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B.C. A U.C.

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146608 Carthage destroyed by P. Scipio Africanus II., who died

BC 129, æt. 50), and Corinth by L. Mummius. 13510:9 The history of the Apocrypha ends. The Servile War of three years begins in Sicily.

XXXIX. TIBERIUS GRACCHUS 133621 is put to death for attempting to introduce an Agrarian

law. Numantia is destroyed by Scipio. The Wingdom of Pergamus is annexed to the Roman

empire. 123 631 Carthage is rebuilt, by order of the Roman senate, under the superintendence of

XL. CAIUS GRACCHUS, 121633 killed, æt. 23.

XXII. CAIUS MARIUS, 119635

as tribune, imprisons the consul Metellus for opposing

law which he wished to carry. 111 645 The Jugurthine War of five years begins. 109615 The incursions of the Teutones and Cimbri, which last

eight years, begin 1061649 MARIUS receives Jugurtha from king Bocch's. 102 652

defeat, the Teutones and Ambiones in two

battles at Aquæ Sextiæ, hod. Aix in Provence. 201653

with Catulus, defeats the Cimbri, when endeavouring to enter Italy ihrough Noricum, hod. the Tirol, In this half century Satyrus, Accius, Panxlius, Nicander, Ctesibius, L. Cæius Antipater the Roman historian,

Lucilius, and Apollodorus flourish. 01663 The Social or Marsic War of three years begins, and is

terminated by SYLLA. 99|6651 he Mitbridatic war of 26 years begins. 88 666 The Civil War between the parties of Mariusand SYLLA

begins, and lasts till the defeat of Carbo and young

Marius at Præneste B. C. 82. si 569 MARIUS dies, æt. 70.

XXIV. SYLLA, who had previously been sent into Cappadocia, takes

Athens, and cuts to pieces the army of Archelaus. 846701

Makes peace with Mithridates. 827

Is created dictator, and continues for three years. 79075 Resigns his office, and dies the foilowing year, æt. 60.

XXIX. L SERTORIUS revolts in Spain, and is assassinated B. C. 73.

74080

1

B.C. A.U.C.

XXVI. LUCULLUS renews the war against Mithridates, who had occupied

Bithynia, and made a league with SERTORIUS. 73081 The Servile War begins under Spartacus, who dies B.C.71. 69 035 LUCULLUS defeats Mithridates and Tigranes in Armenia, and takes Tigranocerta.

XXXII. POMPEY 67 6871 begins and completes the Piratical War, æt. 40. 66.088 - Succeeds LUCUILUS, and conquers Armenia, Syria,

&c. which latter kingdom he reduces the following year to a Roman province, putting an end to the reign of

the Seleucidæ.

L. Cæc, Metellus, after a war of two years, subdues Crete. 60694 POMPEY unites in the I. triunvirate* with CÆSAR and

Crassus, engages in the Civil War with the former,
B. C. 50; is besieged by him in Brundusium, and
B. C. 48, loses the battle of Pharsalia, and dies,

XLII. M. T. CICERO,
who had pleaded (for P. Quinctius, æt. 26.) B.C. Si,
and eleven years afterward delivered the first two
orations against Verres, is elected consul, and opposes
Rullus' Agrarian law, detects the conspiracy of Cam

tiline, &c. 64690 Octavius, afterward surnamed Augustus, is born. 59 095Cicero submits to a voluntary exile, whence he returns

triumphantly the following year, and dies B. C. 44, æt. 64.

XXXIV. C. JUL. CÆSAR 58696 begins to attack the Helvetii. 55699 - Crosses tbe Rhine, defeats the Germans, and first passes

into Britain, enters Rome, B. C. 49, two years afterward retakes alexandria, B: C. 45, defeats the Pompeians at Munda in Spain, and is assassinated the following year.

XXVIII. MARCUS CRASSUS, 53701 falls, with his whole army, in an expedition against the

Parthians.
In this half-century Apellicon, L. Val. Antias the Romani
historian, Hortensius, Posidonius, M. Ter. Varro, Lue
cretius, Catullus, and Sallust fourish.

i The 11, between Augustus, Antony, and Lepidus, is formed B. E. 43.

