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points in medical practice, to combine properly the materials for the art of healing, that are derived from the three natura kingdoms; and in this new improvements are still to be desired and expected.
This work was followed, after a long interval, by the Treatise of Pathology (Inflitutiones Pathologiæ Medicinalis), the doctrine of which may be augmented and modified, but cannot be overturned by new discoveries. Of this work, in which many of the animal functions, which had been explained by the laws of mechanism, were attributed to the influence of the vital principle; the first edition appeared in 1758, and the second, revised and corrected, in 1775. A third, with some alterations and additions, was almost ready for the press when the author died; but it will soon be published by the learned Profeffor Hahn, his nepbew, and worthy successor in the claffes of medicine and chemistry; and who has prefixed a new introduction to the work.
But one of the works, in which Profefior GAUBIUS displayed the richest fund of knowledge in the various branches of natural philosophy and medicine, was the collection be publied in 4to, at Leyden, in the year 1771, and republished in 1779, under the title of Adversaria Varii Argumenti. A treasure of facts, experiments, and observations, is contained in this mifa cellaneous work.
Among the many discourses that Gaubius delivered with applause in the university of Leyden, on certain public occafions, that concerning the government of the mind, so far as it belongs to the province of medical science, drew peculiar attention. The subject was not only medical, buc philosophical in an eminent degree ; and the metaphysician and moralist, when they read the title, pricked up their ears, and put themselves in a posture for defending their domain against a medical invader. But no harm nor encroachment was intended, though misre. presentations were given of the tendency of the discourse. In this piece man is considered as a being, compounded of two principles entirely distinct, but which accompany each other so closely, and are so intimately blended and united, that there is no part of the human body, where matter and spirit do not manifeft their impressions and their reciprocal influence. These two agents (fays Gaubius, and fo physicians and chemists may be allowed to ipeak) are connected by the laws which constitute life, and every organical molecule seems to be animated by a power derived from both. This first discourse, which was published in 1747, was followed, though at a long distance, by another on the same subject, designed partly to refute the mirrepresentations of La Mettrie, and was delivered in an academical assembly in 1763. They were both republished in 1769; and they contain the true principles of medical psychology, deliverРp2
ed in a pure and elegant style, and seasoned, in several places; with agreeable strokes of wit and humour.
Among the literary labours of GAUBIUS, are to be placed his editions of the Prognostics of PROSPER ALPINUS, of CRAmer's Elements of Docimaffic Art, and of SWAMMERDAM's Bible of Nature, in the tranlation of which GAUBIUS had the greatest share.
The reputation of this eminent man spred far and wide. The late Empress of Russia made him the most flattering offers to engage him in her service, as her first physician, but without succeeding; and the Empress now reigning, gave him honourable marks of her esteem.
After celebrating the learning and genius of Gaubius, the author of this eulogy points out his eminent and diftinguilhed merit as a practitioner, in which line he displayed the greatest talents, and the most fedate penetration and judgment, with remarkable success. The States-General of the United Provinces bore testimony to this, by appointing him, in 1760, first physician to the present Prince of Orange, then a minor. He filled that post with honour and distinction during twenty years, without suspending, until a few years before his death, his academical functions. He survived all his medical colleagues at Leyden, and saw their Profefforships filled by his disciples. He enjoyed all the advantages of a healthy, respectable, and respected old age, died in opulence at the age of 75, and left a very large fortune to an only daughter, who married a magistrate of Leyden.-It is very strange, that the eulogy of this eminent man, who was such an ornament to the university of Leyden, is only to be found in the memoirs of a foreiga academy.
The titles of the pieces contained in this volume, fill eleven quarto pages, in the table prefixed to it. Among those that relate to PRACTICAL Medicine, in the Historical part, the following deserve particular attention.
Observations on the Venereal Disease, and a particular Dirorder with which new-born Children are attacked, together with Reflexions upon the Nature and Treatment of those Disorders. By M. COLOMBIER.-It were to be wilhed, that those whom virtuous principles do not restrain from irregular and licentious amours, could read these Observations; for then they would certainly be restrained by bumanity, if vice did not harden the beart, as well as degrade and corrupt it. The hereditary cf. fects of venereal disorders on poor infants, exhibit one of the most melancholy spectacles of human misery. Our academician describes them in a manner that makes the heart fink. Great and generous attention has been given to this bideous object in the hospitals at Paris; and the members of the Media
cal Society, seconded by Government, continue their efforts to alleviate the horrors of this disgusting and destructive plague.The particular disorder mentioned in the title of this piece is called by the author Muguet or Millet. It has been mentioned, says he, by very few writers, and has been described by none with any satisfactory degree of accuracy or precision. Its symptoms are small, white, hard pimples, which appear on the lips of children, on the tongue, in the pharynx, and which are sometimes found in the crophagus : deglutition becomes difficult and even impoffible: a diarrhea ensues: the face grows pale; and spots or pimples of a violet colour, appear on the body, which are a certain indication of approaching death.
New Observations concerning Medical Electricity. By M. MAUDUYT.-- This is a continuation of the author's account of his application of electricity to medical purposes. It contains an enumeration of the cases in which relief was obtained by it. These cases were paralytical and rheumatic complaints, weakness in particular parts, deafness, disorders in the eyes, &c.
Researches and Observations concerning various Medical, Chirurgical, and Anatomical Subjects. By M. Vice D'AZYR.The learned and ingenious academician has here collected, under different titles, several observations, communicated to the Society by its correspondents, and several that he had himself presented to it. The objects of these observations are accurateJy represented in nine plates, which contain sixty figures, explained in a table annexed to them. Concretions, which are found in all the parts both of human and animal bodies-Dilorders in the bones---Aneurismal tumours cured by compreffion, and other objects, equally interesting, are the fubjects of the curious and instructive observations contained in this piece.
