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REPORT OF STATE ANALYST.

HON. A. W. SMITH, State Dairy and Food Commissioner:

DEAR SIR-I herewith submit my report of the work done in the Department Laboratory during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904. In the following summary is included all samples examined during the year, but only the ones found adulterated are reported in detail, together with such other information as is thought to be of value in interpreting the analyses, etc.

R. E. DOOLITTLE,
State Analyst.

Lansing, Mich., June 30, 1904.

FOOD DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS.

The Secretary of Agriculture of the United States, by authority conferred by Act of Congress approved June 3, 1902, has proclaimed and established standards of purity and definitions for certain food products as the official standards of these food products for the United States of America. These standards are therefore authoritative in all federal courts. Circular No. 10, of the Office of the Secretary, United States Department of Agriculture, contains these standards and definitions in detail, together with the letter of transmittal of the Committee of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists who prepared the same and the formal notice of adoption by the Secretary of Agriculture, all of which are here given:

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY.-CIRCULAR NO. 10.

STANDARDS OF PURITY FOR FOOD PRODUCTS.

WHEREAS, The Congress of the United States by an act approved June 3, 1902, authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to establish standards of purity for food products; and

WHEREAS, He was empowed by this act to consult with the Committee on Food Standards of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists and other experts in determining these standards; and

WHEREAS, He has in accordance with the provisions of the act availed himself of the counsel and advice of these experts and of the trade interests touching the products for which standards have been determined and has reached certain conclusions based on the general principles of examination and conduct hereinafter mentioned;

Therefore, I, James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture, do hereby proclaim and establish the following standards for purity of food products, together with their precedent definitions, as the official standards of these food products for the United States of America.

Washington, D. C., November 20, 1903.

JAMES WILSON.

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY, WASHINGTON, D. C.

To the Honorable the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States: SIR-The undersigned, representing the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists of the United States, and commissioned by you, under authority given by the Act of Congress, approved March 3, 1903, to collaborate with you "to establish standards of purity for food products and to determine what are regarded as adulterations therein, for the guidance of the officials of the various States and of the Courts of Justice," respectfully submit herewith, for your consideration, standards for certain articles belonging to the schedules of meat and the principal meat products, milk and its products, sugars and related substances, and condiments, and cocoa and cocoa products, with the recommendation that they be approved and proclaimed the established standards.

In connection therewith are presented a classified list of the various schedules of food products for which standards are being prepared and a statement of some of the more important general principles upon which

the standards are based.

Before the adoption of any schedule it was submitted to the manufacturing firms and the trade immediately interested for criticisms, and, when requested by them, conferences for discussion have been arranged. Certain questions have arisen in the discussion of these standards relative to several substances sometimes used as preservatives or coloring matters. In the judgment of the committee these questions can m Jost satisfactorily be treated in connection with Schedule III, Preservatives and Coloring Matters, and recommendations have therefore been deferred pending the consideration of that schedule.

For the primary definitions and standards and for the compilations of data for standards and constant assistance in the revision of the schedules the committee is greatly indebted to the following persons: Charles D. Woods, Ph. D., director of the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, Orono, Me., referee on meat and its products; L. L. Van Slyke, Ph. D., chemist of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, N. Y., referee on milk and its products; Charles A. Crampton, M. D., chemist of the Bureau of Internal Revenue, referee on beverages, including cocoa and cocoa products; A. L. Winton, Ph. B., chemist of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Conn., referee on condiments.

The committee is also indebted to others for information and helpful suggestions, which will be more specifically acknowledged in a report of its work to be later submitted. Very respectfully,

WILLIAM FREAR,

EDWARD H. JENKINS,
MELVILL A. SCOVELL,

HENRY A. WEBER,

HARVEY W. WILEY.

PRINCIPLES ON WHICH THE DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS ARE BASED.

The general considerations which have guided the committee in preparing the definitions and standards for food products are the following: 1. The main classes of food articles are defined before the subordinate classes are considered.

2. The names of the various substances for which standards are proposed are defined.

3. The definitions are so framed as to exclude from the articles defined substances not included in the definitions.

4. The definitions include, where possible, those qualities which make the articles described wholesome for human food.

5. A term defined in any of the several schedules has the same meaning wherever else it is used in this report.

6. The names of food products herein defined usually agree with existing American trade or manufacturing usage, but where such usage is not clearly established or where trade names confuse two or more articles for which specific designations are desirable, preference is given to one of the several trade names applied.

7. Standards are based upon data representing materials produced under American conditions and manufactured by American processes or representing such varieties of foreign articles as are chiefly imported for American use.

8. The standards fixed are such that a departure of the articles to which they apply, above the maximum or below the minimum limit prescribed is evidence that such articles are of inferior or abnormal quality.

9. The limits fixed as standard are not necessarily the extremes authentically recorded for the article in question, because such extremes are commonly due to abnormal conditions of production and are usually accompanied by marks of inferiority or abnormality readily perceived by the producer or manufacturer.

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