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could rarely be ascertained, and when accomplished, did not discover the extent of its advantages, until developed by subsequent acquiftions. In personal activity he exceeded all generals of whom there is record; for no partizan appropriated to services of detachment alone, ever traversed as much ground, as he at the head of armies. He met every emergency of peril, howsoever sudden and extreme, with intant discernment and unshaken fortitude: the ableft of his officers acquiesced to the eminent superiority of his genius; and the boalt of the foldier was to have seen Sevagi charging sword in hand.

• Thus respecied, as the guardian of the nation he bad formed, he moved every where amongit them with unsuspicious fecurity, and often alone; whilft bis wiles were the continual terror of the princes with whom he was at enmity, even in the midit of their citadels and armies. Whenfoever we shall obtain a history of his life, written in his own country, he will doubtless appear to have possessed the higheft resources of Aratagem, joined to undaunted courage ; which, although equal to the encounter of any danger, always preferred to furmount it by circumvention ; which, ifimpradicable, no arm exceeded his in open daring. Gallantry must lament that it should once have been stained by the blood of assassination.

Aurengzebe could not suppress the emotions of his joy, on hear. ing of Sevagi's death, nor the justice due to his character, which he had denied during his life. “ He was,” he said,

a great captain, and the only one who has had the magnanimity to raise a new king· dom, whilft I have been endeavouring to destroy the ancient sove

reignties of India; my armies have been employed against him for nineteen years, and, nevertheless, his flate has always been increasing.”

• This Nate comprized, on the western side of India, all the coast with the back country of the hills, from the river Mirzeou to Versal; excepting the small territory of Goa to the south, Bombay, Salcette, and the Portuguese country between Bacein and Daman to the north. Along the other side of the ridge, all, as far as the mountains continued to the weli ward, likewise belonged to Sevagi. The whole, at a general amount, may be esteemed 400 miles in length, and 120 in breadth : at the distance of 300 miles from this dominion, he was in poffeffion, towards the eastern sea, of half the Carnatic, which alone equalled moll of the Rajahihips of India ; all acquired by his own abilities from an origin of licle note, and left at his deceale a permanent fovereignty, eilablished on communion of manners, cuftoms, observances, language, and religion ; united in common defence again't the tyranny of foreign conquerors, from whom they had recovered the land of their own inheritance.'

• Sambagi, bis son and successor, poffefled all the courage and activity of his extraordinary father, but little of his discretion and political fagacity; he was in temperately attached to women, wbich laid the foundation of his destruction. Cablis Caun, the minister of his pleasures, betrayed him into the brutal hands of Aurengzebe, in an excurfion concerted for the purpose of stealing away the beautiful bride of a young findoo of distinction. His fad face is thus affectingly related

. Sambagi Sambagi appeared before Aurengzebe with undaunted brow; who reproached Cablis Caun, not with his treachery, but the encouragemet which his profituted ministry had given to vices which at -length had led his sovereign to ruin ; and ordered him to instant death. To Sambagi he proffered life and rank in his service, if he would'torn Mahomedan ; who answered by an invective against the prophet, and the laud of his own gods. On which he was dressed in ine fantastic ornaments of a wandering Indian devotee, who begs in villages with a rattle and a cap with bells. In this garb, he was ried, looking backwards, úpon a camel, and led through the camp, calling on all the Rajpoots he saw to kill bim, but none dared. After the proceflion, his tongue was cut out, as the penalty of blafpheming Mahomed. In this forlorn condition Aurengzebe, by a message, again offered to preserve his life if he would be converted; when he wrote, “ Not if you would give me your daughter in marriage;" on which his execution was ordered, and performed by cutting out his heart, after which his limbs and body were separated, and all together were thrown to dogs prepared to devour them. Manoucbi fars, that Aurengzebe beheld and enjoyed the spectacle, which is scarcely credible. Nevertheless, human nature wonders at his iaflexible cruelty, as much as it admires the invincible courage of Sam, bagi; whose death produced not the expected effect of submision from any part of the Morattoe government, which it only animaied the more to continue the war.'

Three such chieis, as the wo above mentioned, and Hyder Ally, are more than ordinarily fall to the share of one people in one century!

