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with power, in connection with them, to organize a General Educational Society." The nineteenth anniversary of the Evangelical Knowledge Society was likewise held in New York in October. The annual report set forth that the new works published by the society amounted to 2,497 pages. The treasurer's report announced that the receipts for the past year amounted to $40,998.32, and the expenditures to $39,596.31, leaving a balance of $1,402.01.

The Church of England continued to be greatly agitated by the case of Dr. Colenso, who, in the latter months of the year 1865, returned to his diocese of Natal. The Bishop of Capetown, as Metropolitan of the Anglican Church in North Africa, had offered to Colenso to have the sentence of deposition, which had been passed upon him by a synod of the South African bishops in 1865, revised either by the Archbishop of Canterbury, or by the bishops of the United Church of England and Ireland, or by such bishops of the Anglican communion throughout the British empire as could be assembled in London for the hearing of his case. As Colenso refused to avail himself of this offer, the metropolitan issued a formal sentence of excommunication, reading as follows:

In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, We, Robert, by Divine permission, Metropolitan of the Church in the province of Capetown, in accordance with the decision of the bishops of the province, in synod assembled, do hereby, it being our office and our grief to do so, by the authority of Christ committed unto us, pass upon John William Colenso, D. D., the sentence of the greater excommunication, thereby separating him from the communion of the Church of Carist so long as he shall obstinately and impenitently persist in his heresy, and claim to exercise the office of a bishop within the province of Capetown. And we do hereby make known to the faithful in Christ that, being thus excluded from all communion with the Church, he is, according to our Lord's command, and in conformity with the provisions of the Thirty-third of the Articles of Religion, "to be taken of the whole multitude of the faithful, as a heathen man and publican." (Matt. xviii. 17, 18.) Given under our hand and seal this 16th day of December, in the year of our Lord 1865.


The Metropolitan of Capetown notified the Anglican bishops of Great Britain, the British colonies, and the United States of this step. In England some of the bishops disapproved of the measure, while, as far as is known, those of the British colonies and the United States were unanimous in sanctioning it. From the senior bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States the following reply was received:

BURLINGTON, VT., May 4, 1966. To the Most Reverend Robert Gray, D. D., Lord Bishop of Capetown, and Metropolitan :

MY DEAR LORD BISHOP: Your official statement of

the greater excommunication formally pronounced by you on John William Colenso, D. D., late Bishop of Natal, and addressed to me as the senior bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, has been received and placed on record.

On my own part, this painful and afflicting work of discipline is perfectly approved, as an act of solemn and imperative duty to the Church of God, and to


her divine Head and Master, the Lord Jesus Christ. And I cannot doubt that it is equally approved by all my brethren, whose sympathy and confidence in the unanimously declared in the resolution passed at firmness and fidelity of your whole course were so

our last General Convention.

With my earnest prayer that the Holy Spirit of grace and consolation may guide and prosper all your arduous labors, and mercifully overrule this strange Redeemer, and the confirmation of His Church's aband mournful defection to the greater glory of the solute faith in the sacred Scriptures as the unerring Word of God, I remain, my dear Lord Bishop, with high regard, your friend and brother in Christ, [L. S.]


Presiding Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal
Church in the United States.

