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Do not persons of this very description make up a large part of the voters in the present mode of representation? Why then laugh at any attempis to reform it, when it is giit into such bad hands? Would he have it still remain, in any place, at the dis. posal of the very dregs of the people? Must lodgers, and bargemen, and black shoes, and chimney-sweepers have votes, and men of real property and credit have nove ? -Ex tuo ore:--- and whom may. Major Cartwright, and Co.' laugh at now !- The Doctor, though an adept at the argumentur ad hominem, may find his match
The fourth Letter treats of the evil consequences arising from the propagation of Mr. Locke's democratical principles - the Mr. Locke whom the Dean's late friend, the Bishop of Bristol, calls “ a friend to liberty both civil and religious :" and who, we believe, will still maintain his credit, and be revered as one of the best and wiselt of mankind, not with standing all the MALIGNANT efforts of this writer to insult his memory, and blacken his reputation. If our indignation was not checked by our contempt, we should transcribe the whole letter; for we think it need only be read to be condemned, by every person who hath a heart to love inankind, and a head to distinguish their truest intereft.
The Dean attempts to bring the reasonings of the Lockians to an absurdity, by pushing their principles to the utmost extreme. This he attempts to do by the following arithmetical process :
• Eight millions of people are represented in parliament by 558 depuiic:. Many of these 8,000,000 are such infants that they can. not speak plain. There, is is to be hoped, may without offence be struck off from the voting lift. Next to these are to be classed all id.ors and lunatics; for they likewise cannot be deemed to be moral agents. And I will do ihe Lockians the joftice to acknowledge, that when they indifted so much on the natural and indeteatible rights of mankind, they meant only the righis of that part of mankind who are moral agen!s, and therefore capable of making a choice of their own. Graniing this, the number of actual voters, or of those who, according to the Lockian hypothesis, ought to be deemed actual volers, will be confiderably diminished; perhaps a fourth part. But not to flick at little difficulties we will suppose so many to be struck off as will reduce the number to 5,580,000 moral agents, male and female. This gives exactly icoo perions to vote for each representative. And then some sealon cught to be aligned 67 why one thousand voters are fitter to make a worthy choice than one hundred. For my part, I can think but of one pretence for this equalizing scheme which hath not been confuted already :-- and that is, that a bouland ructers always display more wirdom and judgment in the choice they make, than one hundred can be supposed to co. ? his, Town, would effectually reconcile us to the measure, could the fact be as easily proved as it can be ailested. But there lies the dificuliy. And I do
not see that an appeal to experience would mend the matter. However, let us rry. According to this doctrine, the aphorisms must ftand thus - "Few voters, Jitile wisdom-many voters, great wildom." Therefore, if there be a certain borough which hath the fewest voters of any in the kingdom, their representatives most of course be the dullest. They are the flandard of political dulness. Whereas the four representatives of our great metropolis mus for the same reason be the brightest. They are the standards of political wisdom. Q. E. D.'
All this is undoubtedly very witty, and smart, and so forth! and yet ' a doughty champion of the republican band' could be equally smart and witty on the Dean-and on his own ground too. A thousand have not more wisdom in the
aggregate than a hundred; nor more honesty; nor more patriotiiin; nor a greater right to determine who and what manner of men their representatives tall or ought to be. Very well. But have a hundred more than fifty ? --or fifty more than ten? And so by a kind of anti-forites, oh! good Mr. Dean,
Depunge ubi fyftamand then, but in another sente from Chryfippus, we will hail you, Finitor Acervi!' The aphorism will then stand thus, “ Many voters, litile wisdon-Few voters, great wisdom.” And yet we apprehend it must be the MANY. Who mult judge in the Dean's • laf extremity.' But poflibly the last extremity may give wil. doin to the many, however foolish, or belotted, or depraved the few may be. The tables may turn; and the worst corruption may contain the best remedy !
