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second temple fell to Catulus. It was again destroyed in the troubles, which happened in the time of Vitellius; and a third was built by Vespasian, who with his usual good fortune put the last hand to it, but did not see it demolished, as it was soon afterward: happier in this respect than Sylla, who died before his was dedicated, Vespasian died before his was destroyed. For, immediately after his decease, the capitol was burned. The fourth; which is now standing, was built and dedicated by Domitian. Tarquin is said to have expended thirty thousand pounds' weight of silver upon the foundations alone; but the greatest wealth, of which any private man is supposed to be now possessed in Rome, would not defray the expence of the gilding of the present temple, which amounted to more than twelve thousand talents. The pillars are of Pentelic marble, and the thickness was in most exact proportion to their length, when we saw them at Athens; when they had been cut however and polished anew at Rome, they gained less in the polish, than they lost in the proportion ; for their beauty is injured by their appearing too slender for their height ". But after admiring the
" Livy' (1. 55.) judiciously prefers the more moderate estimate of Fabius, an elder historian, to that of Piso, whom Plutarch seems to follow.* The great interval between the wealthof private citizens in a free country, and that of the subjects of an arbitrary monarch, is highly deserving of remark. In Trajan's time, there was not a private man in Rome worth 200,000l. ; whereas under the commonwealth Æmilius Scaurus, in his ædileship, erected a tem. porary theatre which cost above 500,0001.; Marcus Crassus had an estate in land of above a million a year ; L. Cornelius Balbus left by will to every Roman citizen twenty-five denarii, which amounts to about sixteen shillings of our money; and many private men among the Romans, more for ostentation than for service, maintained from ten, to twenty thousand slaves. No wonder then that the slaves once took up arms, and went to war with the commonwealth.
* The Roman artists, by the concession of their own writers, were always both in taste and execution inferior to those of Greece. See Hor. Ep. to Aug., and Ast. Poet *
magnificence of the capitol, if any one were to go and see a gallery, a ball or bath, or the apartments of the women in Domitian's palace; what is said by Epicharmus of a prodigal, e se ni bosiq er
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like Midas of old, you would turn every thing off to gold and marble, So much for this subject.
Let us now return to Tarquin. After the great battle in which he lost his son, who was killed in single combat by Brutus, he fled to Clusium, and begged assistance of, Laras Porsena, thens the most powerful prince in Italy, and a man ofreminent Worth and honour. Porsena promised him suçcours
and, in the first place, sents to the thomans, commanding them, to receive: Tarquin. Upon their refusal, he declared was against them; and having informed them of the time when,gand the place where, he intended to make his assault, he marched thither accordingly with a considerable army, Publicola, who was then absent, was chosen consul the second time 47, and with him Titus Lucretius. Returning to Rome, and desirous to out20 11011111191er to tro con grant adits ud on Gisdilgie BUSCAR 2011 Des 15102 Stds
W203 2752 dots0|T. to Many, commentators regard this as a name of honour, sim
plying the head of the twelve Lucumons, or dodecarchy of Etruria; but Dion. Halic, v. 4., considers it as a private name.*
Beside that Porsena was willing to assist a distressed king, he considered the Tarquins as his countrymen, on account of their Tuscan extraction. But the announcing of his plans is not menctioned either by Livy, or by Dion Halic, adt. 1o FELDOOE 9dia
79.1 It was when Publicola was consul the third time, and had for callegue Horațius Palvillus, according to Dion. Halic., that Porsena marched against Rome. Livy, however, agrees with Plutarch.
do Porsena in spirits, he built the town of Sigliuria, notwithstanding the enemy's approach ; and when k at an immense expence he had finished the walls, he placed in it a colony of seven hundred men, as if he held his adversary very cheap. Porsena however assaulted it in a spirited manner, drove out the garrison, and pursued the fugitives so close, that he was near entering Rome along with them. But Publicola' met him without the gates, and engaging him by the side of the river, sustained the enemy's 'attack, who pressed on with mumbers; till at last, sinking under the wounds he had gallantly received, he was carried out of the battle. Lucretius his collegue having had the same fate;
the courage of the Romans drooped, and they retreated into the city for security. The enemy making good their pursait to the wooden-bridge,
Rome was in great danger of being taken; when Horatius Cocles, and with him two others of the e first rank, Herminius and Spurius Lartius 5, stopped
them at the bridge. Horatius had the surname fof Cocles from his having lost an eye in war; or r(as bigome will have it) from the form of his nose, which WAS SO very flat that both his eyes, as well as eyebrows, seemed to be joined together; so that when
the vulgár intended to call him • Cyclops, by a Denim
Sigliuria was not built at this time, nor out of ostentation, as ..Plutarch says; for it was as a barrier against the Latins and -the Hernici, and not in the third, but in the second consulship of Publícola. It is probably the same place, which Livý (i. 55.) calls Signia.
