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Art. 48. Divine Institutes of True Religion and Civil Governmeni,
8vo. I s. 6d. Dooaldron. Ye advocates for liberty! ye friends of mankind! bring forth your moft potent charms : for, behold, the ghost of Sir Robert Filmer is risen from the dead, again to maintain the jus divinum of Kings!
• When Adam finned, Navery took place of perfect freedom, and became the inevitable portion of his pofterity.'—The descendants of Ham were, by the judicial appoinement of God sentenced to servi. tude; and this sentence has been fulfilling 4000 years. But the descendants of Ham were a third part of mankind: therefore a third part of mankind have been born in a state of absolute Navery, in which they itill remain.'
Thus all mankind inherit Navery from Adam, and one third of mankind inherit this birth right both from Adam and from Ham: that is, all mankind are by nature laves, and one third of mankind are doubly flaves. How does this support, or agree with, the doce trine, that some part of mankind have a divine right to be Kings? Let the ghost be heard.
• That the Lord and Master of the world has set one above another by the cleareft appointment, is indisputably proved, from the promise which God gave to Abraham : “And Kings shall come of thee:"-a
--a promise given to Abraham before he was circumcised, that it might be extended to the universal church of God. Hence it is manifeft
, that Abraham was ordained and constituted supreme and universal head and parent of all nations and prople, who should, from that period to the end of time, profess the faith and worship the God of Abraham; and that he was also, by the same Divine apo pointment, the covenant head in Christ of all power and authority; Kings and Princes deriving their original descent from him, and holding their dominion and sovereignty by virtue of the covenant which God made with Abraham.- The divine original of kingly government is also proved from analogy, and the typical doctrine of ihe holy Scrip:ure. It is allowed, that “all ideas come from senfatios and reflection : (What then?] It was THEREFORE necessary that the spiritual reign of the King of Kings should have a corresponding re. presentation, or typical sign among mankind, to prefigure b's ki ga dom, power and glory, which could only be done by the reign of Kings over their subjects.-Kingly government is thus molt clearly proved to be of divine original. Demonstration is felf can prove nn. thing more evident.'
Alas! poor Ghost !--if this be all thy mefrage, hafte thee b ck to thy prison-house, and leave it to morial, io rule and be ruled as feemech to them good. Art. 49. Reflettions on the Unity of God, as it accords with the
received Doctrine of the Trinity: and the Precepts of the uld and New Testament. Addressed to Chrillians of all Denomina. tions. By J. G. Erg. 8vo. Is. Johnson. 1782.
The reflections here offered are pertinent, and proper to the subject : they seem to arise from a well disposed mind, and are delivered with candour and seriousnels. It is to be considered, however, that Christians in general, and the exceprions we fuppofe are very few ne
deed, agree in acknowledging the Unity of God, though numbers connect sentiments with this which appear to others to contradi& ii. But it is unnecessary for us to offer any remarks on the subject.
SERMONS I. The Measures of Toleration : Preached before the Synod of Aber.
deen, October 8th, 1782. By Alexander Fullertun, M. A. Miniller ar Furtie, 8vo. Aberdeen, printed.
This sermon breathes a spirit so manly, so liberal, and so truly Protestant, that we cannot help recommending it to our Readers. Toleration, though the pride and boast of cultivated humanity, coes not seem to be thoroughly understood, even in this enlightened and philosophical age; at least, if we may judge from the temper and conduct of many persons, from whom better things mighe reasonably have been expected, on a late memorable but melancholy occasion.
