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ART. 1. Poetical Parts of the Old Testament, newly translated from

I. the Hebrew. Wish Notes Critical and Explanatory. By William Green, M. A. Rector of Hardingham in Norfolk, and formerly Fellow of Clare-Hall in Cambridge. 410, 68, fewed. Dodley. -1781.

HE learned and ingenious Author pursues the track of

Dr. Hare with respect to the metre of the original Yebrew; and is so firmly persuaded of the truth of the Bishop's hypothesis, that he doubts not but that the Hebrew text; if we had it as perfe&t as when it came out of the hands of the composers, would as readily fall into that metre, as the Æneid of Virgil, printed as prole, would fall into hexameters.- We think, however, that this assertion is too unqualified : and we consider the bypothefis on which it is founded too dangerous to be admitted; because in all places where the metre according to the supposed ftructure of it in Dr. Hare's scheme of Hebrew poetry is imperfea, it is left to mere arbitrary conjecture to supply the debciency. -Mr. Green, however, considers this matter in an opposite point of view; and argues its utility from what we look on as its uncertainty and danger. "In some instances, says he, the metre points out the corruption of the text, and at the same time the way to restore it.'. Our Author's opinion of the col. lection of Hebrew MSS. will appear from the following declarations : In the few places I have consulted them, I must own they have not afforded me the satisfaction I expected from them. They have, however, done one thing most effectually, which is worth all the thousands they have cost the Public in collating them; that is, they have delivered us from the shackles of the Hebrew verity. And though they may not answer the Yol. LXVIII.

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high expectations we may have formed of them, yet we may
hope some genius may arise, who will strike out such elucida-
tions of Scripture from them, as are in vain to be expected from
the present text.' A large field; however, is, in our Author's
opinion, still left for conjectural criticism for, as to the
omission of clauses or. periods, or the transposition of them,
this is not, he imagines, to be expected from the MSS.' His
meaning is, that defe&ts of this sort cannot be rectified by col-
lation ; they must be. Tupplied by conjecture. As a specimen of
our Author's talent in this line, we will present our Readers
with the following remarks on a text in Isaiah, where an omif-
fion is supposed, and which he ventures to supply by this mode
of criticism :
• In Jaiah i. 21. the text ftands thus:

How is the faithful city become a harlot?
. It was full of judgment, righteousness lodged in it;

But now murderers.
In my judgment two words have been dropped here by the
transcriber. These, which I take to have been Maleah Damim, filled
with bloodshed, I supply from the context, ver. 15. If these be ad-
mitted, the translation will run thus :

How is the faithful city become a harlot ?
How is the, that was full of judgment, filled with bloodshed ?

Righteousness once dwelled in her, but now murderers !
If the two words have been omiteed, the parallelism of the two first
lines, and the contrast in the last, seem to vindicate me in replacing
them.'

The subjects discussed in this volume are curious and interesting in a very high degree, as will appear from the following enumeration of their contents :

The speech of Lamech to his two wives.-The last prophetic words of Noah to his three fons.-The last prophetic words of Isaac to his two sons.—The last prophetic words of Jacob to his twelve sons.-The Song of Moses upon the deftruction of the Egyptian army in the Red Sea.-A Song of the Ifraelites upon Jehovah's giving them water in the Wilderness (Numb. xxi. 17, 18.)— The Song of the Amorite Bard upon the conquest of Hellbon (same chapter). The prophetic Parables of Balaam.—The Admonitory Song of Moses to the Israelites (Deut. xxxii.)-The laft prophetic words of Moses to the Twelve Tribes (chap. xxxiii. )– The Song of Deborah.— The Thanksgiving of Hannah on the birth of Samuel.-The Lamentations of David over Saul and Jonathan.-The Lamentation of David over Abner.-The last prophetic words of David. -The Song of Solomon.–The Admonitory Song of Isaiah to the Israelites (Isa. v.)-A Thanksgiving (Isa. xiii. 1–6.)-A Parable, or Triumphant Song, of the Jews, on the fall of the King of Babylon their oppreffor (Isa. xiv. 3–20.) - A Song of 4

