« AnteriorContinuar »
Cotgrave, the articles named would be made of VIRGIL AND MODERN ICONOCLASM (7th S. v. metal, as of “ Lattin” (=latten, or brass), &c. 400; vi. 22).-- Allow me to endorse most cordially Littré, however, gives two or three senses, in which, the protest of MR. BOUCHIER against the asserI think, the instrument might be made of wood : tion of the Edinburgh Review that Virgil has fallen first, a long funnel, pierced with holes, for use in from his pedestal, and that his worship is a bygone pouring a liquid into a barrel without undue speed cult. No doubt he is unknown and unintelligible or disturbance ; second, a tap for a barrel; and to what Tennyson calls deservedly a “ chorus of third, a kind of barrel. Then, as I conjecture, ignorant reviewers," simply because of their ignorWoodden Gods=wooden goods. Will this do? ance; and I am sure that it is only when all good
JULIAN MARSHALL. taste and sound scholarship are dead amongst us This word is to be found in any good French | that Virgil will be forgotten. dictionary, and has the following meanings : a
E. WALFORD, M.A. watering-pot, a sort of funnel, and a gully-hole. In
ñ 7, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. Cotgrave's 'French-English Dictionary, published In the admirable " apology” by MR. BOUCHIER 1650, it is given as follows :
| on this subject in 'N. & Q.' the single reference to “Chantepleure, F., a garden Pot, or Gardners watering Cowley appears to me hardly sufficient. Cowley Pot; also, the Cócké of a cesterne; also, a certaine de speaks of Virgil and of the Æneid,' in his essay vice, or engine, for the emptying of a water-vessell; Of Agriculture.' in terms of loving admiration-in made of two Lattin pipes (of equall bignesse and length), I joyned together at the one end and thence dividing them
| a way, one would think, that would leave depreciaselves into the forme of a forke.”
tion impossible. He speaks of "our truly divine In Richelet's 'Dictionary'I find :
Virgil," of his "great and imperial poem," and "On apelle aussi Chante-pleure, une espèce de Barba
declares Horace, in another passage, “the next best canne, ou ventouse qu'on fait aux murs de clôture, con
no poet in the world to Virgil.” But surely it is vain struits près de quelque eau courante afin que pendant
to talk of Virgil's cultus as bygone. W. B. son débordement elle puisse entrer dans le clos, et en sortir librement, parceque ces murs étant solides, ils ne
Oor MUTUAL FRIEND' (7th S. v. 206, 298, lui pourroient pas résister:
517).-I fail to see the appositeness of the quotaDepuis deux jours on m'entretient
tion from Ned Ward. The “mutual," though unPour sçavoir d'où vient chante-pleure,
necessary, is not contrary to sense, as in the case of Au chagrin que j'en ai, je meure: Si je savais d'où ce mot vient,
"our mutual friend." For I see no reason to supJe l'y renverois tout à l'heure.
pose that the "friends" are intended to be deCONSTANCE RUSSELL.
scribed as “mutual friends" of the house mentioned Swallowfield Park, Reading.
in the next line. They are only “mutual friends"
(of one another). As the discussion seems getting ENGRAVINGS BY KIP (7th S. vi. 147).- These a little off the track, will it be deemed superfluous excellent prints belong to the 'Britannia Illus- / or impertinent to state a case ? Love between hustrata,' 1707-8, or to the Nouveau Théâtre de la band and wife may be all on one side, then it is Grande Bretagne,' v.y., down to 1724-8, by I. Kip not mutual. It may be felt on both sides, then it (see Lowndes for collation, &c.). The volumes are is mutual. They are mutual friends, and someoften found composed of different contents, says thing better ; but if a third person step in, though Lowndes. The prints are of great value and inter- loyal regard may make him a friend of both, no est, since they give us views of many beautiful old power in language can make him their mutual houses which have ceased either to exist or to friend.
KILLIGREW. be recognizable. JULIAN MARSHALL.
The passage from Ned Ward's' Wandering Spy' The engravings are doubtless from Kip's 'Views is an instance of the right use of the word mutual, in England,' 1724-8, vol. V. The Supplement and not of its incorrect modern use. In this last comprised the “Country Seats of the English there is nothing mutual, for it describes the relaNobility," eighty-four plates. A great number of tion of one person to two others who may have them relate to seats in Kent; and, as the rest are nothing else in common beyond that relation ; but mostly well-known places, there can be little Ned Ward describes the relation which two perdifficulty in ascertaining the county to which they sons mutually bear each to the other. belong. G. L. G.
