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nument to him, which still remains in the marketplace. No credit is to be given to Andocides, who writes to his friends, that the Athenians stole his ashes out of the tomb, and scattered them in the air ; for it is an artifice of his, to exasperate the nobility agaiøst the people. Phylarchus likewise, more like a writer of tragedy--than an historian, availing himself of what may be called a piece of machinery, introduces Neocles - and Demopolis as the sons of Themistocles, to render his story more interesting and pathetic. But a very moderate degree of sagacity inay detect the fiction.. Yet Diodorus the geographer writes, in his Treatise upon Sepulchres (rather however from conjecture, than certain knowledge) that near the harbour of Piræus, from the promontory of Alcimus 107, the land makes an elbow; and, when you have doubled it inward, by the still water there is a vast foundation, upon which stands the tomb of Themistocles in the form of an altar. With him Plato, the comic writer, is supposed to agree in the following lines:
Oft as the merchant speeds the passing sail,
107 Meursius rightly corrects it. Alimus.' We find no place in Attica called 'Alcimus, but there was a borough named Alimus on the east of the Piræus, celebrated for it's temple of Ceres, and as the birth place of Thucydides. (Pausan. i. 31.).
Thucydides i. 138. says that the bones of Themistocles, by his own command, were privately carried back into Attica by his relations, and buried there. But Pausanias agrees with Diodorus that the Athenians, repenting of their ill usage of this great man, honoured him with a tomb in the Piræus (which was still remaining in his time) and other eminent marks of distinction. (i. 1.)
It does not appear, indeed, that Themistocles when banished had any design either to revenge himself on Athens, or to take refuge in the court of the king of Persia. The Greeks themselves forced him upon this, or rather the Lacedæmonians; for as by their intrigues his countrymen were induced to' banish him, so by their mportunities, after he was banished, he was not suffered to enjoy any refuge in quiet.
Wlien hostile ships in martial combat meet,
Thy shade attending hovers o'er the fleet. Various honours and privileges were granted by the Magnesians to the descendents of Themistocles, which continued down to our times; for they were enjoyed by one of his name, an Athenian, with whom I had a particular acquaintance and friendship in the house of Ammonius the philot sopher,
Camillus attained every dignity, ercept that of the conşulskip. His
valour: he is chosen censor. Siege of Veii. Overflowing of the Albantake. The oracles consulted upon this subject : Camillus elected dictator; defeat of the Falisci: taking of Veii. The statue of Juno conveyed thence to Rome. Camillus' triumph. He reşists zhe plan of removing part of the people to Veii. The Romans offended at his vow. Ofering sent to Delphi; and danger incurred, by the bearers of it. Faliscan war. Camillus' generous conduct toward the Falisci; whick induces them to surrender themselves to the Romans. The project of removing to Veii revived. Camillus banished. Invasion of Italy by the Gauls. They pour into Tuscany; and besiege Clusium. Rashness of the Fabii countenanced by the Romans. The Gauls march to Rome. Battle of Allia. Lucky and unlucky days. Consternation of the Romans. The Vestals carry off the sacred fire. The Palladium and other sacred relics removed. The Gauls enter Rome ; and massacre the senators. Camilluso address to the Ardeates. He defeats the Gauls near Ardea. The Romans, who have retired to Veii, offer him the chief command. He is recalled from exile, and made dictator. The Gauls, on the point of surprising the capitol, are repulsed. Critical situation, of both parties. Treaty. Camillus intervenes, falls upon the Gauls, and defeats them. Re-enters Rome in triumph, and undertakes it's restoration. Still resists the plan of migrating to Veü; and the people give it up. Rome is rebuilt. War with the Æqui, Volsci, and Latins. Canillus' third dictatorship. Victory of the Romans. Different account of this war. Sutrium taken and retaken in the same day. Manlius aspires to the sovereignty of Ronie; and is thrown headlong from the capitol, which he had preserved from the Gauls. War with the Praneștines and Volscians. Valour and victory of Camillus. He reduces the Tusculans, who had revolted. Disturbances ercited by one of the tribunes. New invasion by the Gauls: opposed by Camillus; who gains a complete victory. The people obtain a plebeian consul. Temple of Concord built. Pestilence. Death of Camillus.
AMONG the many remarkable things related of Furius Camillus, the most extraordinary seems to be this, that though he was often in the highest commands and performed the greatest actions, though he was five times chosen dictator, triumphed four times, and was styled “the Second Founder of Róme, yet he was never once consul. Of this we may perhaps discover the reason in the state of the commonwealth at that time : the people, then at variance with the senate', refused to elect consuls, and in their stead placed the government in the hands of military tribunes; who, though invested with consular power and authority, were in their administration less grievous to the people, because they were more in number. To have the direction of affairs entrusted to six persons instead of two, was some ease and satisfaction to a populace i that could not bear to be controlled by the nobiity. Camillüs, then distinguishied by his achieve
1 The old quarrel about the distribution of lands was revived, the people insisting that every citizen should have an equal share. The senate met frequently, to baffle the proposal, and at last Appius Claudius moved, that some of the tribunes of the people should be gained, as the only remedy against the tyranny of that body: which was accordingly. carried into exeçution. The commons, thus disappointed, chose military tribunes instead of consuls, and sometimes had them all plebeians. (Liv.iv. 48.)
ments and at the height of glory, did not choose to be consul against the inclination of the people; though the Comtitia, or assemblies in which they might have elected consuls, 'were several times held within that period”. In all his other commissions, which were many and various, he so conducted himself that, if he was entrusted with the sole power, he shared it with others; and, if he had a collegue, the glory was his own. The authority appeared to be shared on account of his singular modesty in command, which gave no occasion to envy; and the glory was secured to him by his genius and capacity, in which he was uni. versally allowed to have no equal.
The family of the Furii ' was not before his time very illustrious; he was the first, that raised it to distinction, when he served under Posthumius Tubertus in the great battle with the Æqui and Volscit. In that action, spurring his horse before
? From A. U.C. 310. when Military Tribunes (according to Liyy iy. 7.) were first elected, to A. U, C. 389, when the consuls were regularly re-established, there had been occasionally a few consulships, but not more than two or three during the period of Camillus' public life. The Comiriu however, for both were the same, the centuriatu, in which the people voted by centuries for the higher state appointments of Consul, Censor, and Prætor. The Military Tribunes were, at tirst, only three in number.*
Furius was the family.nanie. Camillus (as has been already observed, Life of Numa, p. 194. not (22)) was an appellation of children of quality, who ministered in the temple of some god. Our Camillus was the first, who retained it as a surname. (L.) His first name was Marcus. By the term 'illustrious,' Plutarch must refer (as M. Ricard suggests) 'rather to military, than to civil glory: for we find a Sextus Furius consul, A. Ú. C. 266. (Dion. Halic. viii. 3., Liv. ii. 39.) and in the interval of less than a century, which elapsed between 'ibat period and the date of Camillus first tribuneship, no less than seventeen others of the same family rose to an equal elevation *
This was A. U. C. 324, when Camillus might be about fourteen for fifteen years of age, though the Roman youth did not usually bear arms sooner than seventeen. And, though Plutarch