Praise

Praise (Isa. xxv. 1–6.)-A Thanksgiving to be sung by the Jews on their return from captivity (Isa. xxvi. 1–20.)—A Parable representing Israel under the image of a vineyard (Isa. xxvii. 2–6.)---Hezekiah's Song.–The Lamentations of Jeremiah.—The Thanksgiving of Jonah (ch. ii.)- A Parable to be pronounced against the King of Babylon by the nation which he had pillaged and enslaved (Hab. ii. 5. to the end.) - The Prayer of Habakkuk (chap. iii.)

In the translation of these beautiful parts of sacred poetry, and in the notes which are adjoined to the translation, to clear up their difficulties or illustrate their meaning, the Author bath discovered much ingenuity, and no inconsiderable share of sagacity and learning.

Mr. Green hath the following very just and pertinent rem marks on the speech of Lamech to his two wives, Adah and Zillah :

“Lamech acknowledges that he had killed a man; but he avers, it was in his own defence; and argues thus upon it-" If Cain's death, who murdered his brother for no offence, lould, as God assured him (in Genesis iv. 5.), be avenged seven-fold ; surely Lamech's death, who flew an aggressor in self-defence, shall be avenged seventy times seven.” Lamech's wives, it seems, had the same apprehensions for their husband which Cain had for himself, when he had murdered a brother ; namely, that every one who met him would kill him; or at least, that the relations of the man whom he had Nain would avenge his death. Cain had a sign given from heaven, that is, a miracle wrought for him (Gen. iv. 15.) to quiet his fears. To quiet his wives, Lamech was forced to have recourse to an argument, founded on that fact. To quiet their apprehensions must have been the occas foon of this famous speech.'

The following is our Author's translation of the last prophetig words of David, 2 Sam. xxiii. 1-8. • 1, Now these were the last words of David.

David, the son of Jeffe, faith,
Even the man who was raised on high, faith,
The anointed of the God of Jacob,

And the sweet Psalmist of Israel.
II. The Spirit of Jehovah speakech by mes

And his word is upon my tongue.
III. The God of Israel saith,

Even to me doth the Rock of Israel speak.
The JUST ONE ruleth over men!

He rolech in the fear of God.
IV. As the light of the morning fun shall rise,

A morning without clouds for brightness,

When the tender grass after rain springeth out of the earth
V. Por is not my house established with God?

Yea, he hath made with me an everlasting covenant,
Ordered in all things and observed :
Surely in him is all my falvasion and all my delight.

VI. Double

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VI. Doubtless the wicked shall nor Aourish;

They are all like thorns thrust away,

Which shall not be taken by the hand.
VII. But the man who shall lay hold on them

Shall be armed with iron, and the staff of a spear,

And they fall utterly be burned with fire.' We shall present our Readers with the Author's Critical and Explanatory Notes at large, leaving it to the learned to determine how far they tend to support his hypothefis; and how far the Author is qualified to contend with so profound a scholar in biblical learning as the eminent Prelate whom he hath ventured to attack on a controverted paffage in Ifaiah.

• Period 1-8.) The learned seem now to be agreed, that this illustrious prophecy, introduced in fó magnificent a manner, is to be onderstood of Chrift's spiritual kingdom, and his final triumph over the enemies of it. The beginning of its accomplishment may properly be dared from his entrance upon his mediatorial office; it was yet farther fulfilled upon the establishment of Christianity by the civil powers; but when the time shall be of its perfect completion, is yet a secret in the hands of God.

« The royal Palmilt, when the spirit of prophecy was moft Atrongly upon him, probably joft before his death, being favoured by God with a clearer and more diftin&t revelation of this great and wonder. ful event, begios first with expressing the deep sease he had of the Divine goodness, in this gracious and comfortable communication to him, and of the certainty and powerfulness of the inspiration he was under. In per. 1. this peculiar grace and favour is heightened from a consideration-of the person inspired ; one wbom, from obscure parentage and low condition, God had exalted to be King over his chofen people, and made him an inftrument of eliabliling, or at leatt of improving, the most delightful part of his religious worship: and in per. 2.--of the author of the inspiration, the Lord Jehovah the God and Rock of Israel-whose powerful impulse is expressed by a repetition of the words, He faith, be speakub, and His word is upor my tongue.