HENRY H, GIBBS.
Aldenham House. If MR. MORRIS refers to Quaritch's August Catalogue. No. 91. he will find a collection of the St. SOPHIA (7th S. iv. 328, 371, 436 ; v. 35, 51, plates of these Dutch artists for sale, entitled, 290, 334, 351, 491; vi. 75). — With regard to the “ Kip's Nouveau Théâtre de la Grande Bretagne. accounts of what the Sultan Abdul Aziz said 5 vols., fol., Lond., 1724-28.” The price asked is (p. 75) they differ. MR. CROSSMAN does not 501. H. T. FOLKARD, Librarian.
say that either Gordon or himself heard what the Free Library, Wigan,
Sultan said. It is extremely unlikely that any
stranger heard what the Sultan said. The evidence Ovid's 'Fasti' (7th S. v. 507).- I believe H. T. of the Turkish (?) guide is probably correct as to Riley's translation of Ovid's 'Fasti,' published by “ Johnnie,” but doubtful so far as any Turk saying Bell & Son, is the best. J. Gower published a “ Constantine.” With regard to what Gordon version at Cambridge in 1640, and there is a prose knew directly on the matter, reference might be rendering by Butt, published at Dublin about fifty made to the gentleman then in his staff, serving years ago.
ASTARTE. under the Foreign Office, his old Crimean friend, Capt. Stab, now resident in Smyrna.
"TAE Medusa' (7th S. v. 487).—The first num
HYDE CLARKE. ber of the Medusa ; or, Penny Politician appeared The tradition of the interrupted mass, communi-1
on February 20, 1819. Its motto was “Let's die cated at the last of these references, is related by
like men, and not be sold like slaves,” and its Mr. Athelstan Riley, in 'Athos; or, the Mountain
politics were of an advanced type. In the numof the Monks,' p. 25, and accompanied by a note,
ber for January 7, 1820, it is stated that in conwhich, to my thinking, is a desirable addendum
sequence of the new Stamp Duty Act the price of to what is being preserved on the subject in the
the paper would have to be raised to sixpence, and columns of ‘N. & Q.':
that on January 15 the first number of the new “During the restoration of the church in 1847-49 by
series would appear as The Cap of Liberty and Monsieur* Fossati, an Italian, called in by the Sultan
G. F. R. B. Abdul-Medjid to save St. Sophia from the ruin which IMPOSSIBLE (70h S. v. 466).-The Rev. Ed. threatened it through long neglect, that architect had the curiosity to open a wall at the spot Turkish and Greek MARSHALL's note recalls the story of Mirabeau, traditions alike declare the priest to have entered. He which Carlyle quotes from Dumont:found a little chapel in the thickness of the wall with a « Monsieur le Comte,' said his secretary to him once, descending stair encumbered with rubbish."
what you require is imposeible.' 'Impossible !' anMr. Riley is of opinion that if the celebrant should swered he, starting from his chair, “Ne me dites jamais return to complete the holy office “ the nineteenth ce bête de mot,' 'Never name to me that block head of a
rench Revolut or twentieth century will persuade itself that he is but an optical delusion: it will take something
C. C. B. more than the reappearance of an old priest to VERNON (766 S. v. 487; vi.*14, 71).-If Vernon shake the world out of its material conceits."
is rightly assigned to a Brytho-Celtic origin, it has
St. SWITHIN. its equivalent in Goidbelo-Celtic. The surname ROWLANDSON (7th S. v. 487; vi. 10, 93).-I Farnie, Farnachan, Fernie, may be traced to the sincerely hope your correspondent MR. J. B. Goidhelic fearn, fearnóg in Erse and Gaelic, fernóg MORRIS will kindly give us the benefit of bis in Old Erse (' Irish Glosses,' 558). Alders supknowledge to which he refers in ‘N. & Q.' This plied many ancient place-names in Celtic districts, being a subject of which very little appears to be e.g., in Scotland, Balfern, Carsphairn, Drumfarknown, his information may be of great use to the nachan, Calharnie, &c. HERBERT MAXWELL. future historian of dress.
