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once nearly shaken to ruin by Tories.' There is no wit in this com parison-at least in plain prose; though it might be admitted very properly in a burlesque poem, where obje&s, the mos heterogeneous in quality, and the most distant in fituation, may be associated ; and where the asociation is always thought the happieit, when those that are the farthe& afunder are united by some unexpected tie of fimilirude.

The Writer traces out the origin of representation, confiders its defects, and offers some hincs for improvement. He calls on med of all ranks to attempe the great wok of reformation : and faciers himfelf, that this important object will not be neglected by those who have the greatelt influence in the government. • One solid foundation of hope is formed (says he) by the concurrence of persons in bigh rank, even in Administration, who have pledged themselves to the people for that purpose.'

When this pamphlet was publikhed, Lord Norib was not in the Ministry. We shall soon see whether coalition and conversion be-fynonimous terms. Art. 55. Free Parliaments : or, A Vindication of the Parlia

mentary Conftitution of England. In Anfwer to certain Vifionary Plans of modern Reformers. Svo. I s. 6 d. Debrett, 1783.

The Writer informs us, that he is not an author by profesion.Whether this declaration proceeds from pride or modeity, we profess to be ignorant. The pamphlet, however, appears to be the production of no common pen. We have in it much accurate information, and much plausible reasoning. The Author treats, firit, of the DURATION of parliament-annualand frienzial; and, secondly, of REPRESENTATION--of counties and of cities and boroughs. With respect to the fusmer, he obferves, that originally there exifted Do law to limit the duration of parliament; and that, consequently, an appeal to the early periods of the conflitution can avail nothing in the present argument. The uimot that can be urged is, the obligation that the King was under to order parliament to meet every year. But what farliamenti a new one? No. I was the old parliament that was to be summoned-unless the King diffolved it by virree of his prerogative. If, says this Writer, the freebolders and free. men have a right to an annual election, the King has no right to dis. folve the parliament, because the diffolution would take place, at the end of the annual fefion, as a thing of course. If the claim to such right is jult, the prerogative to diffolve whenever the crown fees fit, is an ufurpation. If the prerogative is juit, the claim to such right is an attempt at usurpation.'

There are those who drop the claim of rigbt, and only argue on the ground of expedience Such are many of the great advocates for triennial parliaments. The Author meets them on their own ground; and shews the impolicy and danger of frequent elections. He confiders them as a source of popular confusion and licenciousness, and ought to be discountenanced by all who will for the peace and order of fociety. At present, he observes, we experience the great inconveniencies of popular ele&ions; that the evil would ceriainly be increased with its frequency; and that members, especially, who are follicitous to introduce a change as to the duration of parliament, neither'con

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Art. I. PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS of the Royal Society of

London. Vol. LXXI. For the Year 1782. Partl. 410. 8s. fewed. Davis.

Papers relating to CHEMISTRY. Article 15. Continuation of the Experiments and Observations on

the specific Gravities, and attractive Powers, of various saline Substances : By Richard Kirwan, Esq; F.R.S. N this Article Mr. Kirwan prosecutes his curious and pro

found investigations with singular address and ingenuity. After ascertaining, in a very ingenious manner, the quantity of pure acids requisite to faturate the mineral and volatile alcali, calcareous earth, magnesia or muriatic earth, and that of alum; he discusses one of the most profound and interesting subjects of chemistry: we mean the nature of phlogiston, and even the quantity or weight of this principle, that is contained in several compounds; particularly in nitrous air, fixed air, vitriolic air, fulphur, and marine acid air. We do not add, infiammalle cir; for the capital result of the Author's researches into this subject is-that perfectly pure infiammable air and phlogiston are one and the fame fubfiance.

Phlogison, the Author observes, exists in metals and various' other substances, in a concrete or fixed liate, in the same manner as fixed air, or the aerial acid, exists in marble; where, he observes, that this last fluid is nearly of equal density with gold : but neither can phlogiston, nor fixed air, be exhibited in a concrete state, single or uncombined with another substance; for the instant that they are by any means disengaged from the bodies with which they had been combined, and by which they had been fixed, they afiume a Avid and elastic state, and respectively appear under the forms of inflammable air and fixed air. Rev. May, 1783.

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On this occasion, the Author, availing himself of Dr. Black's theory of specific fire, accounts for the manner in which both the aerial acid, and phlogiston, undergo this great change in their conftitution

; or are rendered fluid and elaitic, by a union with the same principle, elementary fire. Paling over the Author's proofs and illustrations relative to this part of his subject, we must be content to explain his general dcetrine in a few words.

When the aerial acid, combined, in its concrete and unelaftic state, with marble, is expelled from thence by a stronger acid, the vitriolic for instance, and is volatilised and rendered elastic; a double decomposition is supposed to take place. The vitriolic acid parts with a sufficient quantity of its specific fire to the fixed aerial acid ; which, by this addition, immediately becomes a volatile and aerial substance, and appears under the modifica. tion of fixed air : and the vitriolic acid immediately combining with the calcareous earth forms another compound. In the same manner, the vitriolic acid, acting upon iron, parts with a portion of its specific fire to the phlogifton of the iron ; which, on its union with this principle, immediately assumes an elastic ftate, and Aies off under the form of inflammable air; while the vitriolic acid forms another compound, by combining with the martial calx.

Among various other instances brought to prove the identity of inflammable air and phlogiston, the Author, with very great propriety, in our opinion, adduces the precipitation, or, as it may be called, the reduction of one metallic earth, by the phlogifton of another metal. The experiment itself is well known, and is not a unique ; but it so well illuftrates, we may say proves, the truth of the present doctrine, that, instead of abridging, we shall enlarge upon, what the Author says upon the subject.

