint Close these eighteenth century villeins. The original Wath Close (a beck flows by the close). Act failed because it contained conditions hamper Beck Botton Swang: Wilson Swang: Jackson Swang, ing the boon it gave. Bargains were made to de

Swang=swampy ground.

Walls Closes. feat it, and the very fact that a petition to the

Eight Lands Close. sheriff was necessary was in many cases a bar to

many cases å bar to Lowrsons Close. the desired decree of freedom. The Act 39 George Cross Close. III., c. 56, changed all that. It conferred uncon Cross Lands. ditional freedom from and after June 13, 1799,

Matthew Leys.—This is perhaps not a field-name, but declaring all colliers, &c., “to be free from their

I an indication of the owner.

Ox Close. Servitude, and in the game Situation in every Upper Ox Clogo, Respect as if they had regularly obtained a De. Greystones. cree" under the earlier statute. So died out the Moorland Cloge. last lingering trace of actual villenage in our midst.

Worsalldall Flatt. -Qy. from worsle, a northern word,

meaning "to recover". The land adjoins the marsh, Geo. Neilson.

from which it may have been recovered. “Dale" must Glasgow.

be understood as in the Lincolnshire sense noted by MR, Stythe. This is a word in common use in North- PEACOCK. This name seems to have been corrupted into umberland. I find myself frequently using it. No

“West Dales" in the Ordnance Map. other word expresses the same meaning. It is the

Longland Flatt.

Tyle Close. sulphurous fumes of half-burnt coal.

E. LEATON BLENKINSOPP. | Butts. Also South, Enst, West, and Little Butts.

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