Add Pen-gwern, the native Welsh form that DYmpna (7th S. v. 408, 491; vi. 33).-The preceded Scrobbesburig, now Shrewsbury, for the unique and ancient institution of "boarded out" capital of Shropshire, where gwern is the alder insane people at Gheel and its patron St. Dymphna bush or “shrub.” Subsequently we have l=r, as was first brought to English notice by Mrs. 'Pitt Salop, Srop, Srewsbury, locally sounded s, not sh. Byrne in 'Flemish Interiors. She subsequently
A. HALL. published an exhaustive description and history
PORTMANTEAU WORD (7th S. vi. 147).- Alas under the title of ‘Gheel ; or, the City of the for the fate which overtakes even the best writings Simple,' a companion volume to her ‘Beghynhof; or, of men! A few years ago, when Lewis Carroll's the City of the Single.' All three works are out | deliai
delicious nonsense was in everybody's moutb, this of print, but can be consulted at the British
| question would not have been asked. See 'Through Museum or principal lending libraries.
| the Looking-Glass,' p. 126 : “ Slithy means lithe R. H. BUSK.
and slimy-you see it's like a portmanteau, there SWINE SUCKLING (7th S. vi. 28).-Prof. J. D. are two meanings packed up into one word "; and BUTLER merely states on a bearsay report that a for an explanation, too long to copy, of the theory general was swine-fed. Alexander ab Alexandro, l of these words see The Hunting of the Snark,' in his 'Geniales Dies,' gives a list of traditional preface, p. x. C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. animal feedings, but in his notice of the animals 1 Foleshill Hall, Coventry. says nothing of swine (lib. ii. ap. 31, Hanover, | [Many contributors are thanked for replies to the
same effect.] * If not Signor, why Monsieur in preference to Herr JEWISH NAMES (7th S. v. 509). -Quite eighty or Mr. ?
per cent. of personal names ending in ard, art,
aert, ert are patronymics. I have a list of up. Water Flow (7th S. vi. 88).—The creek may wards of a thousand of such names. Among be fed by an underground reservoir, with a curving others are Abélard, Ballard, Billard, Bollaert, channel as an outlet, forming a natural siphon; the Colard, Collard, Gillard, Jacquemard, Jobard, reservoir might be a long time in filling till it reached Jobart, Jonnard, Mozart, Musard, Philippard, the level of the highest point of the siphon, when it Philippart, Simonard, Stevenard, Willard. In would flow strongly till it was emptied down to the some names, mostly of German origin, as Cunard, level of the opening of the siphon into the reservoir. Hunnard, Leotard, Maynard (inverse of Hart- I have seen somewhere (alas ! no note made) an mann), Nothard, Richard, the termination is from account, with a diagram, of a “Sabbatical spring" hart, hardt, strong ; others, as Rambert (inverse of in Palestine, which flows (they say) so as to observe Bertram), Robert, Rupert, are from brecht, precht, the Sabbath, and it is explained in this way. bright (clarus, præclarus). R. S. CHARNOCK, The fact that rain had not recently fallen need be
no difficulty, for surface water takes a long time to COGONAL (7th S. v. 87,197)I would suggest means make its way through some formations. a collection of plants of the willow or ozier tribe.
Ernest B. Savage, F.S.A. Probably from cogul, a kind of willow, whose shoot
St. Thomas, Douglas, 1.0.M. is used for firewood (Salva,' second edition, 1847). The o for u is not uncommon. Conf. cogolla=co CARISTABEL (7th S. iv. 368, 412; vi, 130).gulla, &c. The formation of the collective noun Coleridge may have invented this name, but it by the elision of the final letter and addition of al was in existence before his time. “It is," says or nal is very usual. Thus paja means a straw, a Miss Yonge, “ to be found in Cornwall in 1727, reed, and makes pajonal, a collection of reeds; and in the North of England. It occurs at Crayke, icho makes ichal, &c.
in Yorkshire, between 1538 and 1652" (Christian Names,' 1884, p. 104).
