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“ He is not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance.” (1 John, ii. 1. 2.) - We have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous; and he is the propitiation for our fins, and not for ours only, but also for the fins of the whole world.” (Luke, iii. 6.) “ And all flesh shall see the salvation of God."-And after so many gracious promises, and assurances of universal salvation, is he the Saviour of the world only intentionally, and not effectually? or is he to save only the chosen few, and to leave the many under eternal condemnationi - His very enemies are reconciled to God, by the merits and sufferings of his beloved Son. (Rom. v. 10.) " When we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son; much more being reconciled, we thall be saved by his life.” (2 Cor. v. 19.) “ God was in Chrift, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasies unto them.” (Col. i. 19. &c.) “ For it pleased the Father, that in him should all fulloess dwell: and having made peace, through the blood of bis cross, by him to reconcile all things unto himself, by him, I say, whether shey be things in earth, or things in heaven ; and you that were sometime alienated, and enemies in your mind, by wicked works, yet now hath he reconciled, in the body of his flesh through death, to present you holy, and unblameable, and unreproveable in his fight.” (Rom. xi. 32.) “ God hath concluded all in unbelief, that he might have mercy upon all.” But what kind of peace and reconciliation is that, where they fill live in open enmity, and are created as enemies, where vengeance ftill pursues abem, and their misery has no end ?-For the reward of his suffer: ings, God hath highly exalted his Son, and (Eph. i. 20, &c.) “ set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places ; far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion; and every dame ihat is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come, and put all things onder his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church, which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all.” But he can never attain these glorious ends; he can never be “ far above all principality and power," or “ be head over all,” or “ fill all in all," as long as there are evil angels, and evil men, who are in rebellion against him, and, to their utmost power, reift and oppose his will.-(1 John, iii. 8.) “ For this purpose the Son of God was manifefted, chat he might destroy the works of the devil.” But the works of the devil “can. not be said with truth to be destroyed,” as long as any wickedness fubfifts in the world. It is repeated again and again, that he must “ put all things under his feet.” But the subjection of intelligent creatures confiits not in their being kept under by superior force and violence, but in the change of their affections, and the submission of their wills (2 Cor. x. 5.), " calling down imaginations, and every high thing that exalteth itself againit the knowledge of God, and bringing into caprivity every thought to the obedience of Chrift."In this maoner must all creatures bow down to him, and acknowledge him, before the end come. (Philip, ii. 10. 11.) “ At the name of Jesus every knee thall bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth ; and every tongue fall confess that Jesus Chrif is Lord, to the glory of God the Father." And (Rev. v. 13.) “ every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying, Blefling, and honour, and glory, and power, be unto him that fitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb, for ever and ever.” As he was the Creator, so he will be the Saviour of all beings : for (John, i. 3.) “ all thiogs were made by him, and without him was not any thing made that was made.” (Col. i. 16, 17.) “ By him were all things created that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invigible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers; all things were created by him and for him; and he is before all things, and by him all things confift.” And we may be certain, that he who made the world will not suffer it to remain in eternal discord, but will rectify and restore his own creation. “ For he must reigo (1 Cor. xv. 25, 26.) till he hath put all enemies under his feet: the last enemy thar fhall be destroyed is death.” The death here intended is “ the second death.” For (Rev. xx. 14.)“ death and hell,” or hades, “were cast into the lake of fire; this is the second deach :” and (ver. 10.) “ the devil, and the beaft, and the false prophet, were cait into the lake of fire and brimstone:" and (xxi. 8.) “ the fearful and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whosemongers, and forcerers, and idolators, and all liers, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone, which is the second death.” It muft be this “ second death,” therefore, that after subduing all other enemies, and bringing them to submiflion, shall itself at last be destroyed. When this penal, and purging, and perifying fire shall have accomplished the purposes for which it was intended, it shall be totally extinguished ; and as there will be no more any creatures to be punihed, so there will be no more any place of punilhment. Then, in the follet sense (1 Cor. xv. 54.), “ hall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory :” and (Rev. xxi. 4.) " there shall be no more death." Then cometh the end (1 Cor. xv. 24. 28.), “ When he thall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father, when he shall have put down all rule, and all authority and power: and when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all.”

1 2mo.


ART. XI. Military Maxims, illustrated by Examples. By Colonel James Callander.

28. 6 d. Cadell. 1782, HE collector of these Maxims justly observes, that “many

are the books that treat of the vast science of war in all its branches, but few or none confine themselves to the conduct of the inferior officer with a small command. It would appear, military authors only wrote for the instruction of those who command armies.” As to this performance, which is calculated to supply the deficiency, it is but crudely executed ; many of the introductory maxims being frivolous in a profesfional work; as for instance -“ We know how to act, by


knowing and devils also, shall, in time to come, laying aside all their vitio. fity, confess Chrift: and, in another place of the same differtation, he afferis, that God cannot otherwise be “all in all,” according to the saying of the Apostle, than by deftroying utterly and extirpating all wickedness. Moreover, in bis Catechetical Oration, chap. 8. he affirms, that after this life the evil affections of the mind ihall be cured by God, which in this life could not be healed by virtue : then, chap. 26. he teaches, that not only wicked and impious men, but even the devil, the author of fin, shall be affected by the kind. ness of the Son of God, and be so purged and purified, as gold is refined by the fire, the base metal being extracted and separated ; and-at length, after a long course of time, all the evil that is in nature being consumed, the damned thall be restored wbole and entire, that with one mouth all created things may return thanks to God.