MEDICAL CHEMISTRY furnishes a few thort articles-MacQUER'S Reflexions on the Magnesia of Epsom salt, which contain nothing new-An Analytical Examination of the Root called by the Dutch Colombo, and by the English Columbé; by M. Josse.—Observations on the Mixture of Quinquina with Tartar Emetic; by M. Cornette.-This last article offers to practitioners a remedy in the treatment of obstinate intermitting fevers, whose efficacy deserves examination. From the experiments made, with this mixture, by M. CORNETTE, it appears evident, that the emetic, mixed in a certain proportion with the quinquina, whether in powder or decoction, is entirely decompounded, and may therefore be thus administered, without any sort of danger, to patients, according to the exigence of the case, and the views of the physician. The dose our academician recommends, is 12 or 15 grains in a pint of decoction, and
20 or 24 grains to an ounce of quinquina in powder, incorporated with syrup, to form an electuary.
Of the two lait articles in the historical part of this volume, one contains Researches and Experiments relative to the Organ of Hearing, and the Propagation of Sounds. By M. Pesolle. — Defigned to prove, against the opinion generally received, that the Euftachian tube does not at all contribute to the perception of sounds, but only serves to transmit to the organ of hearing an aqueous air that is proper for lubricating it. The other is a series of curious and interefting Reflexions on two kinds of
Quinquina, newly discovered in the environs of Santa Fé, in South America. Here we have the sum and result of the report made by Meffieurs Daubenton, Macquer, Bucquet, De Juffieu, and Cornette, who were appointed to examine the discovery in question. This piece is adapted to excite diffidence and surpicion with respect to the Peruvian bark that is sold in the shops. The several kinds of bark are so different in their strength and efficacy, that it is no wonder we see fevers often resisting this excellent remedy. M. de la Condamine, who was upon the spot where the tree Hourilhes most *, described three kinds of quinquina, the red and yellow, which are the moft esteemed, and the white, which is not esteemed at all. M. de Jullieu, who was also upon the spot, and examined the tree and its bark with a botanical and medical eye, admitted a larger division of kinds, which he, nevertheless, reduced to two principal ones. Under the first he comprehends the red, yellow, and knotty quinquina, which have all smooth, purplish, almost inodorous flowers, and a bitter bark, more or less coloured. Under the second be comprehends four species of white quinquinas, which are all distinguished from the former, by having rough, red, strong smelling leaves, hairy within, fruits longer in size, and the exterior bark whitish. In two of these the bark, when recent, has, though in an inferior degree, a febrifuge quality, which it soon loses. In the two others, whose flowers exhale the finest odour, the bark is infipid, and without the least efficacy. As the red bark was become very scarce, the discovery of two kinds of quinquina at Santa Fé,'in 41 degrees of northern latitude, is a matter of great importance. The first, which resembles the red quinquina in its leaves, is pronounced by our examiners to have all the excellent qualities which recommend this remedy, such as odour, bitterness, ftipticity, a facility of being diffolved in the different menstrua, and the abundance and exact combination of its mucilaginous and resinous principles. The second is rejected, on account of its resemblance to the white quinquina. The discovery of the quinquina tree
* Cajanum?, near Loxa, in Peru.
at Santa-Fé, will not only procure a greater abundance of this precious bark, but also render its transportation more expeditious and easy, by a river, whose mouth is near the harbour of Carthagena.
MEMOIRS. The Second Part of this volume begins, as usual, with observations on the constitution of the atmosphere, and the temperature of the seasons-historical accounts of epidemical difeases, and medical topography; and there are several pieces, relative to these objects, that well deserve the perufal of medical practitioners. But we Dall proceed to the memoirs that concern objects less local, and consequently more generally interefting.
PRACTICAL MEDICINE. 1. A Memoir concerning certain Expeditious, Easy, and Eficacious Methods of remedying the unhappy Accidents, with which the Small Pox, and Measles of a Malignant fort, are frequently attended. By M. de LASSONE.-The great efficacy of milk, used as drink, in the dangerous diarrhea that sometimes accompanies the eruption of the small-pox, and in the bilous evacuations that are frequently observed to follow that of the mealles, is here ascertained by repeated and most successful trials made by M. de Lassone, on patients of the first rank. He cured in this manner the Princess Adelaide of France, and her two royal fifters, who were seized with the small-pox, in consequence of their attendance on their father, the late King of France, who died of that disorder. The cow's milk was mixed with a prisan made of parsley roots *. The present Queen of France was cured of a diarrhea, and other dangerous symptoms, that accompanied the epidemical mealles with which the was seized some years ago, by the same plain and falutary remedy.--Our academician commends greatly the use of rose water in the small pox, to prevent the eruption from hurting the eyes.
II Mem. Concerning Fat in the Human Body, its Nature, its Properties, its Effiets, its vicious Qualities, and the Disorders it may occasion. By M. LORRY.-This learned and important memoir, which does honour to the known abilities of iis celebrated author, contains above fixty pages, filled with very curious researches.
III Mem. Experiments made by Nefrs. DE JUSSIEU, DE La Louette, &c. Commisaries named by the Royal Society of Medicine, to ascertain the Properties and Effects of the Root of the Dentaria (Tooth-wort, thall we translate it or Pellitory-or what?) in the Treatment of the Itch.-The Society had proposed,
• This ptisan is made by pooring two pounds of boiling water upon two ounces of parsley-root, wathed and niced, or cut (mail.