C. C. B. SCOTT OF Essex (7th S. v. 467).—I have in my Suffolk collections à MS. pedigree of the Scott The WRECK OF THE BIRKENHEAD (7th S. vi. family of Glemsford, co. Suffolk, wherein is men- 108). -As I have a duplicate, I have pleasure in tion of three William Scotts. Thus: William forwarding for H. M. L. a copy of Great ShipScott, of Scott's Hall, Kent, Knight, married wrecks during Queen Victoria's Reign,' compiled Elizabeth, daughter of Vincent Herbert, als. for and published by an enterprising business Finch, temp. Xenry VI. (1422-61). Another house here last year, and sold by them for the William Scott, of Scott's Hall, married Sibill, small sum of one penny. It is now, I believe, out daughter of Sir Thomas Lewknor, temp. Henry of print. As regards the loss of the Birkenhead, VIII. Another William Scott married Margery, it contains the statement of Capt. Wright, of the daughter of William, Lord Winsor, anno 32 91st Regiment, and also extracts from that of Capt. Henry VIII. These facts, giving early dates, may Bond, of the 12th Lancers. All the most important be of use to your correspondent BALIOL; and the shipwrecks during the last fifty years are included pedigree comprises many other names and branches in the pamphlet.
J. F. MANSERGA. of the Scott families, and appears to have been Liverpool. compiled for the use of the American branch of P.S.- I would draw H. M. L.'s attention to the the Scotts.
O. GOLDING. loss of the Northfleet (p. 65). Colchester.
| [The pamphlet has been forwarded to H. M. L.] PRIVATE TUTOR OF JOHN WILKES (745 S. vi. H. M. L. will find a full account in Shipwrecks 149).-T. A. T. seems to assume that the dissent.
| and Disasters at Sea,' of which I forget the author. ing clergyman named Leeson occupied the vicarage A concise description appears in Stocqueler's house at Aylesbury in some official or quasi-clerical History of the British Army' The Household capacity. Of course this is, as Euclid so often
Narrative' (Dickens) for April, 1852, contains the says, absurd. But suppose the vicar were non
report of Čapt. Wright of the 91st, the senior resident, and Mr. Leeson rented the house? We
E. T. EVANS. all know how frequent was non-residence at that time-presumably, since Wilkes was born in 1727, Perhaps it may interest H. M. L. to know that between 1740 and 1745.
“the Great Duke" of Wellington at the Royal C. F. S. WARREN, M.A. | Academy dinner, 1852, spoke with pride of the THE GREAT CRYPTOGRAM (7th S. vi, 25, 151).
military discipline shown on the occasion of the It is worth noting that the arithmetical pretensions know where an account of the wreck is to be found.
wreck of the Birkenhead. I, too, should be glad to of the great cryptogram, which will impose on no mathematician, are thoroughly exposed in the
A. B. number of Knowledge for August 1. -A fair parody Descriptive accounts of this wreck will be found of it occurs in the Cornhill Magazine of the same in the Illustrated London News for April 10, 1852; date.
Celer. All the Year Round, issued on July 19, 1873
being No. 242, New Series ; also in 'Shipwrecks The king even granted letters patent to his mother and Disasters at Sea,' by W. H. G. Kingston. forbidding them to reside on any of her estates.
EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. "1286, May 2. The Jews were all seized by order of 71, Brecknock Road.
the King, who extorted large sums of money from them [MR. J. R. GILLESPIE says, “There is a six-page to the amount of 12,000 pounds of silver.” account in 'Perils and Adventures of the Deep' (Nelson
. The fierce multitude of Jews' with their & Sons, 1863).”]
wives and children (another account says to the number
of 15,000) and all their moveable property are ordered SNEAD (7th S. v. 347; vi. 14, 134).-In Sussex to leave England Aug. 31 (they had previously been this is spelt sneath, and the two small handles, banished from Gascony by the king]. The feast of called by MR. STILLWELL “nibs," are dole haudes
All Saints (Nov. 1) was the period assigned, which they
were not to exceed on pain of death." or dole woods. The Rev. W. D. Parish, in his 'Sussex Dialect,' spells it sneathe, Anglo-Saxon
It appears the king granted passes to the number snoed, the long handle of a scythe. In an old work,
work of 16,511, and strictly forbade any injury to be * Dictionarium Rusticum,' 1668, “Sneed, the handle
done to them. of a sythe, or such like tool."
"Some mariners who violated his commands by drown. Jas. B. MORRIS.
ing a number of them at the mouth of the Thames were Eastbourne.
