Imágenes de páginas

in 1778, the following prize-subject-To point out the best method of curing expeditiously and effe&tually the itch, contracted by communication, as frequently happens in work houses, hospitals, and prifons. The remedy indicated in the piece that obtained the prize, was a particular preparation of the root of the plant, called by the French Dentellaire, and by different botanifts Dentellaria Rondeletii--Lepidium Dentellaria di&tum - and by Linnæus Plumbago. The remedy is not new; but the manner of administering it, and its remarkable success, are entirely so. The plant, as described by Garidel, has produced, on some, good effects, and the most pernicious effects on others; it is, indeed, of a very hot, pungent, and caustic nature, and has been known to take off the skin when used in friction. But in this it resema bles many other remedies, which are only dangerous, because the precise manner of confining their operation to a certain degree of activity, has not been found out. M. Sumeire, author of the dissertation on this subject, which was crowned by the Society, and a physician of note in Provence, acknowledges candidly, that the method he proposes of using this plant was learnt from an empyric, who applied it, with the greatest success, in Provence, forty years ago. He observes that, since that time, it has been always used and found effectual; and in the memoir now before us, the Commissaries of the Academy bear ample testimony to its efficacy, after repeated experiments. The method of using it is, to pound in a marble mortar three handfuls of the root in question, to which some add a small handful of salt: on the pounded root must be poured a pound, at least, of boiling olive oil : the whole must be taken for three or four minutes, and then put into a piece of linen : when the oil has passed through the linen, the root must be presled pretty strongly, and only a part of it left in the linen, which is to be tied in the form of a knot. This knot is to be dipped in the hot oil, and with it the whole surface of the body is to be rubbed. The first rubbing sometimes brings forth all the itch that lay concealed under the skin, and produces difagreeable sensations to the patient; but the second removes them, and the fourth usually completes the cure. The friction must be repeated every twelve hours, and always with the oil very hot.

IV Mem. Concerning a new Manner of preparing Acid Soaps; together with an Inquiry into their Use in Medicine. By M. CORNETTE.--The trials made by this ingenious physician with the acid soap of olive oil, seem hitherto rather to promise than to perform

V Mem. Concerning an Internal Hydrocephalus, or Droply in the Ventricles of the Brain. By M. ODIER.-A very intereit. ing and excellent piece, which deserves a place on the same


Thelf with Profeffor Whyte's description of this dangerous disor, der, and the judicious remarks of Messrs. Fothergill and Watson on the same lubject, which are inserted in the iyth volume of the Medical Observations and Inquiries.

VI Mem. Concerning the Vapour Baths of Ruffia, considered es Means of preserving Health, or curing several Disorders. By Dr. ANT. RIBEIRO SANCHES, First Physician to the Empress of Rufia, &c.-This laborious academician declares, that he does not write with a view to instruct physicians, or to display medical and philosophical knowledge, but only to give useful information to persons in the country, who are deprived of the medical fuccours that are cafily found in cities. His great object is to prove, that the Russian baths are more commodious and useful, both for preserving health and healing many disosders, than those of the ancient Greeks and Romans, and the modern Turks; and, whatever may have been his intention, he shews both extensive erudition and medical knowledge, in treating his subject. The subject itself leads him into circumftantial accounts of the Grecian and Roman Gymnasia, the ancient baths, the German ftoves, the construction of the Rursian baths, the method of using them, the disorders in which vapour baths are falutary, and the cases in which they are pera nicious, and many other discussions, that will proye entertaining to every curious reader, and instructive even to many phyficians.

VII Mem. Concerning the Miliary Fever, which reigned in several Parts of Normandy. By M. VARNIER.

VIII Mem. Reflexions on a considerable Aneurism of the Axillary Artery, followed by a Fracture of the Ribs. By M. DEHORNE.

IX Mem. Researches and Observations concerning an Essential Epilepsy, or the Morbus Sacer of Hippocrates. By. M. SallLANT.-By an essential epilepsy, M. Saillant means, that with the germ or principle of which the patient is born. He obferves, that since Hippocrates (to whom, on the testimony of Foefius, he attributes the work concerning the Morbus Sacer), physicians have said little or nothing of this species of the disorder in question, but have confined their researches to the accidental epilepsy. He therefore proposes to supply this defect; and he seems, indeed, to have studied this terrible' disorder in all its forms, branches, symptoms, and causes, with uncommon alliduity and attention.

There are THREE MEMOIRS relative to cattle, and the epi. demical, or (as the French call them by a new term) epizootical disesses that sometimes reign in the pastures. The memoir in which the Abbé Tessier jews the inconveniences that attend the defective consiruction of fables, points out the rules for constructing

them properly, and exhibits plans and figures, by which these rules are illustrated, is an object of great importance to rural economy. The same thing may be said of the memoir in which the very learned and ingenious fecretary to the Society, M. Vice D'Azer, gives an historical summary of the epi. zootic disease that reigned in the generality of Picardy in ihe year 1779. The topograpy of the place, the local causes, origin and progress of the disorder, the defcription of its nature and symptoms, and of the flate in which the beasts which died of it, appeared upon diffection, the preservatives against the Spreading of the disorder, the methods of cure, the manner of removing the infection from the stables--these, together with a comparative table of the beasts that died, and of those that were cured, form the contents of this useful memoir - This is followed by a momcir concerning the glanders, by M. CHA


ANATOMY. I Mem. Concerning the Irritability of the Lungs, By M. VARNIER.–This academician attempis to prove, by a series of observations and experiments, in cppofition to the doctrine commonly received, that the lungs are irritable and sensible, both internally and externally; that they have their proper and pe. culiar life, like the other organs; that they are active, and even transmit their activity in determining, stopping, diminishing, and accelerating the motion of the other organs of refpiration; that they can even coinmunicate their impression Atill farther, and, connected with the general system of fenfibility, animate the whole machine, and excite sympathetic movemenis. From all which, it will appear, that inftead of being pallively dependant, as has been generaily supposed, upon foreign agents, they are the first and principal agents in respiration. The numerous and well-conducted experiments on which M. VARNIER founds his hypothefis, merit a very particular degree of attention.