bury, which began on May 1, 1866, the Arch-
At the session of the convocation of Canter-
bishop of Canterbury announced that he had
received letters from the Bishop of Capetown
and the Dean of Maritzburg, asking in substance
the following questions: 1. Whether the Church
and the heretical church which he is seeking to
of England hold communion with Dr. Colenso,
establish at Natal, or whether it is in commu-
declared him to be ipso facto excommunicated,
rion with the orthodox bishops who, in synod,
2. Whether the acceptance of a new bishop on
the part of the diocese of Natal, while Bishop.
Colenso still retains the letters-patent of the
from the mother Church of England. 3. Sup-
crown, would, in any way, sever the diocese
posing the reply to the last question to be that
they would not in any way be severed, what
obtain a new bishop? The discussion of these
are the proper steps for the diocese to take to
questions showed that the bishops were any
thing but agreed. The Bishop of Oxford wished
all the three questions to be answered in a
manly and hearty manner, while the Bishops
and Peterborough, were opposed to immediate
of St. Asaph, Llandaff, St. Davids, Lincoln, Ely,
action. In the session, beginning June 26th, the
discussion of the case was resumed. The Bishop
of Oxford moved to reply, in answer to the
first question submitted to the convocation,
that the Church did not hold communion with
with the orthodox bishops of South Africa.
Dr. Colenso, and that it did hold communion
majority of the bishops were, however, opposed
to committing themselves on the first part of the
resolution, and by five against four votes adopt-
ed an amendment, declaring that they held
communion with the Bishop of Capetown, and
those bishops who with him declared Dr. Colen-
so to be ipso facto excommunicated. The lower
house gave to this amendment a unanimous
consent. In reply to the second question, the
tion: "That as it has been decided, on appeal
Bishop of Oxford moved the following declara-
to the highest judicial court in this kingdom, on
the one hand, that the Church in the province
of Natal, in communion with the United Church
of England and Ireland, is in the eye of the law
a mere voluntary association; and, on the other
hand, as the letters-patent do not profess to
Confer spiritual power, and have been declared
by the court to convey no episcopal jurisdic-


tion, it is the judgment of this house that the acceptance of a new bishop does not impair the connection or alter the relations existing between the members of the Church in the province of Natal and the Church of England, provided: 1. That the bishop be canonically consecrated according to the use of the Church of England. 2. That there be no invasion of the title of the Bishop of Natal conveyed by her majesty's letters-patent."

As regards the third question (the proper measures to be taken to secure the election of a new bishop), the Bishop of Oxford proposed that the House of Bishops should recommend: 1. That an instrument should be prepared declaratory of the doctrine and discipline of the Church of South Africa, which every priest and deacon appointed to any office should be required to subscribe. 2. That a godly and well-learned man should be chosen, with the consent of the communicants of the Church, to be the bishop. 3. That the person so selected should be presented for consecration either to the Archbishop of Canterbury or to the bishops of the Church in South Africa, as might be hereafter deemed most advisable. The Bishops of London, St. Davids, and others declared themselves opposed to the appointment of a new bishop, but after being submitted to some verbal alterations, the first resolution of the Bishop of Oxford was carried by six to four. The second resolution was also agreed to. The lower house assented to both resolutions. Notwithstanding these proceedings against him, Colenso continued to perform his episcopal functions in his diocese. Of the seventeen clergymen of the diocese, only one sided with him; but, on the other hand, the secular authorities of the colony gave him all the support that was in their power. Colenso also obtained, in October, a decision in his favor by the Master of the Rolls (Lord Romilly), who decided that the trustees of the Colonial Bishopric's Fund were obliged to pay to Dr. Colenso the arrears of his salary which they had deemed themselves authorized to cut off. But about the same time when this decision was rendered, the majority of the clergy and laity of Natal took the last step for a complete severance of their ecclesiastical connection with Colenso. On October 25th a meeting was held of the clergy of the diocese of Natal, to consider the replies sent out by the English convocation to the queries forwarded through the inetropolitan, in 1865, from the Church in Natal, and, in accordance with the advice tendered, to elect a bishop for the vacant see. Fourteen clergymen and about fifty communicants were present. The two clerical supporters of Colenso were present, but not allowed to vote. A letter was read from the Bishop of Capetown, urging them to elect a new bishop, and, as regards the mode of election, giving this advice: "The clergy elect; communicants assent. They alone have to do with the matter. All communicants have a right, I apprehend, according to the customs of the primitive Church, to express their

