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who did not at all expect it, by the hair horted and trained by their parents behind, and threw him instantly to and teachers to conduct themselves the ground, and pressed my knee upon moderately, intelligently, even reasonhis back. The other, a younger and ably; to give no one pain out of petu. weaker one, who attacked me in the lance or arrogance, and to subdue all rear, I drew by the head under my malignant impulses which may happen arm, and nearly throttled him with the to arise in them; and yet, on the con

; squeeze. The last, and not the weak. trary, while the young creatures are est, was now remaining, and I had exercised in this discipline, they have only my left hand to defend myself; to bear that from others which in them but I caught him by the dress, and by is blamed and severely punished. Thus a ready twist of mine, and a hasty one the poor sufferers are brought into a of his, I brought him down, his face pitiable strait between nature and against the ground. They tried their civilisation, and according to their diworst at biting, scratching, and kick- versity of character break out either ing; but I had only my rage in my cunningly or violently, after having heart and in my limbs. With the ad. for a time restrained themselves. vantage I had over them, I knocked Force ought rather to be resisted by their heads together repeatedly. At force. But a well-disposed child, inlast they raised a horrid cry of mur- clined to affection and sympathy, has der, and we were soon surrounded by little to oppose to insult and malice. all the inmates of the house. The If I was pretty well able to stop the rods scattered about, and my legs, active assaults of my companions, yet which I had bared of the stockings, I was by no means on a level with soon bore witness for me. They put them as to taunts and abuse ; for in off the punishment, and let me leave these he who only defends himself the house ; but I declared that, for the must always lose. Therefore attacks future, on the least injury I would of this kind, when they excited anger, scratch the eyes of one or other, and were also repelled by physical force, tear off his ears, if not even throttle him. or awoke strange reflections in me,

This incident, although, as is usual which could not but produce after-rewith childish matters, soon forgotten sults. Among other advantages, my again, or even laughed at, was yet the ill-wishers grudged me also my enjoycause that these joint private lessons ment of a dignity which accrued to the became rarer, and at last entirely family from my grandfather's chief maceased. I was therefore again, as gistracy; for while he was first among previously, more confined to the house, his fellows, this had no small influence where, in my sister Cornelia, only a on all belonging to him. Thus, one year younger than myself, I found day after the holding of the Pipers' a companion daily more and more de- Courts, I appeared to set some store lightful to me.

by the importance of seeing my grandI will, however, not quit this sub- father in the midst of the Council, a ject without relating some more sto- step higher than the others, and as it ries of the many annoyances which I were enthroned under the picture of met with from my playfellows. For the Emperor. But one of the boys this, in fact, is what is most instruc- said disdainfully—that I ought at least, tive in such moral disclosures, that a like the peacock looking at his feet, to man learns how it has gone with cast a glance beyond my grandfather others, and what he too must look for on his father's side, who had been in life; and that whatever happens, he landlord of the Willow-Tree Inn, and may know this to betide him as man,

would have laid no claim to thrones and and not as one specially lucky or luck

To this I answered, that I less. If such knowledge is not of was not at all ashamed of it, as the much importance for avoiding evils, very glory and excellence of our nayet is it very useful for learning to tive city consisted in this, that all citi. understand our position, to bear it, zens were bound to hold each other nay, to triumph over it.

equal, and that every one might deThere is still one general remark rive profit and honour from his endeawhich will be apposite here. As life vours in his own line. I grieved only goes on with children of the cultivated that the old man had been so long classes, a great contradiction displays dead; for I had often longed that I also itself. I mean this, that they are ex- could have known him personally, had



