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come obnoxious-to the abettors of the quarrel, he was apprehensive of an impeachment; but, being powerfully supported by his friends and relations, he excited disturbances, which delayed and suss pended the determination for war among the Sab bines. Publicola making it his business not only to get intelligence of this sedition, but also to en courage and inflame it, sent proper persons to Appius to represent to him;" That he knew he was

a man of too much goodness and integrity to " avenge himself of his countrymen, though deeply * injured by them: but if he chose for his security 4 to come over to the Romans, and to get out of

the way of his enemies, he should find such a " reception, both in public and private, as was

suitable to his virtue and the dignity of Rome." Appius considered this proposal with much 'atz tention, and the necessity of his affairs induced bim to accept it. He therefore persuaded his friends, and they influenced many others; so that five thousand men 69 of the among the Sabines, with their families, removed

Sabine puthe most peaceably disposed with him to Rome. Publicola, who was prepared for it, received them in the most friendly and hos pitable manner, admitted them to the freedom of the city, and gave thein two acres of land a piece by the river Anio. To Appius he gaver twentyfive acres, and a seat in the senate. This laid the foundation of his greatness in the republic, and he used the advantage with so much prudence, as to rise to the first rank in power and authority, The Claudian family 79, descended from him, is as illustrious as any in Rome. . This would imply, at the lowest estimate (of four persons In a family) 20,000 persons, who were provided for by the allotment of half an acre a-piece. Such was the moderation of th ancient Romans.* V70 There were two families of the Claudii in Romo; one patrician, and the other plebeian. - The first had the surname of Pulcher, and the other of Marcellus. In course of time the

Though the disputes among the Sabines were decided by this migration, the demagogues would not suffer them to rest; representing it as a matter of deep disgrace that Appius, now a deserter and an enemy, should be able to obstruct their taking vengeance of the Romans, when he could not prevent it by his presence. They advanced therefore with a great army, and encamped near Fidenæ. Having ordered two thousand men to lie in ambush in the shrubby and hollow places before Rome, they appointed a few horse at day-break to ravage the country up to the very gates, and then to retreat, till they drew the enemy into the ambuscade". But Publicola getting information that very day of these particulars from deserters, prepared himself accordingly, and made a suitable disposition of his forces. Posthumius Balbus his son-in-law went out with three thousand men, as it began to grow dark, and having taken possession of the summits of the hills, under which the Sabines had concealed themselves, watched his opportunity. His collegue Lucretius with the lightest and most active of the Romans was appointed to attack the Sabine cavalry, as they were driving off the cattle; while he himself with the rest of the forces made a large circuit, and enclosed the enemy's rear. The morning happened to be very foggy, when Posthumius at dawn with loud shouts fell upon the ambuscade from the heights, Lucretius charged the horse in their retreat, and Publicola attacked the enemy's camp. The Sabines were every where worsted, and put to the rout. As the Romans did

patrician family produced twenty-three consuls, five dictators, and seven censors; and obtained two triumphs, and two ovations. Of this family the emperor Tiberius was descended. Out of his followers, according to Dion. Halic. and Livy, was formed the Claudian tribe. :.:4 Dion. Halic. gives a different, and much less probable, ac count of this engagement.*

not meet with the least resistance, the slaughter was prodigious. The vain confidence of the Sabines was, obviously, the principal cause of their ruin. While one part thought the other was safe, they did not stand upon their defence; those in the camp ran toward the corps placed in am. buscade, while they in their turn endeavoured to regain the camp. Thus they fell in with each other in great disorder, and in mutual want of that assistance, which neither was able to give. The Sabines would have been entirely cut off, had not the city of Fidenæ been so near, which proved an asylum to some, particularly to those that, fled when the camp was taken. Such, as did not take refuge there, were either destroyed or taken prisoners.. * The. Romans, though accustomed to ascribe every great event to the interposition of the gods, gave the credit of this victory solely to the general; and the first thing the soldiers were heard to say was, that Publicola had put the enemy into their hands, lame, blind, and almost bound for the slaughter... The people were enriched with the plunder, and the sale of prisoners. As for Publicola, he was honoured with a triumph, and having surrendered the administration to the succeeding consuls, died soon afterward; thus finishing his life in circumstances esteemed the happiest and most glorious, that man can attain". The people, as if