assent, if they so will." The Bishop of Grahamstown wrote "to express his general concurrence in the views as to the election of a bishop contained in the metropolitan's letter to the dean." The discussions extended over two days. The final result was that the clergy present were evenly divided, seven voting for the election of the Rev. William Butler, Vicar of Wantage (of the diocese of Oxford), as bishop, and seven voting against such election, holding such a course to be illegal, and opposed to the advice of the convocation. Dean Green gave his casting vote in favor of the election. Twentyeight laymen also voted for it. The dean then pronounced that the Rev. William Butler had been duly elected. The congregation of St. John's Church, Pinetown, held a meeting, repudiated this election, ejected their incumbent, the Rev. James Walton, for the part he had taken in it, and then called upon Dr. Colenso to appoint a new minister. On October 30th, a meeting of the supporters of Dr. Colenso was also held at the cathedral, to protest against the election, at which about 200 persons were present. A protest, the adoption of which was moved by the Colonial Secretary, and seconded by the Secretary for Native Affairs, was unanimously agreed to. The protest declared that the clergy and laity concerned in the election had, by that act of legislation, renounced the queen's supremacy, and forfeited their membership of the Church of England. Dr. Colenso, on his part, contended that all persons taking part in conventicles or private meetings to consult on any matter or course impeaching the doctrine of the Church of England or of the Book of Common Prayer, or of any part of the government or discipline now established in the Church of England, were ipso facto excommunicated, in terms of the 75th canon of the Church, and that Dean Green and his supporters were therefore excommunicated by their own act in electing a bishop without her majesty's authority. The English Government instructed the officers of the crown in the colony to observe a strict neutrality in the controversy.

Another controversy in the Church of England, which, during the past year, obtained a great importance, was that of the ritualistic changes in the worship of the Church. A number of clergymen had for some time past introduced into their churches practices for which they claimed both the authority of the Anglican Church of former centuries and of the ancient Christian Church, but which by another party were viewed as "a deviation from law and long-established usage, and as disturbing the peace and impairing the efficiency of the Church, and as disquieting the minds of many devout members of the Anglican communion.' Some of the opponents of "ritualism" were of opinion that the Book of Common Prayer, in its present form, gave some encouragement to the ritualists, and they desired the appointment of a commission by the Government "for the revision of the Liturgy." To this scheme

the Archbishop of Canterbury declared his determined opposition, and Earl Russell (in reply to Lord Ebury, February 12th) stated that the Government, 'anxious to promote peace and good-will, and not to open the way to discord," had, after communicating with the Archbishop of Canterbury, declined to propose the forming of a commission. The friends of "church ornaments" had accordingly (February 3d) presented a memorial to the Archbishop of Canterbury, signed by 36,008 communicants, of whom 24,133 were laymen, and 2,970 clergy of the Church of England, against any alterations being made in the Book of Common Prayer respecting the "ornaments of the Church, and of the ministers thereof;" and the mode and manner of performing divine service "according to the use of the Church of England."

The archbishop, in his reply, while repeating his declaration that he would never consent to any alteration in any part of the Book of Common Prayer without the full concurrence of convocation, at the same time declared his decided opposition to many of the ritualistic innovations. The lower house of convocation, at its session in February, after a long and animated discussion, agreed to the following resolution: "That this house, recognizing the evils which may arise from an excess of ritualism, deprecates, nevertheless, any attempt to avert those possible evils by the introduction of changes in the prayer book; that in coming to these resolutions the house by no means intends to express approval of any alteration from church order not included in the expression 'excess of ritualism.' That this resolution (the first paragraph) be communicated to their lordships of the upper house, with a humble request that they take the subject into their consideration, and adopt such measures as they shall see fit, in conjunction with the house, for clearing the doubts and allaying the anxiety that exists upon it." The bishops, in return, desired the lower house to appoint a committee of inquiry. The report of this committee was made by its chairman, Dr. Goodwin, Dean of Ely, in July. The report gives a history of the ritualistic usages which the party tries to introduce, and deprecates any attempt at a judicial settlement of the question of ritualism, urging moderation on both sides. The report of the committee was adopted by a vote of 38 to 9.