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B.C. A.U.C.

XXXVI, CATO of Utica 46708 after the defeat of Juba, kills himself, æt. 49.

XLVI. MARCUS BRUTUS, 42702 and Cassius, fall by their own hands at Philippi.

XLIV. M. ANTONY 34720 takes Artabazus, Rinig of Armenia, prisoner.

. 32722- After a long misunderstanding with Oetavius, openly

prepares for war. 31723 - Loses the battle of Actium. 30724 - Kills himself. Egypt is reduced to a Roman province.

XLIX. GALBA Á.D.

is declared emperor, reigns seven months, and is suce ceeded by

L. OTHO, who after a reign of three months, being defeated by

Vitellius, kills himself,

68

69

THE

LIFE

ог

THESEUS.

SUMMARY

Distinction of the fabulous and the liistoric ages. Points of reseń

blance between Theseus and Romulus. Extraction and birth of Theseus. His education, and journey to Delphi. His mother reveals to him the secret of his parentage. He emulates the exploits of Hercules : and kills Periphetes, and Sinnis; the wild Sow of Crommyon; Sciron, and other public robbers. rites at Athens; defeats the Pallantidæ ; engages and subdues the Marathonian bull. The Cretan tribute. He offers himself as one of the victims; embarks; and with the assistance of Ariadne destroys the Minotaur.

Different traditions about Ariadne's death. Upon his return, Theseus lands at Delos : origin of the dance of the Crane. He arrives at Athens: death of his father Ægeus. He incorporates the boroughs of Attica into one city; institution of the Panathenæa. He divides the Athenians into classes : establishes the Isthmian games : sails to the Eurine ; and has a son (Hippolytus) by Antiope, the Amazon. The Amazonian war. He marries Phædra. Vurious opinions about the number of his achievements. His friendship with Pirithöus. The battle of the Centaurs and the Lapithæ. He carries off" Helen, and is imprisoned in Epirus. Intrigues of Menestheus against him. Castor and Pollux invade Athens, to recover their sister. Origin VOL. I.

B

of the Academy. They are admitted into the city, by the advice of Menestheus. Theseus, on his return, finds Athens in a state of revolt : retires to Scyros; and is treacherously destroyed by Lycomedes. His bones long afterward brought to Athens. Sacrifices instituted to his honour.

As

geographers’ crowd into the extremities of their maps those countries that are unknown to them, remarking at the same time that all beyond is hills of sand and haunts of wild beasts, or inaccessible marshes, Scythian snows, and frozen oceans; so, my Senecio”, in comparing the lives of illustrious men, when I have passed through those periods of time which may be described with probability, and where history finds firm footing in facts, I may pronounce of the remoter ages, that all beyond is full of prodigy and fiction, the regions of poets and fabulists, wrapt in clouds and unworthy of belief4. Yet, since I had given an

* With regard to the time, in which Theseus flourished, chronologists differ. The Oxford Marbles (xx.) fix the incorporation of the Attic boroughs, the establishment of the Athenian commonwealth, and the institution of the Isthmian games, to B. C. 1259: And Dufresnoy allows him a subsequent authority of thirty years. Blair refers these events to B. C. 1234, seventeen years after his Cretan expedition. *

2 The term · historians' is adopted in the poriginal, with reference not only to the use of geography in history, but to the character of the old geographers; who, beside the sites and distances of places, gave an account of the manners, customs, government, &c. of the inhabitants : as Strabo, Pausanias, &c. *

3 Sossius Senecio, a man of consular dignity, who flourished under Nerva and Trajan; to whom Plutarch has inscribed many of his moral treatises, and Pliny addressed some of his Epistles: not the Senecio, put to death by Domitian for having written the life of Helvidius Priscus (Tac. Agric. 2, 45.)

* The wild fictions of the fabulous ages may partly be ac. counted for from the genius of the writers, who (as Plutarch observes) were chiefly poets; and partly from an affectation of

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