From an advertisement we are informed, that it was the Au. thor's original intention to have added several letters more; particularly on the following subjects : “ A policy for rendering the English nation more beloved, and lefs hated :'-—' A polity for turning some millions of the public funds into circulating notes :'
- A polity for giving freedom and equality to commerce;' • A polity for preventing the frequency of robberies .- A po. lity for building cottages on waste lands :'--' A polity for conta ftituting a grand marine :'--' A polity for encouraging induro trious foreigners, who have money in our funds, to come and settle among us.' In short, the Doctor hath been preparing a grand political catholicon ; and we suppose he means to call it, * TUCKER'S STATE ELIXIR."
The Doctor concludes with the following line from a Latin poet :
Hoc Ithacus velit, et magno mercentur Atridæ. And we will conclude with the two following from an English poct :
Old politicians chew on wisdom pan,
ART. IX, Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica. No. II. III. ÍV. V.
4to. Price of No. Il. (in Three Parts) 7s, 6d. Of No. Ill. 7 s. 6 d. Of No. IV. 2 s. Of No. V. 10 s. 6 d. Nichols.
OR an account of the nature and design of this extensive February 1781, p. 115. where the first number is briefly noticed. The publication hath since encreased in the manner above mentioned, and, still farther, to No. X. Its progress still continuing.
No. II. consists of three parts, which together contain Reliquiæ Galeana, or, Miscellaneous Pieces, by the late learned brothers, Roger and Samuel Gale, introduced by some me. moirs of this respectable family, long noted for erudition. The brothers just mentioned, were sons of Dr. Gale, Dean of York, and very eminent in the learned world. They had each a particular turn for antiquarian researches, and were well verfed in the science. The Collection before us is made from MSS. papers, which fell into the hands of the late Dr. Stukely, who married their fifter, and are now in pofleffion of Dr. Ducarel).
The firft part of this number is chiefly formed from a 'Tour through several parts of England, by Samuel Gale, Esq; F. S. A, A. D. 1705; revised by the author in 1730.' This tour is from London to Oxford, thence by Gloucester to Bristol and Bath, and from thence by Salisbury to Portsmouth, and again to London.-'The narrative is drawn up, probably, by the author, for the entertainment of some private friends; but numerous alterations and improvements have been made in these places since the year 1705 to 1730, and different relations of them have been given to the world, which may seem to render this publication the lefs neceflary. It is, however, amusing, and agreeable; and, as might be expected, is inter mixed with fome observations of the antiquary. It was imposible that Stonehenge should not attract particular notice. Mr. S. Gale, having attentively described this object, declares himself inclined to the opinion, that it was erected by Ambrofius, in me. mory of the Britons here treacherously llain by the Saxons at a famous treaty. He is the rather induced to this conclulion, from the name of Ambrofius, still retained in the neighbouring town of Ambre bury, once celebrated for its monastery of 300 monks, founded here by this very Ambrofius, on condition that they should pray for the souls of those that were flain by the treachery of Hengist the Saxon. This account of Stonehenge is accompanied with a plate, including the road to it from Salifbury. There are other descriptions which may be read with pleasure.
But the second part of this number appears to us more valu. able. It contains a correspondence between Mell. R. and S.
Gale, Gale, and several of the learned of that time. Maurice Johnfon, Esq; Sir John Clerk, Dr. Stukely, Rev. Conyers Place, Thomas Robinson, Esq; Mr. Beaupre Bell, Mr. N. Salmon, and many other names, are combined here; and it is pleasant to attend them in their intercourse, writing on innocent and entertaining, on curious and instructive subjects, as gentlemen, men of learning, sense, and ingenuity. Very few, indeed, are the exceptions to this account. The letters, properly Galaan, are strictly so, unless we may mention one instance, which sather hurt us, in an account of a great number of human bones, lying eight feet thick, without any earth intermixed, and found near York, in the month of June 1742. He first supposes, that this might have been some Roman burying-place, and the bones the reliques of some great flaughter, Afterwards he offers a conjecture, that the carcases of the poor Jews, massacred to a vast number in the reign of Richard I. might here find a commune sepulchrum: a very probable, or at least not an improbable suppofition. What gave us some offence, is the manner in which he afterwards mentions that unhappy people: when asking, how it came to pass that fo few bones of young persons were found among them ? he replies, because it was usual, when the zeal of the priests and people had spurred them on to murder this odious nation, to spare the children, and baptize them. This we think unworthy of that candour, and liberality of mind, which Mr. Gale's letters discover. The zeal, if it might be called so, which led theion to massacre this people, was equally bigotted, misguided, and criminal, with any part of the Jewish conduct; and to speak of them (in such a connection), as an odious nation, might be thought to convey some approbation of that savage barbarity with which they were often treated.