R. W. HACKWOOD. ANYTHINGARIANS (7th S. vi. 66). —This was I think that, in reference to the reply by evidently, I think, & word in common use at the W. S. B. H., neither of us can have looked far date of the quotation given by MR. W. ROBERTS, enough on in Milman to do justice to him ; for at for I have just come across an instance some la latēr page, 262, in a note, there is :months earlier in the New England Historic
| “The Act for the Expulsion of the Jews has not come Genealogical Register (Boston), July, 1881, down to us; we know not, therefore, the reasons alleged 'Letters of Hugh Hall to Benning Wentworth, for the measure. Of the fact there can be no doubt Merchant in Boston,' dated London, July 16, 1717. | (see · Report on the Dignity of a Peer,' p. 180), and there The material features of the passage run thus: “I are many documents relating to the event, as write to intended......to have descanted on ye Customs
| the authorities in Gloucester and York to grant them
safe conduct to the port where they were to embark." and Constitutions of ye Any-thingarians of this Age." I may perhaps mention that the corre
Milman, therefore, corrects his interpretation in spondence of Hugh Hall is quite worth reading for
p. 259, if it is such, and not merely a reference to the proverbial expressions which it supplies, as
1 * Jewish tradition," at the later page, 262, note g.
? well as for its quaint language and lively pictures
The 'Report' referred to was first printed 1820-5, of the times. Indeed, some of the proverbs may
and was reprinted by order of the House of Combe worth a place in ‘N. & Q.'
| mons, May 19, 1826, in 4 vols. fol. See Lowndes, p. 1817.
ED. MARSHALL. A godless acquaintance of mine, having to fill up a census paper eight years ago, entered himself NEWSPAPERS (7th S. vi. 47, 112).—I do not think under the head of religion as a Calathumpian, there is any bibliography, other than the press meaning“ what you please.” I have seen this word guides, extant. The introduction of the news. somewhere in print. Whence does it come and paper press into Scotland is an historic event what does it mean?
C. O. B. which is worthy of being recorded and preserved. THE EXPULSION OF THE JEWS BY EDWARD I.
The institution was effected by the officers of one (7th S. v. 328, 492; vi. 57). The following notes
of Cromwell's regiments during the civil wars of from “The Annals of Eogland,' collated with other
the seventeenth century. The troops arrived at
Leith in 1652 for the purpose of garrisoning the chronological records, may possibly be of service in
citadel. They were accompanied by a printer briefly summarizing facts respecting the Jews in this reign :
named Christopher Higgins, for what purpose is
not definitely known, but it is supposed he was "1275. A parliament held at Westminster, near the
commissioned by the officers to reprint a London end of April (another account says October 5), when several reformatory statutes are issued; especially one to
daily journal, called Mercurius Politicus, for the restrain the usurious practices of the Jews.'
instruction and amusement of the garrison. The Matthew of Westminster says :
first number of this reprint was issued on Oc“That they might be distinguished from the faithful tober 26, 160., a
tober 26, 1653, and in November of the following the King ordered them to wear on their outer garments
year the publication was transferred to Edinburgh, a sign like a tablet, of the length of a palm."
where it was continued till April 11, 1660. I have "1278. The Jews throughout England seized on one not been able to ascertain any information regardday (Nov. 12) being accused of clipping coin; 280 are ling the movements of Higgins after this date. banged shortly after in London alone (? 1279) and a very great multitude'in other places: a number of Christians,
On December 31, 1660, there appeared at Edinprincipally the rich citizens of London,' charged as their | | burgh the first number of the Mercurius Caledonius, confederates, are allowed to raneom themselves.” comprising "the affairs in agitation in Scotland, with a survey of foreign intelligence." It con- | the parliamentary Walter Strickland, who is insisted of eight quarto pages, and the last number variably said to have been the immediate successor was dated "March 22 to March 28, 1661." . of Luttrell, in reality followed Hanham, being
The vacancy caused by the cessation of the elected in response to a writ issued in 1645. Will Mercurius Caledonius was filled by the Kingdom's you allow me to point out a most satisfactory conIntelligencer.