The monastery of the "English Order of St. Benedict," at Norwich, was dissolved in consequence of the long absence of its founder, the Rev. Mr. Lyne ("Father Ignatius"), and from want of support. Mr. Lyne, toward the close of the year, received an appointment as a curate in the diocese of London. A monastery of the "Third Order of St. Benedict" was still in existence at the close of the year, at Bristol. The efforts for bringing on a closer union between the Anglican churches on the one hand, and other religious denominations possessed of an apostolical succession on the other,

were actively pursued. The societies chiefly instrumental in pursuing these efforts on the part of the Anglican churches are the "English Church Union," the "Association for the Promotion of the Unity of Christendom," and the "Eastern Church Association." The latter confined its efforts to the Eastern Churches, while the two former have a more general tendency, and in particular keep in view the establishment of closer relations with the Roman Catholic Church. An interesting correspondence between a number of Anglican clergymen and Cardinal Patrizi took place in the latter months of the year 1865, but was only made public in 1866. The letter of the Anglican clergymen (written in Latin) was signed by 198 "deans, canons, parish priests, and other priests," and addressed to "the Most Eminent and Reverend Father in Christ, the Lord Cardinal Patrizi." As regards the relation of the Anglican Church to that of Rome, the writers say: "Whatever may have been less perfect in the faith of the flock, in Divine worship and in ecclesiastical discipline, we have improved beyond our hope; and, not to be forgetful of other things, we have shown an amount of good-will toward the venerable Church of Rome, which has rendered us suspected in the eyes of some." The cardinal, in his reply, which is dated November 8, 1865, salutes the writers as "Worthy and Very Dear Sirs," and he assures them that their letter has inspired the "sacred congregation with a most pleasing hope." But he declines to admit their claims to the name Catholic," and describes their condition as an "inherited state of separation." He concludes with the hope that they will "no longer hesitate to throw themselves into the bosom of that Church which, from the Apostolic See through the succession of its bishops, while heretics have barked in vain, has attained the pinnacle." The views of Dr. Pusey, concerning a union between the Churches of England and Rome (see ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1865, p. 26), were supported by the "English Church Union," of which society Dr. Pusey has become a member. At a discussion on the subject, Dr. Pusey stated that as the basis of such a union he proposed "the decrees of the Council of Trent and the Thirty-nine Articles, both documents being properly explained." As regards the movements for a closer intercommunion between the Eastern and the Anglican Churches, the Convocation of Canterbury was requested by the Russo-Greek committee of the lower house, for an enlargement of their powers. They were appointed originally "to communicate with the committee appointed at the general convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States as to intercommunion with the Russo-Greek Church, and to communicate the result to convocation." They now requested permission to consider the question of "intercommunion with the Oriental churches generally; " and the request was granted. The "Eastern Church Association"

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published in 1866 its first annual report. The principles of the association are thus stated in the report: "To establish such relations between the two communions as shall enable the laity and clergy of either to join in the sacraments and offices of the other, without forfeiting the communion of their own church; secondly, that any overtures toward such an object should be made, if possible, in cooperation with those churches with which the Church of England is in communion; and thirdly, that such overtures, whenever made, should be extended to the other Eastern Patriarchates, and not confined to the Russo-Greek Church. The association numbers two hundred and eighty members, and among its patrons are English, Scotch, Colonial, American, and Eastern bishops. (On the results of the Society's labors in the East, see the article "EASTERN CHURCHES.") A number of the Anglican friends of this movement regarded the Eastern Churches as right in rejecting the addition of filioque (the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son" to the Athanasian Creed, and one of them (Rev. J. Quscley) publicly declared that he had abandoned the Anglican communion office, and the filioque too, for at least the last two years. A priest, claiming to be an Eastern bishop (Rev. Julius Ferretta), who made his appearance in England, met with a cordial reception on the part of a number of Anglican clergymen. (See EASTERN CHURCHES.) Some advance was also made in 1866 toward a closer intercommunion with the Episcopal Lutheran Churches of the Scandinavian countries. (See LUTHERAN CHURCH.) An important step toward effecting a closer union between the Established Church of Great Britain and Ireland on the one hand, and the Scottish Episcopal Church on the other, was a declaration made by the Archbishop of Canterbury at the laying of the foundation-stone of a cathedral at Inverness, Scotland, in October, 1866, that the Scottish Episcopal Church is the only true rep resentative of the Church of England in Scotland, and that the prelates of the Church of England pretend to exercise no jurisdiction over clergymen in Scotland.

