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condemnation of the use of methyl alcohol and would prohibit its use in liniments, toilet preparations, etc., where applied to the skin. It would be of considerable interest to investigate the extent to which methyl, or wood, alcohol is used in the preparation of liniments, bay rum, witch hazel and similar preparations, but undoubtedly its use is quiet frequent. In Table VI we have given a complete report of all lemon extracts found for sale on the markets of the State that contained methyl, or wood, alcohol; and in Table VII we have given a complete list of other flavoring preparations found to contain methyl, or wood, alcohol.

Terpeneless Extract of Lemon:

Another practice whereby the use of large quantities of grain alcohol is obviated is in the manufacture of so-called "Terpeneless Extract of Lemon." Lemon oil is soluble only in strong alcohol, 80 per cent or more by weight. Oil of lemon being a mixture of what is known to the chemists as hydrocarbon, i. e. the oily portion, and certain oxygenized substances to which the flavor, at least for the most part, is due, the terpeneless extract manufacturer seeks by this process to remove only the flavoring portion of the oil. His process is a very simple one and consists of churning the oil in alcohol and water for a considerable length of time, then allowing the mixture to stand until the oily portion rises to the top, when the water solution is drawn off from underneath, filtered through magnesia to remove suspended globules of oil and then colored to imitate the true extract. The oily residue is generally submitted to a second and in some cases a third churning process in the attempt to remove the whole of the delicate flavoring constituents. There is no question that the product obtained by this process, when properly carried out, has a flavor and odor valuable for culinary purposes. The flavor is entirely different from that of the whole oil, being more like that of citrol. Citrol is one of the principal flavoring ingredients of lemon oil and is undoubtedly removed to a large extent by this process, but in the lemon oil there are many oxygenized constituents and it is the blending of all these with perhaps the modifying effect of the hydro-carbon, or terpene, that gives the delicate aroma so characteristic of pure lemon oil and true lemon extract.

The terpeneless preparations, as is claimed by the manufacturers, have certain advantages. They will not develop a rancid flavor on exposure to heat or strong light, because the hydro-carbon, that portion of the oil which readily decomposes, is not present; and being soluble in water they readily mix into ices, syrups, etc. It is undoubtedly true, as we stated above, that this class of products are useful as a flavoring agent, but, as is true of all products, they should be labeled for exactly what they are. There can be but one extract of lemon. The others are imitations. In some ways the imitation might be better than the true product, yet that in no way argues against the necessity of their being labeled for just what they are, whether in case of lemon extract or any other food product. It can be readily seen that no manufacturer can make a true extract of lemon using 80 per cent alcohol if another manufacturer can make the same product using 20 per cent, or at practically onefourth the cost. These products should be labeled "Terpeneless Flavor of Lemon" or "Citrol Flavor" or some distinguishing label whereby the purchaser would be informed at a glance as to the exact nature of the

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Seely Man'f'g Co., Detroit, Mich..

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De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich..
De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich...
De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich. 0.91899
De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich....0.80232

Michigan Chemical Co., Grand Rapids, Mich..] 0.94454 Seely Man'f'g Co., Detroit, Mich. 0.83638 Taylor, McLeish & Co., jobbers, Detroit, Mich] 0.97536 Seely Man'f'g Co., Detroit, Mich.. 0.83622 Seely Man'f'g Co., Detroit, Mich..

0.80299 0.95377

0.89214

64.30 Present Present 4.40 0.08 90.00 Present 0.00 4.25 0.06 32.21 Present 0.00 0.00 0.06 46.70 Present 0.00 0.00 0.10 90.00 Present 0.00 4.40 0.07 37.02 Present 0.00 0.00 0.15 81.68 Present Present 6.70 0.14 16.84 Present Present 0.00 3.08 82.01 Present Present 0.10 61.00 Present Present

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6.40

1.40

Yellow coal tar dye. Yellow coal tar dye.

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Laboratory

Number

Labels.

TABLE VII.-Other flavoring preparations containing methyl (wood) alcohol.