frequently looked at his portrait, nay, a parlour of the old house, and that had visited his grave, and drawn plea- both, after the building of the new sure, at least, from the inscription on one, were preserved in an upper room. the simple monument of that past ex- My grandmother must have been a istence to which I was indebted for very beautiful woman, and of the same mine. Another ill-wisher, the spite. age as her husband. I also rememfulest of all, took the first aside, and bered to have seen in their parlour whispered something into his ear, the miniature of a handsome gentlewhile they continued to look taunt- man in uniform, with a star and order, ingly at me. Already had my gall which after her death had disappear. begun to rise, and I challenged them ed, together with many other small to speak out. “ Now then, as to the articles, in the all-confusing work of rest," said the former speaker, “ my the new structure. These, and many friend here thinks that you might seek other things, I put together in my about far and wide without finding childish head, and exercised early your grandfather.”—I now threatened enough that modern kind of poetic worse violence if they would not ex- talent, which, by a surprising combinplain themselves more clearly. Then ation of the important facts of human they repeated a tale which they pre- life, is able to obtain the sympathy tended to have overheard from their of the whole cultivated world. parents. My father was the son of Now, as I could not venture to consome considerable man, and that ho fide such a matter to any one, or even nest citizen had given his consent to to enquire about it from a distance, I take outwardly the paternal office. did not relax the diligence of my They had the impudence to bring for- secret efforts to come, if possible, ward all sorts of arguments; for in- somewhat nearer to the matter; for stance, that our property came only I had heard it maintained explicitly, from my grandmother, that the other that the sons have often a positive side-relations, in Friedberg and else- resemblance to the fathers or grandwhere, were equally without fortune, fathers. Several of our friends, and and the like arguments, which could particularly the Councillor Schneider, derive no weight except from malice. an intimate of the family, were conI listened to them more quietly than nected by business with all the princes they expected; for they were already and noblemen of the neighbourhood. on the watch to escape, if I made as if No small number of these, whether of I would seize their hair. But I an- the ruling or of the younger branches, swered quite tranquilly, that this also had their possessions on the Rhine, was no evil to me. Life is such a and Maine, and in the space

between; blessing, that one might well hold it and sometimes, out of special favour, quite indifferent to whom one was in presented their faithful agents with debted for it, as, at last, it must be their portraits. These, which from derived from God, in whose sight we my childhood I had often seen upon are all equal. Thus, as they could the walls, I now studied with double gain nothing, they let for this time attention, looking whether I could not the matter rest, and we went on to play discover some likeness to my father, together, which among children is a or even to myself. This, however, tried means of reconciliation.

was so often the case, that it could not These spiteful words, however, had lead me to any certainty. First it implanted in me a kind of moral dis- was the eyes of one, then the nose of ease, which crept on in secret. I another, which seemed to me to indi. could not feel at all displeased at being cate a relationship; so these marks the grandson of a man of distinction, led me deceptively up and down. even if it were not in the most lawful And although I was ultimately comway. My ingenuity hunted in this pelled to regard the allegation as an track; my imagination was excited, utterly groundless tale; yet the imand my acuteness developed. I now pression remained with me, and I began to examine the allegation of could not cease, from time to time, those discoverers, and found and in- silently to call up and inspect all the vented new grounds of probability. I noblemen whose likenesses had rehad heard little said of my grand- mained very clear in my fancy. So father, except that his portrait had true is it, that all which inwardly hung with that of my grandmother in strengthens a man in his self-conceit, and flatters his secret vanity, is an in a wonderful relation to the great object of such extreme desire to him, events of the world. Even from afar that he asks no further whether, in they excite and disquiet him ; and even any other way, it may turn to his if they do not touch him, he cannot honour or disgrace.

abstain from an opinion and a sympaBut, instead of introducing serious thy. He soon takes a side, according and even reproachful considerations as his character or outward circum. into those happy times, I will rather stances determine him. If such great turn away my eyes from them. For fatalities, such important changes, apwho can have the power to speak proach nearer to him, then, along with worthily of the fulness of childhood ? many outward inconveniences, he has We cannot see the little creatures still that inward discomfort, which, for that move about before us but with the most part, doubles and sharpens pleasure, nay, with admiration ; for the evil, and destroys what happiness they generally promise more than was still within his power. Then they fulfil; and it seems as if nature, must he practically suffer both from among other roguish tricks which she friends and enemies, often more from plays us, in this also particularly de- those than these; and he knows not signs to take advantage of us. The how to take thought for and secure first organs which she gives to chil. either his inclination or his interest. dren in the world, are suitable to the The year 1757, which we still passnearest immediate state of the crea- ed in entire civic quiet, kept us neverture, which uses them, without art or theless in great mental disturbance. assumption, in the readiest way, for No other, perhaps, was richer in events the nearest ends. The child, regard- than this. Victories, exploits, misfor. ed in and by itself with its equals, tunes, restorations, succeeded by turns, and in relations fitted to its powers, and seemed to devour and destroy each appears with so much understanding, other. But always the form of Freso much reason, that nothing can ex- derick, his name, his glory, soon ceed it, and at the same time so easy, floated again high over all. The encheerful, nimble, that one could not thusiasm of his admirers became alwish it any farther culture. If chil. ways greater and more animated, the dren grew up as they promise, we hatred of his friends bitterer ; and the should have nothing but geniuses; different views which divided even but the growth is not a mere de- families, helped not a little to isolate velopment. The different organic from each other the citizens, who were, systems which make up one at all eveuts, in many ways separated. spring out of each other, follow each For in a city like Frankfort, where other, change into each other, sup- three religions distinguish the inhabiplant each other, yea, devour each tants into three unequal masses, where other. Thus, of many capacities, only a few even of the ruling faith can many tendencies, after a certain time arrive at political authority, there must there is hardly a trace to be discover- needs be many wealthy and instructed ed. Even if the individuality of a persons who draw towards each other, man, on the whole, has one distinct and by their individual studies and direction, yet will it be hard for the tastes form for themselves an exclugreatest and most experienced master sive existence. Of such men it will to announce it beforehand with any be necessary, now and hereafter, to confidence. But afterwards one can speak, if we would bring before us well discern what it was which point- the peculiarities of a Frankfort citi. ed towards a future now realized. zen of those days.