every assistance that might be required. The committee were of opinion that in most cases the expense of those suffragan bishops could be met by their holding important posts, such as deaneries and canonries, in connection with the Church. Any legislation for the settlement by law of any expense upon those bishops to whom the assistance was rendered, was deemed inexpedient. The committee also recommended that an attempt should be made, through the Archbishop of Canterbury, to sweep away any difficulties which have existed in regard to the matter. As regards the appointment of suffragan bishops, the bishop is to nominate two, and the crown to select one of these. On motion of the Bishop of Oxford, seconded by the Bishop of London, the report of the committee was adopted.

The sixty-seventh annual meeting of the English Church Society was held May 1st, at Exeter Hall. From the report, it appeared that the total ordinary income amounted to £146,208 18. 9d.; total ordinary expenditure, £144,558 178. 4d. surplus, £1,649 48. 5d. The local funds raised in the missions and expended there upon the operations of the society, but independent of the general fund, were not included in the above figures, amounted to £20,000. The society has at present 148 missionary stations, 278 clergymen, 21 European laymen, 9 European female teachers (exclusive of missionaries' wives), and 2,122 native and country-born catechists and teachers of all classes, not sent from home. The number of communicants in 1860 was 19,828; 1861, 21,064; 1862, 21,261; 1863, 18,110; 1864, 18,124; 1865, 14,155. These figures did not include the New Zealand mission, the returns from which had not been received on account of the disturbed state of the colony. The society has withdrawn from seventy-seven stations, chiefly added to parochial establishments in the West Indies or transferred to the native church in Sierra Leone, containing ten native clergy, 4,356 communicants, and 12,866 scholars. The annual meeting of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, was held April 26th. The income of the society for 1865 was £94,957 118. 3d.; and the The House of Bishops of the Convocation of expenditure for the same period was in British Canterbury, took, in 1866, for the first time, de- North America, £22,120; in the West Indies, cided steps for an increase of the number of £1,328; in South Africa, £11,000; in the rest bishops. The Bishop of Oxford presented the of Africa, £1,460; in Asia, £31,372, and in unanimous request of a committee appointed to Australia and New-Zealand, £6,271. The Eng consider "as to the best mode of providing as-glish "Church Congress" for 1866 was held sistance for bishops in the event of illness, or old age, or the like, rendering them unable to discharge the duties of their office, and needing some assistance in the performance of the same." The committee considered the appointment of coadjutor bishops cum successione, would be unadvisable, being not suited to the Church of England. But, on the other hand, they considered it very desirable to bring into active operation the act of Henry VIII., which empowers the nomination of suffragan bishops to different posts in England, who might render

at York, and both the archbishops of England took an active part in its proceedings.

The archbishops and bishops of the United Church of England and Ireland, in 1866, gave their assent to the establishment of a lay diaconate, the persons composing it to be set apart by episcopal authority, to act in all cases under the direction of the parochial clergy, and to be designated as "readers." They are to be publicly appointed after an examination by a bishop. but not to be set apart by the imposition of hands as in the case of bishops, priests. and

deacons. They are to minister in outlying districts, but will not have authority to administer the holy communion-that part of the church service being taken on stated days by the parochial clergy. The "readers" are not to be addressed as "reverend," but they are to wear the surplice in their ministrations. At the first annual meeting of the "Association of Lay Helpers," in the diocese of London, about fifty persons were present.

