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** your camp, watching their opportunity. It was my lot to make the first attempt, and I am not sorry that my sword was directed by fortune
another, instead of a man of so much * honour, who, as such, should rather be a friend “ than an enemy to the Romans." Porsenal be lieved this account, and was more inelined to hearken to terms, not so much (in my opinion) through fear of the three hundred assassins, as from admiration of the dignity of the Roman valour An authors call this man Mucius Scavolas, except Athenodorus Sandon,' who, in a work addressed to Augustus' sister Octavia, states that he was named Posthumius. ' 1. Dini * Publiçola, who did not régard Porsena was so bitter an enemy to Rome, but that he deserved to be taken into
ip and alliance, far from refusing to refer the dispute with Tarquin to his decision, was really desirous of it; and sereral times offered to prove, that Tarquin was the worst of men, and justly deprived of the crown. When Tárquin roughly answered, that he would admit of no arbitrator, much less of Porsena; if he changed his mind and forsook his alliance 59; Porsena was offended, and began to entertain an ill opinion of him: and being solicited by his son Aruns, who used all his interest for the Romans, he was prevailed upon to put an end to the war, on condition that they ceded the part of Tuscany which they
$7 Dion. Halic. bowever ascribes the pacification to the success ful sally of Publicola, mentioned above, which he relates as sub
lates as sequent to Mucius' exploit.*
38 Mucius was rewarded with a large piece of ground belonging to the public. Sandon, a stoic philosopher of Tarsis mentioned below, was sụccessively tutor to Augustus and Tiberius Cæsar.
5* This answer is not recorded by Livy, nor from the statement of Dion. Halic. (v. 4.) does it seemn at all probable.*
had conquered together with their prisoners, and received their deserters. For the performance of these conditions, they gave as hostages ten young men and as many virgins, of the best families in Rome; among whom was Valeria, the daughter of Publicola." o: Upon the faith of this treaty, Porsena had ceased from all aots of høstility; when the Roman virgins went down to bathe, at a place where the bank formióg itself in a crescent embays the river in such a manner, as to make it quite calm and undisturbed with waves. As no guard was near, and they saw none passing or repassing, they had a violent inclination to swim over, notwithstanding the depth and strength of the stream of Some say one of them, named
Clelia, passed it on horseback, and encouraged the other virgins as they swam. When they came safe to Publicola, he neither commended nor approved their exploit; but was grieved to think that he should appear inferior to Parsena in point of honour, and that this daring enterprise of the virgins should make the Romans Isuspected of unfair proceeding. He took them, therefore, and sent them back to Porsena. Tartquin, having timely intelligence of this, laid an cambuscade for them, and attacked their convoy with a great superiority of force. They stood, showever, upon their defence; and Valeria, the daughter of Publicola, broke through the combatants with three servants, who conducted her safe to Porsena's camp. As the skirmish was discount
60 The Romans were required to re-instate the Veientes in the - possession of seven villages, which they had taken from them in former wars. (Liv, ii. 13.)
Here the historians so often quoted, Livy and Dion. Halid., vary from Plutarch and from each other, but to an extent sa flight, as pot to justify any detail of their differences.* 294
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not yet decided nor the danger over, Aruns the son of Porsena, being informed of it, marched up with all speed, put the enemy to flight, and rescued the Romans. When Porsena 'saw the virgins returned, he demanded which of them was she that proposed the design, and set the example. Being informed that Clelia was the person, he treated her with great politeness; and, commanding one of his own horses to be brought with very elegant trappings, made her a present of it. Those who contend, that Clælia was the only one that passed the river on horseback, allege this as a proof, But others atfirm, that no such consequence can be drawn from it, and that it was nothing more than a mark of honour to her from the Tuscan king, for her bravery. An equestrian statue of her stands in the Via Sacra sa, where it leads to mount Palatine; which some however will have to be Valeria's, not Clelia's statue.