When a piece of iron is immerged in a saturate folution of copper in the vitriolic acid, it is well known that, though the acid undoubtedly acts upon and diffolves the iron, no effervescence arises, nor does any inflammable air appear; though that elastic fluid is always generated when iron is fingly exposed to the action of that acid. The fact is, that the phlogision of the iron, instead of affuming the modification of infiammable air, even for an instant, enters peaceably into the calx of the copper, under its other modification of phlogiston; and the earth of the copper, in contequence of this union, is precipitated in a metallic ftate.

In three words—The very thing which, had it escaped from the iron through the liquor, might have been actually caught under the form of infiammable air, now paffes into the earth of the copper; and, under the form of phlogiston, gives it all the qualities of a metal. But the substance which converts metallic earths into metals is allowed by all (who allow the existence of the principle

itfelf)

itself) to be phlogiston : in Aammable air, therefore, is phlogifton.

The preceding parallel drawn between fixed air and phlot. gifton may be extended to the illustration of this case. No signs, of effervescence appear when, in the preparation of magnefia, a mild alcali is added to a solution of Epsom salt; and though the fixed air of the alcali is undoubtedly expelled from it by the vitriolic acid in the Epsom salt, it does not, even for an instant, alsume its acrial form: on the contrary, it quietly pafles, in its concrete or non-elastic state, into the precipitated magnesia; in. the very same manner as the phlogiston of the iron moved into the earth of the copper in the preceding case. This subject is more largely disculled in the Appendix to Dr. Priestley's Experiments, &c. vol. ii. P. 392; and in the Appendix to his 3d volume, p. 393.

From a variety of other confiderations the Author inters, chat 'inflammable air is the principle that metallizes metallic earths: and if metals contain only a specific earth and pblogiston, inflammable air certainly contains nothing else but phlogiston.'But we need not extract more from this part of the present article on this particular subject : as, from a PS. fubjoined to it, it appears, that the Author has been informed that Dr. Priestley has, since the publication of his last volume, directly and satisfactorily ascertained the identity of inflammable air and phlogifton. – In a jar, containing pure inflammable air, he has, it teems, by means of the solar heat, reduced the calces of iron, copper, lead, and tin. It may, indeed, be alleged, that these experiments prove only that inflammable air contains phlogiston: but it is to be obterved, that there is no decomposition of the inflammable air in this case; for whether inflammable air be a fimple or a compound substance, it appears evidently to restore the calces to their former metallic ftate, by being received into them in toto, or in its whole fubfiance: for the inflammable air, that remains in the jar after the process, is found, we are told, to be as inflammable, or pure, as before this absorption of the greatest part of it.

The Author concludes his observations on phlogiston by affirming, that he has already distinguished eight different states of this substance; viz. from its molt rarefied known state, or that of inflammable air, to its most condensed state, or that in, which it is combined with metallic earths. Each of these, says be, differs from the other by the portion of elementary fire they contain: this quantity being, as far as I can judge directly, as the rarefaction of the phlogiston ; but these researches are foreign to my present subject. I thall only remark, that phlogifton, in a state perhaps soo times rarer than inflammable air, and consequently containing much more fire, may posibly constitute the electric fluid.' Сс 2

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On this occasion, the Author, availing himself of Dr. Black's theory of specific fire, accounts for the manner in which both the aerial acid, and phlogiston, undergo this great change in their conftitution ; or are rendered Auid and elaitic, by a union with the same principle, elementary fire. Paling over the Author's proofs and illustrations relative to this part of his subject, we must be content to explain his general dcetrine in a few words.

When the aerial acid, combined, in its concrete and unelastic ftate, with marble, is expelled from thence by a stronger acid, the vitriolic for instance, and is volatilised and rendered elastic; a double decomposition is supposed-to take place. The vitriolic acid parts with a sufficient quantity of its specific fire to the fixed aerial acid ; which, by this addition, immediately becomes a volatile and aerial substance, and appears under the modifica. tion of fixed air : and the vitriolic acid immediately combining with the calcareous earth forms another compound. In the fame manner, the vitriolic acid, acting upon iron, parts with a portion of its Specific fire to the phlogitton of the iron ; which, on its union with this principle, immediately affumes an elaffic ftate, and Alies off under the form of inflammable air ; wbile che vitriolic acid forms another compound, by combining with the martial calx.

Among various other instances brought to prove the identity of in Aammable air and phlogiston, the Author, with very great propriety, in our opinion, adduces the precipitation, or, as it may be called, the reduction of one metallic earth, by the phlogiston of another metal. The experiment itself is well known, and is not a unique; but it so well illustrates, we may lay proves, the truth of the present doctrine, that, instead of abridging, we shall enlarge upon, what the Author says upon the subject.

When a piece of iron is immerged in a saturate folution of copper in the vitriolic acid, it is well known that, though the acid undoubtedly acts upon and diffolves the iron, no effervescence arises, nor does any inflammable air appear, though that elastic fluid is always generated when iron is fingly exposed to the action of that acid. The fact is, that the phlogision of the iron, instead of assuming the modification of infiammable air, even for an instant, enters peaceably into the calx of the copper, under its other modification of phlogison; and the earth of the copper, in confequence of this union, is precipitated in a metallic state.

In three words—The very thing which, had it escaped from the iron through the liquor, might have been actually caught under the form of infiammable air, now pafles into the earth of the copper; and, under the form of phlegifton, gives it all the qualities of a metal. But the substance which converts metallic earths into metals is allowed by all (who allow the existence of the principle

itself)

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