The warm contelts which lately agitated the miads of men, in regard to a relaxation of the laws against persons professing the Popith religion, and those dreadful outrages which proceeded from bigo:ry and an intolerant spirit, will, Mr. Fullerton hopes, plead his excuse for publishing his thoughts on so delicate a point. If the danger that was apprehended, whether real or apparent, is now over, the minds of men, it may reasonably be presumed, he observes, will be more disposed to weigh arguments on both fides with calm atiena tion and impartiality ; and sentiments formed on proper information and deliberate enquiry, in a case of such consequence, may be productive of many good effects on practice, though the cause, which firft suggested the enquiry, hould never again come into view, Belides, he tells us, what we are extremely sorry to hear, that the spiric of opposition to the lately proposed indulgence has not, upon being gratified, entirely subsided, but still continues active and reitless.
This leads him to explain the grounds, and ascertain the mealures, of religious toleration; and to enquire how far koman Catholics come within the limits of these measures, and ought to be allowid the free and pubic exercise of that religion which iney proless. He Hews, very clearly, both from reason and Scripture, the injollice of refusing the indulgence la:ely proposed to be granted them i contiders the principal arguments that have been adduced by those who op. posed the repeal, and makes it appear that none of them. however founded in supposed expediency, or on the batis of a narrow and par- , cial policy, are sufficient to vindicate a palpable violation of the rules of equily:
The Notes contain several material circumilances which ite, ne rality of our Readers cannot be fuppoled to be acquained wit:In the Appendix, we have a copy of the Daib to be taken and in so fçribed by perfons profeiling the Prpih religion, in o.der to quality them to claim the benefit of Ac 60, 18 George! 1.-ihe roolution of the Gene:al Allembly concerning Popuru, tvirtizantiMiv 251', 1779-and an Account of the featmenis árd core. It of the Pcibya tery of Aberdeen, February 11th, 1:7;.
We are sorry that th: bounds allonicú co this sicle vill retallar us to lay betore ous, Readers that part of the six in Metro
to the Presbyterý of Aberdeen. We must content ourselves, there. fore, with saying, that their conduct on so interesting an occasion does thein infinite honour. ll. Preached at the Anniversary Meeting of the Song of the Clergy
in the Cathedral Church of St. Paul, on Thursday May 16, 1782. By William Jones, A.M. F.R.S. Rector of Palton, in Northamptonshire. 4to.
Bachurit. Ingenious, acute, and animated. --The Author is a very able apo. logift for the temporal rights of the clergy, parciculariy in the matter fo near and dear to them --the Tithes. What he advances is, hoe ever, reasonable and cogent. • The tithes ays he), or ten hs, alJotted for their support, were freely grarted, on a religious principle, by the Crown, with the consent of the Lords and Commons of the realm in the Saxon times, when the King was proprietor of all the Jands in the kingdom: and the charter is kill extant in our ancient hiftorians. They were not purchased by any owner, nor are they paid for by any occupier of the land : if they were, the rents would be at least one seventh part higher than they now are. The tenant only furrenders what the land haih been charged with for nine huridred and wenty-seven years: and so little can be laid to the account of ihe clergy for exacting it with rigou', that I believe there are few amongst them who will not readily acquiesce in the terms made ic: ther ieives by the neighbouring lay-impropriators. It is hard opon tbem, that in fome initances where the tenths have been surrendered peaceably to laymen, confederacics have been fo med, and illegal arsemblies convened, to prevent the taking the tenths in kind by clergymen.' The preacier mentions one circumstance that deserves io be recorded to the honour of the clergy. "It hath been reported, that out of seven hundred suier, upon record (viz. in litigations reiative to lithes in the common coutis oi law), fix hundred of them bare been carried by the clergy, which fact is sufficient to thew, that whatever may be said againit individuals, clergymen in general have been neither covetous nos litigious.'
From the small ftipends in general allowed to the clergy, and the other difficulties they have to itruggle with in support of themselves and their families, their fituation is not in a temporal view an object of envy. The fmall provision they are capable of making for their children, strongly recommends the utility of this excellent and truly benevokar institucion.
This fuit Collection was 10051.–The highef ever made was 12241. in the year 1763.