Porsena, thus reconciled to the Romans, gave many proofs of his greatness of mind. Among the rest, he ordered the Tuscans to carry off nothing but their arms, and to leave their camp full of provisions and many other things of value for the Romans. Hence it is that even in our times, whenever there is a sale of goods belonging to the public, they are cried first as the goods of Porsena 63 to eternise the memory of his generosity. A brasen statue, of rude and antique
e Dion. Halic. expressly informs us, that in his time (that is, in the reign of Augustus) there were no remains of that statue, is having been consumed by fire. Pliny, however (xxxiv. 6.) agrees with Plutarch.
* This, however (according to Liv. ii. 14.) was differently interpreted; for, though he agrees with Plutarch, others it seems considered the phrase as intended to record the failure of Porsena's enterprise. *
workmanship, was also erected to his honour, near the senate-house 64.
After this, the Sabines invading the Roman territory, Marcus Valerius, the brother of Publicola, and Posthumius Tubertus were elected consuls. As every important action was still conducted by the advice and assistance of Publicola, Marcus gained two great battles; in the second of which he killed thirteen thousand of the enemy, without the loss of a single Roman. For this he was not only rewarded with a triumph, but a house was built for him at the public expence on mount Palatine 65 And whereas the doors of other houses at that time opened inward, it's street-door was made to open outward, to show by this honourable distinction, that he was always ready to receive any proposal for the public service. All the doors in Greece, they tell us, were formerly made to open in this manner; which they prove from those passages in the comedies, where it is mentioned, that persons going out knocked loudly. on the inside of the doors first, to give warning to such as were passing by or standing before them, lest. the doors in opening should dash against them.
The year following, Publicola was appointed consul the fourth time, because a confederacy between the Sabines and Latins threatened a war ; and, at the same time, the city was oppressed with superstitious terrors, on account of the imperfect birthis and general abortions among the women, Publicola, having consulted the Sibyl's books uport it Maffered sacrifice to Pluto ; and renewed certain games, which had formerly been instituted by tlfe direetion of the Delphic oracle. When he had tea vived the city with the pleasing hope, that the gods were appeased, he prepared to arm against the menaces of men; for there appeared a formidable league vand strong preparation to enèounter. Among the Sabines, Appius Clausus was a man of a opulent fortune, and remarkable personal strength; famed, moreover, for his virtues and the force of his eloquence, It was his fate, like all great men, to be persecuted by envyx and his opposing the war gave a handle to malignity to insinuate, that he wished to strengthen the Roman power, in order the more easily to enslave his oro country. Perceiving that the populacê gates willing ear to these calumnies, and that he was be
64 The senate likewise according to Dion. Halic. sent an embassy to him, with a present of a throne adorned with ivory; a sceptre, a crown of gold, and a triumphal robe. Neither be, nor Livy, mentions this brasen statue.
65 Before this house was erected a brasen bull, as an emblem that Valerius by his victories had restored agriculture and abundance to Rome. See Plin. xxxvi. 15.*
66 Posthumius had his share in the triumph, as well as in the achievements,
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An unknown woman is said to have come to Tarquinchieb hine volumes of oracles written by the Sibyl of @uma, fo which the demanded a very considerable price. Tarquin refusing to purchase them at her rate, she burned three of them, and then asked the same price for the remaining six. Her proposal being rejected with scorn, she burned three more, and notwithstanding still insisted on her first price. The king, surprised at the novelty of the thing, put the books in the hands of the augurs to be exa mined, who advised him to purehase them at any rate. This be did, and appointed two persons of distinction, styled Duumviri, to be guardians of them; who locked them up in a vault under the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, and there they were kept till that edifice was consumed by fire in the Marsian war. (Dion. Halica. 14). These officers, whose number was afterward increased to ten, consulted "the Sibylline books by direction of the whenever any dangerous sedition was likely to break out, when the Higies 4 armies had been defeated, or when any of those prodigies appeared which were thought fatal. They also presided over the sacrifices and shows, which those books appointed to make fease the wrath of heaven.
68 Called by Dion. Halic. (v. 7.) • Titus Claudius,' and by Lívy 3*10.1.Atta Clausus,' and afterward. Appius Claudius. un