Manufacturer.

Result of examination.

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De Boe's Full Measure Extract of Vanilla and Tonka.
Excelsior Extract Coumarin and Vanilla Compound.

Arlington Extract Vanilla and Coumarin Compound.

De Boe's Double Concentrated Extract, Wintergreen.
De Boe's Double Concentrated Extract, Peppermint.
De Boe's Double Concentrated Extract, Orange.
De Boe's Double Concentrated Extract, Almond.
De Boe's Double Concentrated Extract, Strawbur, Comp'd..

De Boe's Double Concentrated Extract, Bandi, Compound..
De Boe's Double Concentrated Extract, Pineole, Compound.
Northrup's Extract of Almond.

Northrop's Strawberena, a Compound.
Seely's Strawbo, a Compound.
Seely's Pineap, a Compound..

*See complete analysis, Table V.

De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.
De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.
De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.
De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.
De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.
De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.
De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.
De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.
Excelsior Extract Works, Milwaukee, Wis.
Arlington Laboratory, Milwaukee, Wis..

De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.
De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.
De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.
De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.
De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.
De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.
De Boe, King & Co., Grand Rapids, Mich.
Northrop, Robertson & Carrier, Lansing, Mich
Northrop, Robertson & Carrier, Lansing, Mich.
Seely Man'f'g Co., Detroit, Mich.
Seely Man'f'g Co., Detroit, Mich.

An extract of vanilla containing methyl (wood) alcohol.
An extract of vanilla and tonka containing methyl (wood) alcohol.
An extract of vanilla containing methyl (wood) alcohol.
An extract of vanilla and tonka containing methyl (wood) alcohol.
An extract of vanilla containing methyl (wood) alcohol.

An extract of vanilla and tonka containing methyl (wood) alcohol.
An extract of vanilla and tonka artificially colored containing methyl
(wood) alcohol.

An extract of vanilla and tonka containing methyl (wood) alcohol.
An artificial preparation from vanillin, coumarin, etc., containing
methyl (wood) alcohol.

A mixture of vanilla extract, coumarin, etc., containing methyl (wood)
alcohol.

Contains methyl (wood) alcohol.
Contains methyl (wood) alcohol.
Contains methyl (wood) alcohol.
Contains methyl (wood) alcohol.

A mixture of compound ethers, etc., containing methyl (wood) alcohol.

A mixture of compound ethers, etc., containing methyl (wood) alcohol.
A mixture of compound ethers, etc., containing methyl (wood) alcohol.
Contains methyl (wood) alcohol.

A mixture of compound ethers, etc., containing methyl (wood) alcohol.
A mixture of compound ethers, etc., containing methyl (wood) alcohol.
A mixture of compound ethers, etc., containing methyl (wood) alcohol.

product he was buying. As the oxygenized constituents are not all removed from a given quantity of all, and not readily removed at all, all terpeneless preparations should be required to use more than 5 per cent of lemon oil for the extraction process and at least 40 per cent by weight of pure grain alcohol.

Color in Lemon Extract:

True lemon extract should derive its color from the fresh lemon peel. Commercially it is claimed by some this is not practicable, yet some of the leading manufacturers of lemon extract always use lemon peel. Many manufacturers use no coloring matter whatever. The use of coal tar dyes should be condemned. As a general rule it may be stated that coloring matter is always used to conceal some inferiority or make the product appear of better value than it really is. Although it is difficult to prove the injuriousness of most of the coal tar colors used, yet some of them are decidedly deleterious and thus danger may come at any time from their use. The amount of coloring matter some manufacturers use is surprising. They will color the products much beyond what a true lemon extract should be. In fairness to all concerned, and with present knowledge of the injurious effects of coal tar products, all extracts so colored should be labeled in some manner to show the presence of such dyes.

In Table VIII we have given a complete list of all lemon extracts for sale in Michigan (except those containing wood alcohol), with the results of our examination and the class to which they belong and whether colored or uncolored.

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