I have, therefore, nothing like an My father, as soon as he returned intention of entirely including the from his travels, had, according to his story of my childhood in these first peculiar turn of mind, adopted the books. On the contrary, I shall here- design, that in order to qualify himself after take up and continue many a for the service of the state, he would thread which ran unnoticed through undertake one of the subordinate em. my first years. But I must in this ployments, and perform its duties place remark, what an increasing in- without emolument, if he could obtain fluence the events of the war gradu- it without a ballot. According to his ally exerted on our dispositions and way of thinking, with the conception mode of life. The quiet citizen stands which he had of himself, and in the




consciousness of his own goodness of former rags, and giving them a weekly purpose, he believed that he deserved alms, only under the condition that such a distinction, which in truth was they would always present themselves neither lawful nor customary. There- clean and neat in the clothes which he fore, when his proposal was rejected, had bestowed on them. I remember he fell into ill-humour and disgust, him but indistinctly, as a friendly, wellvowed that he would never accept made man. But I recall far more any office, and in order to make it im- clearly his auction, which I attended possible, obtained for himself the title from the beginning to the end; and of an imperial councillor, which the partly by my father's direction, partly chief magistrate and seniors of the from my own impulse, bought many court bear as a special honour. Thus things which are still in my colleche had made himself the equal of the tions. highest functionaries, and could not Earlier, so that I scarcely saw him, begin again at the bottom. The same John Michael Von Loen gained a good motive also induced him to propose deal of attention in the literary world for the eldest daughter of the chief as well as in Frankfort. Not a native magistrate, by which he was excluded of the city, he had settled himself there, also on this side from the council. and was married to the sister of my He now belonged to the retired, who grandmother Textor, whose family never can combine into a society. name was Lindheim. He knew the They stand as isolated with regard to world of courts and politics, enjoyed a each other as to the whole ; and the revived nobility, and obtained a name more because in this separation the by having the courage to take a part peculiarity of each character becomes in the different excitements which always harsher and harsher. My arose in Church and State. He wrote father had perhaps been able to gain the Count of Rivera, a didactic roin his travels, and in the open world mance, the contents of which which he had seen, the conception of obvious from the second title, or the a more elegant and liberal mode of Honest Man at Court. This work life than perhaps was common among was well received, because it required his fellow-citizens. In this, however, morality even at a court, where in he had forerunners and companions. general only prudence is at home;

The name of Uffenbach is known. and thus his labour brought him apA magistrate, Von Uffenbach, lived at plause and estimation. A second that time in good repute. He had work would, therefore, be the more been in Italy, had applied himself dangerous for him. He wrote The particularly to music, sung an agree. only True Religion, a book which had able tenor; and as he had brought for its object to promote toleration, back with him a fine collection of especially between Lutherans and music, concerts and oratorios used Calvinists. By this he got into con- . to be performed at his house. Now, troversy with the Theologians, and a as he sung in these himself, and fa- Dr Benner of Giessen wrote particuvoured musicians, it was thought not larly against him. Von Loen analtogether worthy of his station ; and swered; the controversy became viothe invited guests, as well as the other lent and personal, and the unpleasantneighbours, permitted themselves many ness springing from it led the author jocose remarks on the subject. to accept the place of President at