He was són to a brother of Horatius the consul, and a deziscendent of that Horatius, who remained victorious in the signal
In the account of this engagement, the details of Plutarch and 1 Dion. Halic, must be considered as supplementary to each other.
In the Greek text it is. Lucretius, which is probably a torruptiori of Lartius,: the name we find in Livy. The bridge was the Pons Şublicius.
misnomer they called him Cocles, which name he retained". This man, standing at the head of the bridge, defended it against the enemy, till the Romans broke it down behind him. He then, accoutred as he was, plunged into the Tiber, and swam to the other side, but was wounded in the hip with a Tuscan spear. Publicola, struck with admiration of his valour, immediately procured a decree, that every Roman should give him one day's provisions 52, and that he should have as much land, as he himself could encircle with a plough in one day. They erected likewise his statue in brass in the temple of Vulcan, with a view to console him by this honour for his wound, and the lameness consequent upon its
While Porsena laid close siege to the city, the · Romans were attacked with famine, and another body of Tusca'ns ravaged the country: Publicola, who was now consul the third tiine, was of opinion that no operations could be carried on against Porsena but defensive ones. He marched out 54 however privately against those Tuscans, who had committed such ravages, defeated them, and killed 'five thousand.
51 Dion. Halic. says, that he was so called, from having lost
eye in this battle, which is the most probable; was a very intrepid warrior, and was the only one of the three who held out to the last ; his two companions having retreated, before the bridge was broken down behind them.*
52 He had probably three hundred thousand contributors, fór even the women readily furnished their quota. There was at that time, too, a considerable scarcity at Rome.
53 This defect, and his having but one eye, prevented his ever being consul. (L.) To reconcile the site bere assigned to the statue with the accounts given by Livy (ii. 10.) and Dion. Halic., who both state that it was placed in a different situation, consult A. Gellius iv. 5.*
5* The consuls spread a report, which was soon carried into the Tuscan camp by the slaves who deserted, that the next day all the cattle brought thither from the country would be sent to graze in the fields under a guard. This bait drew the enemy into an ambush.
The story of Mucius 55 has been the subject of many pens, and is variously related: I shall give that account of it, which seems most credible. Mucius was in all respects a man of merit, but particularly distinguished by his valour. Having secretly formed a scheme to take off Porsena, he made his way into his camp in a Tuscan dress, where he likewise took care to speak the Tuscan language. Thus disguised he approached the seat, where the king sat with his nobles; and as he did not certainly know Porsena, and thought it improper to ask, he drew his sword and killed the person who seemed most likely to be the king. Upon this he was seized, and examined. In the mean time, as there happened to be a portable altar there with fire upon it, where the king was about to offer sacrifice, Mucius thrust his righthand into it 56: and, as the flesh was burning, he kept looking upon Porsena with a firm and menacing aspect; till the king, astonished at his fortitude, returned him his sword with his own hand. He received it with his left-hand, whence we are told he had the surname of Scævola (which signifies * left-handed') and thus addressed himself to Porsena; “ Your threatenings I regarded not, but I “am conquered by your generosity, and out of “ gratitude will declare to you, what no force “ should have wrested from me. There are three 5 hundred Romans that have formed the same “ resolution with mine, who now wander about
55 C. Mucius Cordus.
Livy (ii, 12.) says, that Porsena threatened Mucius with the torture by fire, to make him discover his accomplices; upon which Mucius thrust his hand into the flame, to let him see that he was not to be intimidated. (L.) In the particulars of the narrative this historian, Val. Max. (ii. 3.), and Plutarch nearly agree. Those detailed by Dion. Halic. (v. 4.) are somewhat different. Among other circumstances, he wholly omits the mention of his burning off his right-hand.*