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the other months, either because he first arrived from Trezene on the eighth of Hecatombeon, as Diodorus the geographer relates; or else thinking this number above all others most proper, because he was said to be the son of Neptune, whose solemn feasts are observed on the eighth day of every month. For the number :. eight, as the first cube of an even number and the double of the first square properly represents the firmness and immoveable power of this god, who thence has the names of Asphalius and Gaieochus.

103

103 This doctrine of numbers, derived through Pythagoras from the Egyptians, was a great favourite with Plutarch. **

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Different opinions about the origin of Rome; and of the twin

brothers, Romulus and Remus. Most probable account of their birth. They are suckled by a wolf. Their first employments ; and quarrel with Numitor's herdsmen. Remus addresses that prince with great intrepidity. Faustulus arrested by Amulius' guards. Amulius slain by Romulus and Remus. Foundation of Rome. Dispute between the brothers. Remus slain by Romulus. Ceremonies observed in marking out the walls of the city. Epoch of it's foundation. Distribution of the people; establishment of the senate. Right of patronage. Rape of the Sabines. Origin of the Talassio, Embassy of the Sabines. Romulus' victory over the Cæninenses. Origin of the triumph. Conquests of Romulus ; war of the Sabines. Battle in Rome between the Romans and Sabines. Romulus, pressed by the enemy, invokes Jupiter Stator. The Sabine women declare in fadour of the Ro

The two nations unite. Form of public deliberations. Festivals of the Romans. Vestals and the sacred fire. Laws of Romulus. Death of Tatius. Fidenæ taken. The Camerini defeated. War with Veii. Romulus abuses his power. The patricians discontented. He suddenly disappears. Conjectures about his death. The people restrained from insurrection by Proculus. Some Grecian fables, like those circulated about Ron mulus. Reflections upon the nature of the soul. Different interpretations of the name Quirinus."" The Caprotine Nones.

mans.

From whom, and for what cause, the city of Rome obtained that name, whose glory has diffused itself over the world, historians are not agreed? Some say that the Pelasgi?, after they had over-run great part of the globe, and conquered many nations, settled there; and gave their city the name of Rome", on account of

'Upon this subject, to adopt the most generally-received date, we must place the foundation of Rome at B. C. 753. Ol. vi. 4.; and the death of Romulus B. C. 716. A. U. C. 38. But, though these events are universally allowed to have happened at a period not long prior to the christian æra, they are involve ed in much uncertainty. Some represent them as astronomical al. legories; others confine the obscurity of the history of Rome to ibe reigns of it's seven kings, which include a space of 244 years; while a third class admit of little as well authenticated, which is referred to any of the five first centuries from it's foundation. The writers of Greece indeed (at that time almost the only writers, and they too chiefly poets or fabulist historians) cared little for what was passing in Italy ; and Numa left nothing behind him, except what had reference to religion or philosophy. The annalists of Rome began to make their appearance only about the time of the first Punic war.

* Such is the uncertainty of the origin of imperial Rome, and indeed of most cities and nations, that are of any considerable antiquity. That of Rome might be the more uncertain, because it's first inhabitants, being a collection of fugitives and outlaws from other nations, could not be supposed to leave histories be. hind them. Livy however, and most of the Latin historians, agree that Rome was built by Romulus, and both the city and the people named after him ; while the vanity of the Greek writers seeks to refer almost every thing, and Rome among the rest, to a Grecian original.

3 These, originally from Arcadia, were the oldest inhabitants of Greece; whence they were driven into Thessaly, and thence into Epirus, Macedon, Italy, Crete, and Asia. *

'Pwuen signifies " strength.” See also Festus, voc. Roma.

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their strength in war.

in war. Others inform us that, when Troy was taken, some of the Trojans having escaped and gained their ships put to sea, and being driven by the winds upon the coasts of Tuscany came to an anchor in the river Tiber: that here, their wives being much fatigued and no longer able to bear the hardships of the sea, one of them, superior to the rest in birth and prudence, named Roma, proposed that they should burn the fleet: that, this being effected, the men were at first much exasperated; but afterward through necessity fixed their seat on the Palatine hill, and in a short time found things succeed beyond their expectation; for the country was good, and the people hospitable : that therefore, beside other honours paid to Roma, they called their city (as she was the cause of it's being built) after her name. Hence too, we are informed, the custom arose for the women to salute their relations and husbands with a kiss; because those women, when they had burned the ships, used such kind of endearments to appease their husbands' resentment.

Among the various accounts of historians, it is said that Roma was the daughter of Italus and Leucaria ; or of Telephus the son of Hercules, and married to Æneas; or of Ascanius the son of Æneas, and that she gave name to the city; or that Romanus, the son of Ulysses and Circe, built it; or Romus, the son of Æmathion, whom Dio. medes sent from Troy; or Romus king of the Latins, after he liad expelled the Tuscanso, who

5 Whatever desirable things Nature has scattered frugally in other countries, were formerly found in Italy, as in their original seminary. But there has been so little encouragement given to the cultivation of the soil, since it became subject to the pontiffs, that it is now comparatively barren.

That these Tuscans however were not the same as the Pe

passed originally from Thessaly into Lydia, and from Lydia into Italy. Even they who,, with the greatest probability, declare that the city had it's name from Romulus, are far from agreeing about his extraction : for some state that he was the son of Æneas and Dexithea, the daughter of Phorbus, and was brought an infant into Italy with his brother Remus; that all the other vessels were lost by the violence of the flood, except that containing the children, which driving gently ashore where the bank was level, they were saved beyond expectation, and the place from them called Rome. Some will have it that Roma, daughter of the Trojan woman who was married to Latinus, the son of Telemachus, was the mother of Romulus. Others say that Æmilia, the daughter of Æneas and Lavinia, had him by Mars: and others again give an account of his birth, which is entirely fabulous. There appeared, it seems, to Tarchetius king of the Albans, who was the worst and most barbarous of men, a supernatural vision in his own house, the figure of Priapus rising out of the chimney-hearth, and staying there many days. The goddess Tethys had an oracle in Tuscany', which being consulted upon the occasion, gave this answer to Tarchetius; That it was necessary some virgin should admit the embraces of the phantom, from which would spring a son eminent for valour, good fortune, and strength of body: Upon this Tar

lasgi, nor even a colony from Lydia, is inferred by Dion. Halic. with great probability, from the difference of their language, customs, religion, and laws. *

* There wes no oracle of Tethys, but of Themis there was, Themis was the same with Carmenta, the mother of Evander, which last name she had, because she delivered her oracles in carmine, in verses.'

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