I remember, moreover, a Baron Von Lingen, which Frederick II. offered Hackel, a rich nobleman, who being him, thinking he discerned in him an married but childless, inhabited à enlightened man, not disinclined to handsome house in the Antoniusgasse, the novelties which had already gone furnished with all the appurtenances much further in France, and one

free of a dignified existence. He also pos- from prejudices. His former fellowsessed good pictures, engravings, anti- townsmen, whom he had left in some quities, and much else which usually anger, maintained that he was not accumulates in the hands of collectors contented there, nay, could not be so, and amateurs. From time to time he because a place like Lingen bore no invited the more distinguished persons comparison to Frankfort. My father to dinner, and was beneficent in a also doubted the happiness of the Prethoughtful way of his own, clothing the sident, and asserted that his good uncle poor in his house, but retaining their would have done better not to connect

The an

himself with the King, because it was last century, spread from above downin general dangerous to come too near wards in so many ways, and broke him, extraordinary prince as beyond out in results so unexpected. doubt he was.

For it had been seen There was also no want of lovers how ignominiously the celebrated of antiquity. There were cabinets of Voltaire had been arrested in Frank- pictures, collections of engravings; and fort at the requisition of the Prussian especially old curiosities of our own resident Freitag, though beforehand country were zealously sought and he had stood so high in favour, and hoarded. The older enactments and been regarded as the King's instruc- mandates of the imperial city, of which tor in French poetry.

On occasion of no public collection had been estabsuch events there was no want of re- lished, were carefully searched for both flections and examples, as warnings in print and manuscript, arranged against courts and the service of chronologically, and preserved as a princes, which indeed a born Frank- treasure of our native rights and forter could hardly conceive.

usages. The likenesses also of FrankI will mention only the name of an forters, which existed in great numexcellent man, Dr Orth, because it is bers, were brought together, and formnot here so much my business to erect ed a particular department of the a monument to deserving Frankfort- cabinets. ers, as merely to notice them so far as My father seems in the main to have their reputation, or they themselves, taken such men as his models. He had some influence on my earliest wanted none of the qualities which years. Dr Orth was a rich man, and belong to a respectable and esteemed also belonged to those who never took citizen. Therefore, after building a share in the government, although his house, he brought his acquisitions his knowledge and views would have of all kinds into order. An excellent well entitled him to do so.

collection of maps by Schenk and tiquities of Germany, and especially other geographers then eminent, those of Frankfort, were much indebted to above-mentioned enactments and manhim. He published the remarks on dates, those portraits, a case of ancient the so-called Frankfort Reformation, weapons, a case of curious Venetian a work in which the statutes of the glasses, cups, and goblets, natural obImperial Town are collected. In my jects, ivory-works, bronzes, and a youth I studied diligently its histori- hundred other things, were separated cal chapters.

and displayed; and whenever an aucVon Ochsenstein, the eldest of those tion occurred, I gained permission to three brothers whom I before spoke make some purchases towards the in. of as our neighbours, had not become crease of his treasures. remarkable during his life, owing to I must still speak of one considerable his secluded habits. But he was the family, of whom, from my earliest more remarkable after his death, hy youth, I heard great singularities, and leaving a direction that he was to be from some members of it learned to carried to the grave by working men, experience myself much that was wonquite early in the morning, and with. derful. It was that of Senkenberg. out company or attendants.

The father, of whom I can say little, so done; and this event excited much was a wealthy man ; he had three notice in the city, where there was sons, who, even in their. youth, made the custom of pompous funerals. All themselves uniformly conspicuous as those to whom usage gave important oddities. This, in a limited town, where functions on such occasions, rose up no one must put himself forward either against the innovation. But the stout for good or evil, was not well thought patrician found imitators of all classes ; of. Nicknames, and strange stories, and although such funerals were calls which long remain in the memory, ed in derision Ochsen" burials, yet, to are commonly the fruit of such oddity. the gain of many ill-provided fami- The father lived at the corner of the lies, they became usual, and the pom- Hasengasse, [Hare Street,] which had pous funerals gradually disappeared. its name from the one, or perhaps I cite this fact, because it presents even three Hares, represented on that one of the earliest symptoms of those house. Thus, these three brothers came tendencies to humility and equality, to be called only the three Hares-a which, during the second half of the nickname which, for a long time, they

It was

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