Excepting this, and the rather uncandid manner in which a Dr. Hunter speaks of Neale's History of the Puritans, the correspondence before us is rational and liberal. And this last obJection is much obviated by the more nuild and handsome terms in which Dr. S. Knight of Bluntlham, near St. Ives, writes on the subject, when he declares, that he cannot but concur with Mr. N's. opinion, that the articles of the church of England are Calvinistical.
In these letters we have numerous relations of, and intereste ing enquiries about, coins, feals, inscriptions, monuments, camps, roads, &c. &c. ; a particular account of which it is impoffible to lay before our Readers; and some of them, we suppose, may already have fallen under the eye of the Public. We could not but be sorry for Mr. Ella, Vicar of Rampton, near Agelocum, or Littlebury, Lincolnlaire, who, when 1peaking of coins found there, adds, • There are also discovered, but very rarely,
Signets of agate and cornelian. One of the fairest and largest t ever saw was found at this place : I thought it fo valuable, as to bestow the setting upon it; but the workman did it so Nightly, that, to my great regret, it dropt out, I know not when, and was loft. The engraving was well performed; and the polish, though it must have lain at least 1300 years in the foil, much exceeded any thing I have seen of English workmanShip.'
We cannot dismiss this part, without taking notice of a little anecdote, related in a letter from Mr. T. Blackwell, Greek Profeffor at Aberdeen, containing remarks on Cambridge, and dated in 1735. The Professor tells Mr. R. Gale, that he and his friends vítited Dr. Bentley, who received them very graciously, and entertained them with the service he had done to learning, by restoring the Eolic Digamma F, which he pronounced like our W. He acknowledged, that Dionysius Halicarnaflæus explains the Digamma by a o in Greek, and a V in Latin; but, says the old Gentleman, · He and Aristarchus, and Demetrius, were all dunces, who knew nothing of the Digamma, which I have restored the use of, after it had been loft 2000 years.'
We ought farther to remark, that several of the letters from Mr. Maurice Johnson, relate to an Antiquarian Society formed at Spalding, in Lincolnshire, giving several particulars as to its establishment, success, and inprovements, together with many subjects which were brought under their consideration. This part of the work is finished by Mr. R. Gale's historical account of the borough of Northallerton, in the North Riding of the county of York, and his description of the village of Scruton, in the same county, the manor and village of which was purchased by the Gale family in 1688.
The third part of No. II. after presenting us with an historical discourse on the ducal family of Britanny, Earls of Richmond, by R. Gale, Esq;' continues the epiftolary correspondence, adding 162 letters to the sixty-two which we have in the foregoing publication. These are equally productive of entertainment, and information, with the others. Here are many very sensible and ingenious remarks from Sir John Clerk, and some from Mr. Gale, in reply. Subjects of the kind, already mentioned, are here discuffed, such as coins, infcriptions, monuments, camps, roads, &c. differtations on the Aight of birds (concerning which there is a very extraordinary hypothesis), queries and observations on coal mines, and many other curious subjects. In a letter from Sir J. Clerk, on a comet, which happened in 1742, we could not but take notice of the following remark: ' Its tail, even according to Sir Isaac Newton's notions, diffuses vapours through the planetary world,