This little volume, with the notes, contains a great deal of histori. cal information, carefully selected; the use of which is facilitated by a full Index. But though the Author's attention descends to che minuteness of recording even the day of the month when the several parts of it were printed; he leaves us uncertain, what more we are to expect on the subject, or whether under the name of History or Fragments. What we now have under the later term, being called Section 1. does indeed imply a continuation ; which those who inseseit themselves in Eastern history, will no doubt be very glad to receive in his own magner: and the general merit of the whole leads us to wih there were fewer quaintnesses of phraseology, as well as fewer errors of the press, to be found in it.

It were moreover to be wished, that writers upon Eastern affairs, who may posibly multiply, would settle the orthography of Eastern names and oflices, so that we might not mistake them when they occur in different works, and at different times.

POLITICA L. Art. 46. Considerations on the Provisional Treaty with America,

and the Preliminary Articles of Peace with France and Spain. 8vo. 28. 6 d. Cadell. 17830

In this defence of the peace, which is conducted with coolness, pero fpicuity, and judgment, the Author reasons on the principles of general equity and national policy. The ground he takes is liberal; and the arguments which he raises on is, in support of the main ob ject of his work, are confirmed by an appeal to clear and indubitable facts.

After a few observations on the destruĉive policy of the American war, and the necessity, not of partially amending, but of totally altering the wrong system which had given it fupport, be enters more particularly into an examination of the several articles which compose the treaty for peace; and vindicates them from the mistakes and misrepresentations of those who had not well-weighed them, or were interested in decrying them.

He observes, that we had not a moment to lose ; and that if we had lost the opportunity of reconciliation with America, it would, in all probability, never have returned till England was totally undone. • Surely (says he) it was the bulness of a wise politician to seize the moment of conciliation, and to prevent the establishment of a union (with France) which might have been followed with the most fatal effects. It is a remarkable faci, and a fact but little known in this country, that the Americans had is in contemplation to bave a book composed, containing a distinct and separate hittory of the fufferings their people had endured ; which book was to be made use of in the instruction of their children, to inspire them with a lasting sense of the calamities their forefathers had experienced. Such an institucion would have continued an evil spirit for ages, and might for ever have prevented a coalition of interests, and ihe recovery of a real and durable affection. But since the cessation of hostilities, and the ac. knowledgment of the independency of the United States, the design hath been wholly laid aside, and I trust that no circumstance will ever hereafter occur which shall occasion farther animofities.'

On this occalion we cannot but recolle& the effe at which the nas. sative (whether literally true, or exaggerated) of the cruelties of the Dutch toward our countrymen at Amboyna. Those details, with Dryden's tragedy on the same subject, have made impressions on the minds of Englishmen which many centuries, perhaps, will not be able to eraze.

The Author examincs, in regular detail, the several ftipulations of the Provisional Treaty, and the Preliminary Articles; but as we can. not follow him through the whole of his observations, we will select those which appear to us of the greatest importance ; leaving our more informed Readers to judge of their force and propriety.

Objections, somewhat plausible, have been made to the second Ar. ticle of the ProviGonal Treaty, respecting the boundaries assigned to the United States in the northern districts bordering on Canada. To obviate the objections which have been urged on this head, the Av. thor remarks, that the limits which are fixed upon, are, for the most part, those natural limits wbich are pointed out by the course of lakes and rivers : and consequently they are the only ones that could have been chosen, without giving afterward occasion to much disorder and contention. It may farther be observed, that the boundaries allotted to the United States are the boundaries which were formerly considered as belonging to the country. Indeed, by the Quebec A&, passed in the year 1774, the limits of anada were greatly extended. But that was an aci chat was calculated for tyran. 9

nic al bical purposes, and which was particularly hostile to the North Americans; and therefore it was not to be expected that it nould be fixed upon as the basis of the present treary.