II Mem. Refiexions on the Intention of Nature in the Conformation of the Bones of the Skull, peculiar to newborn Chile dren; in which Advantages arising from this Conformation, not hitherto fufficiently attended to, are particularly considered. By M. THOU RET.-The membranous intervals which, in children, feparate the different bones that form the skull, are generally and juftly considered as designed by nature to facilitate the pare sage of the infant at its birtli, as this imperfect structure of the head renders it susceptible of change of form, as well as of dia minution of volume, by the closing or approximation of the feparated bones. Our academician carries the advantages of this temporary conformation much farther, and thews, that the comprellion of the brain, which accompanies this closing of the


bones, is highly soporific, and produces an insensibility, which hinders the infant from feeling the pains that must naturally attend its birth, and the mother from being injured by the violent motions in the infant, which these pains would excite. Nay, farther advantages still result from this conformation - but we muft refer the reader to the work for an account of them.

MEDICAL CHEMISTRY. I Mem. Observations on the Pheromena and Variations, which are exhibited by Urine, considered in a fiate of Health. By M. Halle. - This is a very laborious memoir, and it is to be followed by more on the same subject, which we do not remember to have seen before treated with such a learned and circumftantial detail. It is here observed, analysed, and described in all its phenomena, forms, alterations, odours, and qualities, in the three periods of precipitation, occafioned by coldness and rest, decomposition caused by spontaneous motion, and complete putrefaction. No sense or faculty, whose exertions could be employed on the subject, have been idle on the occasion; and we think both chemical and medical readers will applaud the labours of this industrious and accurate observer of nature. If this menoir had been a prize differtation, it would have certainly been crowned with the golden chamber-pot.

II Mem. Concerning the Analysis and Properties of the various Constituent Parts of Ipecacoanha. By Meffrs. CORNETTE, and LASSONE, the Son.--It has been supposed, that the emetic virtue of this root resides in its resinous parts. Our academicians pretend to demonstrate, that the ligneous part of the root is very nearly as emetic as that which is separated from it, and that the extract of that ligneous part poflifles the same quality, though in a milder degree.

III Mem, Chemical Researches concerning the different Processes that have been hitherto employed in the preparation of Tartar Emetic. By M. Caille,

MEDICAL PHYSIC S. Observations and Inquiries concerning the Use of the Load-stone in Medicine; or, A Memoir on Animal ivagnetism. By Mesirs. ANDRY and THOURET.-in the first part of this memoir we have a summary of the attempts and experiments that have been made with the load-stone, for medical purposes, by physicians of ancient and modern date; and this fummary is entertaining and instructive. In the second part the Authors give us a series of new observations on the use of the load-stone, in the treat. ment of several disorders, made by the members of the Royal Society of Medicine, or their associates and correspondents. Rheumatic pains in the face --Tooth-achs -- Rheumatism in different parts of the body-Nervous complaints in the reins and head-Spasms in the stomach-Cramps in the breast-Palpi5


tations, convulsive tremblings-Epilepfies, dizziness, and other complaints which come under the general denomination of nervous diseases, are mentioned here as the objects of magnetic applications. The cases are described, the patients are named, and the load-stone appears to have produced real and falutary effects on them. The third part contains considerations on the general effects, the nature and use of the magnetic Auid, confidered as a medicine. In these it is designed to prove, that the load-ftone operates on the human body by a principle different from that which is the result of its ferruginous nature, its attractive influence on iron, as also from the other properties and principles of action, that have been attributed to it by empyrics; that its direct action is upon the nerves, which it affects as really as it does the iron; and that, if employed with wildom, it promises important improvements in the art of healing.


Memoirs pour servir à l'Histoire des Refugiés Francois dans les Etats du

Roi. i.e. Hiliorical Memoirs of the French Refugees in the Domi-
nions of the King of Pruffia. By Meff. ErMax and RECLAM,
Vol. I. 8vo. Berlin, 1782.
T is always laudable to perpetuate the memory of cruel and

absurd persecution, that it may inspire deteftation and horror, and do honour to those who have been the protectors of oppressed innocence. The present work does both. It exbibits a juft and candid view of the sufferings of the French Protestants under the reigns of Lewis XIII. and his successor, and more particularly under the odious tyranny of their minifters: and it relates the generous instances of beneficent protection which those unfortunate exiles met with from the illustrious House of Brandenburg. The spirit of liberality and candour that reigns in these Memoirs, renders them fingularly recommendable; and from the historical anecdotes they contain, we find them both entertaining and instructive. They deserve therefore a more than common degree of attention and regard.

While several of the powers, that were in alliance with Lewis XIV. regarded with compaffion the state of the French Protestants, even before the scandalous revocation of the edi& of Nantes, in defiance of all the principles of common justice and good Faith, Frederic-William of Brandenburg, commonly called the Great EleEtor, became an interceffor in their behalf. Knowing their unfnaken fidelity to the sovercign that oppressed them; thocked also at the barbarity of a government, that, on the one hand, refused them the common and natural rights of citizens, and, on the other, employed every exertion of violence to prevent them for seeking those rights elsewhere, he wrote a letter to the French King in their favour. The an


« AnteriorContinuar »