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52 He was the most virtuous citizen, one of the greatest generals, and the most popular consul Rome ever had. As he had taken more care to transmit his virtues to his posterity,' than to

enrich them; and as notwithstanding the frugaliiy of his life, and the high offices which he had borne, there was not found money

enough in his house to defray the charges of his funeral, he was buried at the expence of the public. His poverty is a circumstance, which Plutarch should have mentioned, because a funeral at the public charge was an honour sometimes paid to the rich. (L.) It is not overlooked by Livy and Dion. Halic. The amount of

they had done nothing to requite his merit in his Kfe-time, decreed that his funeral should be solemnised at the public charge; and, to make it the more honourable, every one contributed a piece of money called Quadrans. The women likewise, out of particular regard to his memory, continued the mourning for him a whole year. His body also, by an order of the citizens, was ititerred within the city ?, near the place called Velia, and all his family were to have a burying-place there. At present, indeed, none of his progeny are interred in that ground: the attendants only carry thither the corpse, and set it down; when one of them puts a lighted torch under it, which he immediately takes back again. Thus they claim by that act the right, but wave the privilege, for the body is taken away, and interred without the walls.21 T

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the contribution, in that age of poverty, must have been considerable: but Sallust has told us, that they were is suppliciis deorum magnifici, domi parci.' (Bell. Catil. ix.).* 05. This

was, at first, the general practices but in after times the Twelve Tables prohibiting it's continuance, the dead were interred by the side of the public ways, and the distinction of being buried within the walls was reserved (as in Greece) for those, who bad senderod eminent services to the commonwealth... Dion. Halio. says, it was exclusively bestowed upon Publicola ; but Plutarck elsewhere states that Fabricids enjoyed the same privilege, as did all (according to Pyrrho of Lipara, who had actained the honor of a triumpha The claim, asserted by Publicola's descendents, is not mentioned either by Livy or Dion. Halic." Caluerin e sada

should exemplify the maxims of Solon, and that Solon should proclaim beforehand the happiness, of Publicola. For the definition of happiness, which Solen gave Cresus, is more applicable to Publicola than to Tellus. It is true, he pronounces Tellus happy on account of his virtue, his valuable children, and his glorious death; yet he does not mention him in his poems as particularly distinguished by his virture, his children, or his employments, But Publicola, in his life-time, attained the highest reputation and authority among Romans, by means of his virtues; and, after his death, his family was reckoned among the most illustrious: the houses of the Publicolæ, the Messalæ, and Valerii", eminent for the space of six hundred years 75, stil agknowledging him as the fountain of their honour. Tellus like a brave man, keeping his post and fighting to the last, fell by the enemy's hand; whereas Publicola, after having slain his enemies (a much happier circumstance, than to be slain by them) after seeing his country victorious through his conduct as consul and as general, after triumphs and every other mark of honour, died that death, which Solon had so passionately coveted, and dedared so happySolon again in bis answer to Miminermus; concerning the period of human life, thrus exclaims: 73.1

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-500 s Pet friendship's faithful heart attend my bierzcc 1/200 cdr 203)Heave the sad sigh, and drop the pitying teapot! 19619Lie

17095 And Publicola had this felicity. For he was lamented, not only by his friends and relations, but

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. the Maximi, the Corvini, the Potiti, the Lævini, and the Flaccia 2.1. It appears, from this passage, that Plutarch: wrote the Life of Publicola about the beginning of Trajan's reign. j knibusw.. le 26. Cicero (Tusc. i 49., and de Senect. 20.)

thought this wish of Solon's unsuitable to so wise a man, and preferred to it that of the poet Ennius, who pleasing himself with the thought of an im.

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