• That the Canada fur trade will in part be affected, cannot be de.' nied. In consequence of the late troubles in America, the Quebec mercbants have for some time poflefled the monopoly of that trade : but it was not in the nature of the thing, that the monopoly should always be preserved : and it is not an object so great as to merit the continuance of the war.' He observes, that the best part of the fur trade will ftill be in the hands of British merchants ; for the beavers are in the greatest plenty, and best cloathed with fur, in the countries which lie northward of the lakes. As this is the case, is will be our merchants' own fault, if the Indians who hunt in our territory, trade with any other persons; especially as the articles for which they exchange their game, are those which this kingdom is best able to supply:

With respect to the forts which lie on the south side of the British boundary, the Author remarks, that the retention of them would have been inconsistent with every principle of prudence and policy. They would have created jealousies, and have been a perpetual source of discord and contention. Add to this, the support of them would have been attended with an enormous expence to this country: to which the advantage that would have accrued from them would have borne no proporcion. We are here informed, from the molt authentic records of the Treasury (for our Author's information comes from high authority, and is not picked up from common report, or the rague and precarious accounts of the news papers), that the province of Canada hath coit the government for six years and four months, ending in Oktober 1782, the prodigious fum of five millions two hundred and ninety-nine thousand pounds and upwards. A comparison, in the Appendix, is made between the expences of the province and irs trade with England ; and it appears on a fair estimate that all its imports and exports in the same period taken together, fall valtly short, even by many hundred thousand pounds, of this enormous fum that government hath expended in its protection; and yer of late years, from peculiar circumstances, its trade hath confia derably increased.

Onche Article respecting the Loyalists, the Author speaks with much candour and good sense. It was not in the power of the American Commisioners to proceed farther than they did ; neither is it in the power of Congress to do more than earnefly to recommend the Loyalists to compaffion and favour. Each particular State in America is fove. reigo and supreme in itself, with regard to legislative and judicial authority; and, therefore, cannot be controuled in the exercise of its jurisdiction over its own subjects. Every man's café mui be determined by the laws and judicature of the province to which he belongs; and from the decision that takes place there can be no authoritative appeal. Congress can only interfere by an carnet recommendation ; and the earneit recommendation of Congress, unless impeded by imprudent conduct on this lide the water, cannot fail of producing powerful effects. It would be better to trest, in fome degree, to the wisdom and liberality of the American Siates, better to Tuppose thac REV. April, 1783.

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je&t of his work, are confirmed by an appeal to clear and indubitable facts.

After a few observations on the destru&ive policy of the American war, and the necessity, not of partially amending, but of totally altering the wrong system which had given it support, be enters more particularly into an examination of the several articles which compose the treaty for peace; and vindicates them from the mistakes and misrepresentations of those who had not well-weighed them, or were interested in decrying them.

He observes, that we had not a moment to lose; and that if we had lost the opportunity of reconciliation with America, it would, in all probability, never have returned till England was totally undone.

Surely (says he) it was the buGness of a wise politician to seize the moment of conciliation, and to prevent the ettablishment of a union (with France) which might have been followed with the most fatal effects. It is a remarkable faci, and a fa&t but little known in this country, that the Americans had it ia contemplation to have a book composed, containing a diftinct and separate history of the fufferings their people had endured ; which book was to be made use of in the instruction of their children, to inspire them with a lasting rense of the calamities their forefathers had experienced. Such an institution would have continued an evil spirit for ages, and might for ever have prevented a coalition of interests, and the recovery of a real and durable affection. But since the cessation of boltilities, and tbe ac. knowledgment of the independency of the United States, the defign hath been wholly laid aside, and I trust that no circumftance wilt ever hereafier occur which shall occasion farther animofities.'

On this occasion we cannot but recollect the effect which the car. sative (whether literally true, or exaggerated) of the craelties of the Dutch toward our countrymen at Amboyna. Those details, with Dryden's tragedy on the same subject, have made impressions on the minds of Englithmen which many centuries, perhaps, will not be able to eraze.

The Author examines, in regular detail, the several ftipulations of the Provisional Treary, and the Preliminary Articles; but as we cannot follow him throogh the whole of his observations, we will select those which appear to us of the greatest importance ; leaving our more informed Readers to judge of their force and propriety.

Objections, somewhat plausible, have been made to the second Ar. ticle of the ProviGonal Treaty, respecting the boundaries assigned to the United States in the northern diltrids bordering on Canada. To obviate the objections which have been 'urged on this head, the Author remarks, that the limits which are fixed upon, are, for the most part, those natural limits which are pointed out by the course of lakes aod rivers : and consequently they are the only ones that could have been chosen, without giving afterward occasion to much disorder and contention.-It may farther be observed, that the boundaries allotted to the United States are the boundaries which were formerly considered as belonging to the country. Indeed, by the Quebec A&, passed in the year 1774, the limits of Canada were greatly extended. But that was an aci that was calculated for tyran

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