ANHALT, a duchy in Germany. Area, 1,017 Engl. square miles. Population, in 1864, 193,046. Capital, Dessau, with 16,306 inhabitants. In the German war, in 1866, Anhalt sided with Prussia, and after the conclusion of the war it joined the North German confederation.

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. President (from October 12, 1862, to October 11, 1868), Bartolomé Mitré; Vice-President, Marcos Paz. Minister of the United States at Buenos Ayres, General Alexander Asboth, appointed in October, 1866.

The area of the republic is estimated at 38,890 geographical (or about 825,000 English) square miles. Exclusive of this territory the Argentine Government claims Patagonia, which is generally connected with Chili, and the whole of the Gran Chaco, parts of which are generally counted with the territory of Bolivia and Paraguay. The population of the republic in 1857, and, according to Martin de Moussy*, in 1863, was as follows:

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The war which the Argentine Republic (in common with Brazil and Uruguay) has for some time been carrying on against Paraguay, continued throughout the year. (See PARAGUAY.) In some provinces, especially those bordering

* Martin de Moussy, the author of the great work, Déription de la Confederation Argentine (tom. iii., Paris, 1-64), is called by Page (in his work, "La Plata," London, 1550) an eminent scientific man," and his work is recommended by Sir Woodbine Parish, who himself is the author of the best-known book on the La Plata States, to all who

sire to have the latest and most accurate information on the subject. M. de Moussy has carefully compared all the sensuses and estimates of population, and his statements are miversally accepted as those most entitled to credit, † Census of 1855. Census of 1854.

upon Paraguay and Bolivia, great dissatisfaction with the continuance of the triple alliance and the war was expressed, and repeated attempts were made at stirring up civil war and a separation of some of the northern provinces from the Argentine Confederation. Most of these attempts were easily suppressed; but the latest reports from Buenos Ayres stated that, in December, the insurrection in Mendoza was becoming more serious, the chief having upward of three thousand men at his command, and being evidently supported by Chili. In Catamarca the insurrection was also reported still to hold the Government. sympathy of Chili, Peru, and Bolivia with the Paraguayans threatened the friendly relations which had hitherto existed between these republics and the Argentine Confederation, and toward the close of the year fears were entertained of an invasion of Argentine territory by a Bolivian army. (See BOLIVIA.) The Argentine Government took, however, occasion from the bombardment of Valparaiso by the Spanish fleet, to protest against this act as contrary to the principles of international law.


Notwithstanding the continuance of the war which taxed the strength of the government to the utmost, the republic is at present making greater progress than during the previous peace. On September 11th the Western Railroad was opened ten leagues farther, to the town of Chiviledy. This finishes one hundred and ten miles of railroad westward from Buenos Ayres. This railroad traverses a fine country, and already has a great business. It is owned by the government. In the same month two American gentlemen, Messrs. Hopkins and Cary, obtained a charter from Congress for a telegraph from Buenos Ayres to Chili. In October the submarine cable which connects the cities of Buenos Ayres and Montevideo was successfully laid. It lies on the bed of the river, between Buenos Ayres and Colonia, a distance of twenty-six miles. The works on the Argentine Central Railroad, from Rosario to Cordova, were suspended in November, 1866, on account of the tardiness of the government in making out the titles to the public lands granted to the company. For every twenty leagues of railroad there was to be a transfer of title to the granted lands, and the company having finished the railroad about twice that distance, needed the land, on which to base the issue of bonds. But though the materials for the entire railroad had all arrived, or were en route from Europe, yet there was this obstacle to the work. This road, when finished, will be the grandest road south of the equator, sweeping for two hundred and fifty miles through a region of great fertility.

On December 10th a convention to reform the constitution of the republic met at Santa Fé, in a kind of general caucus. On the 11th

it had a preliminary meeting, and on the 12th they proposed amendments, discussed them, voted on them, apl adjourned. The

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