* Y. 2. who lately folicited a farther account of the fubje&ts of two Memoirs in the last volume of the Berlin Academy (mentioned in our laft Appendix, p. 544.), will find those articles more particu. larly noticed in our Appendix to the present volume of the Review; which is to be published win the Number for the next month.
Watson's Roign of Philip III. in our next.
A R. f. Í. Histoire de la Societé Royale de Medecine, &c. i. e. The History and Memoirs of the Royal Society of Medicine at Paris, for the Year 1779. Drawn from the Registers of the Society. 4to. Paris. 1-82.-The History contains 268 Pages--the Memoirs 690.
which are placed, as is usual, at the head of this volume, we find the eulogies of the following deceased members of the Academy, Meflrs. Le Roi, Navier, Bucquet, Lieutaud, and Gaubius, together with an account of the lives and writings of Messrs. Bonafos, Bernard, and Planchon, associated or corresponding members.
The eulogy of the late M. Jer. David GAUBIUS, Profeffor of Medicine and Chemistry in the University of Leyden, is, we think, the most interesting of the five. This eminent man was not only diftinguished by his merit in the line of his profession :- he was a scholar, a philosopher, and a gentleman. He was equally capable of living in a college and in a court, and was remarkable for that nice knowledge of men and manners, and that'uncommon mixture of wit, gentleness, amenity, and prudence, which rendered him agreeable in every sphere of social intercourse.
He was born at Heidelberg in 1705, and received the first rudiments of literature in that city. But discovering early a ftrong propensity to medical studies, in which he was confirmed by the example and conversation of his uncle, Dr. John App, Rev, Vol. LXVIII,
Gaubius, an eminent physician at Amsterdam, he was fent to Harderwyk, where he attended for a year the prelections of the learned Professor de Níoor, and afterwards repaired to Leyden, where Boerhaave was in the zenith of his glory. He was soon distinguished by the peculiar favour of that great man, who was attracted by his manners, and pleased with his capacity, penetration, and docility. A connexion of mutual efteem and friendship ensued, and neither lapse of time, nor the winter of old age, cooled the generous warmth of enthufiasm, and the ardour of gratitude, which attached Gaubius to his patron and guide. Boerhaave, though long dead, was still alive in his heart: and, if we are not mistaken, it was but a few years ago, and in his very last academical oration, that Gaubius introduced such a noble and affecting apostrophe to that great good nian, as drew tears from the audience.
In 1725, GAUBIUS took bis Doctor's degree, under the eye of Boerhaave, and published his Differtation on the Solid Parts of the Human Body; in which he shewed an inclination to depart from the mechanical syftem, and to contemplate nature with the spirit of an unprejudiced and accurate observer. He then travelled into France, where he formed useful connexions, passed fome time at Strasburg, and returned to Heidelberg. Bere his ftay was short, and he set out for Amsterdam, where he married his uncle's daughter, and applied himself, with unreJenting ardour, to the Itudy of chemistry, natural history, and anatomy. He was foon invited by the magiftrates of Deventer, in Overyffel, to practise as physician in that city; and during his residence there, he directed his principal application to the ftudy of pharmacy. In 1731, Boerhaave, who had taught hitherto all the branches of medicine at Leyden, except anatomy, and began now to feel the decline of strength, which comes with advanced years, resigned the classes of botany and chemistry, and was succeeded in the latter branch by his friend Gaubius. To this preferment the Professorfhip of Medicioe was added in 1734, and then Gaubius became his master's colJeague.
The reputation of GAUBIUS was foon established upon the most solid foundations, by leveral works of great and acknowJedged merit. His treatise on the method of prescribing, or composing medical receipts, contains the wiseft rules on a subject of the higheft importance, and went with applaufe through feveral. editions *.. It is certainly one of the moft momentous
• The work is in Latin, and, like all his other productions, is highly commendable for elegance and purity of Ayle. Its title is Misbódus concinnandi Formulas Medicamentorum. The third edition was publihed in 1767.