firmation to these suggestions? In the appendix In 1699 the Edinburgh Gazette was published subjoined to the admirable index just issued to by authority, and still exists. The first volume is part i. of Parliamentary Returns, the two several in the British Museum
writs for Minehead are brought to light-the In 1705 the Edinburgh Courant appeared, but first dated June 11, “vice Alexander Luttrell, ceased after an existence of five years. It re-Gent., deceased "; the other, on October 30, 1645, appeared, however, on December 12, 1718, under “vice Sir Francis Popham, Knt., deceased, and the title of the Edinburgh Evening Courant (pub- Thomas Hanham, Esq. [disabled]." The returns to lished three times a week), and continued under these writs are not found, but there can be now no that name till December 16, 1871, when it re-question but that in response to the writ of 1642 verted to its original title, viz., the Edinburgh Thomas Hanham was elected, and that he held Courant. On February 8, 1886, it amalgamated the seat, as before suggested, till he was included with the Glasgow Daily News, and the combina- among the batch of Royalists “disabled ” in tion is still published under the title of the Scottish January, 1644.
W. D. PINK. News, a Glasgow Conservative daily. The Caledonian Mercury made its appearance
CHAISE-LONGUE : CAAISE-MARINE (7th S. vi. 7).
-The inference which I am inclined to draw from on April 28, 1720, and had a successful career of
the English form chaise-lounge= the Fr. chaiseconsiderably over one hundred years. In 1796 the Scottish Congregational Magazine
longue is that our word lounge=couch is derived
rather from the longue of chaise-longue* than from was established, and this journal is still published under the name of the Scottish Congregationalist,
the verb to lounge, though this may very likely having assumed this title in 1880.
have helped to turn longue into lounge. If my
inference is correct, chaise-lounge was probably From the information I have been able to collect these appear to have been the principal Edinburgh
the original form of lounge. It is certain that our journals published prior to the nineteenth century.
lounge=couch almost exactly corresponds in meanThere was a variety of other prints issued, but
| ing to the Fr. chaise-longue,t and may, at all events, most of them certainly did not merit the title of l be rendered by it. newspaper.
As for chaise-marine, I find it in Littré (s.v.
“Chaise "), but the meaning which he gives to it The following are the leading journals established at Edinburgh during the present century:
is not that of a kind of vehicle, but of a kind of Edinburgh Review. Liberal. . 1802.
chair or seat, designed so as to counteract the rollEdinburgh Medical Journal. 1805.
ing and pitching of a vessel. As, however, chaise The Scotsman, Liberal. 1817.
in French is also used, as in English, of a kind of Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Conservative. 1817. vehicle, it is possible that the term may formerly North British Advertiser, 1826. North British Agriculturalist. 1843.
* That is to say, if chaise-longue and chaise-lounge Journal of Jurisprudence. 1857.
came into use before lounge=couch. The Daily Review. Liberal. 1861. Extinct.
† We have three words in English, sofa, couch, and Scottish Law Reporter. 1865.
lounge. Of these the first has three backs, one at each The Scottish Reformer. Liberal. 1868. Extinct. end and one on one side; the second two, one at the Scottish Guardian, 1870.
head and one on one side; the third one at the head Edinburgh Evening News. 1873.
only. These distinctions are still pretty accurately kept Educational News. 1876.
up in English, excepting that a medical couch has often The Evening Express. Conservative. 1880. Extinct, one back only (at the head); and I am inclined to beThe Scottish People. Conservative. 1885.
lieve that they at one time existed also, to a certain exEdinburgh Evening Dispatch. Liberal. 1886. tent, between the three corresponding words in Frencb, Scottish Leader. 1887.
viz., sofa, canapé, and chaise-longue. At any rate, Littré The figures following the names are the dates of
tells us that a sofa has three backs, and a chaise-longue establishment.
one only (at one end); but he is not so explicit with re. J. E. ALLEN
gard to canapé, though from what he and Bescherelle Lightcliffe, Halifax,
say it may be inferred that a canapé was originally a
sofa, either without the two end backs or with the two THOMAS HANHAM, M.P., 1642-44 (6th S. xii.
end backs replaced by arms. At the present time sofa 227).-Some time back I ventured to suggest that seems to have almost entirely gone out of use in France, this undoubted member of the Long Parliament, and to have been replaced by canapé. The consequence but whose constituency had not been ascertained,
is that chaise-longue is now used not only of couches with in all probability sat for Minehead, and that he
one back only (at the head), but also of what we call
couches (with two backs), only that perhaps the side was elected in 1642 in the place of Alexander back does not usually extend the whole length of the Luttrell, deceased. Furthermore, I suggested that side.