• After this magnificent introduction he breaks out into a kind of transport of joy and admiration at the prospect before him :

The Just One ruleth over man! • In per. 4. he decribes the spiritual and glorious effects of this dominion; at per. 5. his firm assurance of its perpetuiry, and of the designation of it to a person of his own house and lineage ; with a lively declaration of the delight and comfort which this affurance gave him. In per. 6. and 7. he gives a Mort but dreadful representalion of the condition of the wicked, and of the everlasting vengeance which awaits them at that terrible day, when the wheat Thall be garnered irto his garner, and the chaff shall be burned with fire un. quenchable.

• Per. 1. Who was raijed on bigh) This cannot be better explained than fron: P!. Ixxviii. ;0.–The construction would be more natural, if, by a change of the vowels, we read hekim yal, inttead of bukam, she nian whom the Most High hath raised up. In this sense it is used in Jer. XXX. 9.

• Ibid.

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• Ibid. Sweet Pfalmif] This title feems moft eminently to belong to David, not only as he composed most of the Psalms, but eftablished the music service of the Temple.

• Per. 3. Tbe Just One.) This is the first time that we meet with the Meffiah under this title. The evangelical prophet adopts it, and gives us an insight into his office, as the Justifier of the ungodly, Isa.

liji, 12.

By the knowledge of him fhall the Just One, my fervant, junify

many ; For he shall bear their iniquities. Our translators, not knowing this to be a title of the Messiah, though it is used as such, Acts jii. 14. vii. 52. xxii. 14. James v. 6. 1 Pet. iii. 18. bave made it an adjective to the substantive following, rendering it, my righteous fervant. But they ought to have known that, in Hebrew, che adjective always follows the fubftantive; and would have set them right.-The Bishop of London, in his translation of this passage of Ilaiah, omits this title of the Messiah, alleging, that it makes the hemistic too long, and that two or three MSS. omit it. As to the hemistic, this sitle confiits but of :wo syllables; and it muft require a nice discerament, to say a hemistic is too long or coo hort by iwo syllables : and as this title is of such importance as to be the subject of David's last prophetic words, and is frequently mentioned in the New Testament, if thirty or forty MSS. had omitted it, I hould not regard them; especially as it is used here with the utmoit propriety, where the prophet is speaking of Jesus in the very act of juftifying, by bearing oor iniquities; to say nothing of the beauty of the figure, the Juj One hall jurify.

. As I published four years ago a translation of the 53d of Isaiah, 1 will take this opportunity to say a word or two in lupport of it. The prophet begins this subject at the 13th per. of the lii. The two bext periods are plainly opposed to each other. The LXX, found that opposition in the copy they translated from. And this has induced men of the greatest eminence for learning, Grotius, Le Clerc, Bishop Chandler, Archbishop Secker, Dr. Grey, Dr. Durel, Bishop Lowth, and Dr. Jabb, who could never find in the present text the apodofis of the opposition in per, 15. to wish to see it restored. Now, if the Greek translators of Isaiah rendered the same Hebrew word by the same Greek word, I have pointed out the very word which they found out in their copy (See my Note). This word suits the place, while the present reading makes little better than nonsense of it.' Ad. mitting the LXX.'s reading to be the true one, there arises this plain {cose and oppositionAs, on the one hand, many (the Jews) Mall be astonished at the

figbt of him :
Becaule his appearance will be meaner than that of a man of rank,
And his figure than that of common men:
So, on tbe other hand, many nations (the Gentiles) shall survey

him with wonder,
Aod Kings that their mouths out of surprise;
Because they shall see him, of whom they never had been told;
And contemplate him, of whom they had never heard.

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