• We may further add what Dr. Burnet, of the Charter house, hath cited from St. Jerome, who, though Marp and vehement in his own nature, and a bitter enemy to Origen and his opinions, yet upon this topic expresses himself with uncommon temper and moderation. In the conclusion of his commentary upon the prophet Isaiah, speaking of everlasting punishments, and of those who thought, that after a long period of time an end would be put to them, he concludes, that “we must leave those things to the wisdom of God, whose judgments, as well as mercies, are distributed in exact weight and proportion, and who knoweth whom, and how, and how long, he ought to punish." He had aflerted something of the same kind before in his commentary upon the xxivth chapter, near the end; “ We must know, that human weakness cannot comprehend the mag. nitude and measure of punishments, which must be left to the wil. dom of God alone :” and in his commentary upon the ivth chapter to the Galatians, we find bim saying, that “ no reasonable creatore can perish with God for ever." St. Auftin, though a ftrenuous advocate for the eternity of punishments, denominates those of the contrary opinion merciful doctors; and therefore he, and those who think with him, as Dr. Burnet observes, may, by the rule of oppofite, be called unmerciful doctors. Several of the ancient fathers con. ceived the fire of hell to be a purging, as well as a pepal fire, and consequently, fome time or other, to have an end. Bot this penal, purging * fire is very different from the purgatory of the church of Rome; for that is not once mentioned in Scripture, but this is often repeated; that occupies the interval between death and the resurrection, but this succeeds after the general judgment.

I forbear to produce any modern authorities, though, perhaps, the modern may be as good, or better, than the ancient; but all au. thorities must bow down before Scripture: this is the only solid foundation of faith ; this is the only sure anchor of hope. The leto ter of fcripture may, indeed, Tound forth everlasting punishments, but the spirit of Scripture intimates the contrary. How the letter is to be underttood, and in what sense the punishments are everlafling, we have already explained ; and this explanation will be most amply but as their forms differ, only general roles upon that 'head can be given : turn out the inhabitants ; if any house commands the pott, pull it down ; burn every combustible near it, such as thatch, piles of wood, or furze ; that they may not be made use of against you, surround the post with an abbatis, but principally, at the angles, barricade the doors with beams, dung, or ftones. Then break one row of loop holes, three feet asunder, eight inches long, wo inches wide within, and fix without, all round the building, at one foot from the ground, and dig a trench at two feet from the wall, to place the men in, who are to defend them. 'Break another race of loop-holes, seven feet from the ground, above the intervals of those below; and place the benches, chairs, and tables round the wall, co serve for a banquerte for those who are to defend them. . Obtain as much cross or flank fire as poflible, by the aid of those parts of the builuing that project. If the windows are so low, that the enemy can fire into them, or have not iron bars, barricade them as before directed : delo troy the communication from one ftory to another, by breaking down the Itair-case, and make use of ladders. Fix a tree in the ground, within the building, with the branches on, that should the enemy force the door, they may not be able to rush in, in a body, but must then enter lide-ways. Make loop-boles in the upper part of the building, take off the roof, and pull down the wall to brealthigh, that the men may fire over it. Collect a quantity of large ftones, that you may tumble them down upon those who endeavour to undermine the building. Provide pitch-forks to overturn the ladders the enemy will endeavour to scale the wall with, and cubs of water to extinguish fire. In case the enemy should get into the ground-floor, you are not to suppose from that, that they are more likely to carry the post : make a great many holes in the floor, about four inches diameter, over the door, and other weak parts, that you may fire down upon them; pour likewise water through those holes ; it well wer their arms, prevent them from seeing, and cause great confusion. Have some trees, with the branches on, to barricade the door afresh, when you have drove them out. Sacks filled with earth will be found useful to barricade different parts of the building. If you have men enough to defend likewise the out-houses, the same mode must be followed ; remember always the angles are the weakest parts, therefore greater attention must be had to their defence, and that a cross or flank fire is the best.'



We now and then find some choice fpirits celebrated for kicking up a duft, and turning a house out of the window; but not one of them all are up to the spirit and execution of this kind of bufiness. Few landlords, therefore, we believe, would wish to accept Colonel Callander and his friends as tenants at will, while under the influence of one of these frolicfome humours !

ART, XII. Which is the Man a Comedy, as acted at the TheatreRoyal in Covent-Garden.. By Mrs. Cowley. 8vo.

IS, 6 d. Dilly. 1783 THE genius of Mrs. Cowley is so prolific, and her literary offspring 'fo multiplied, that the quantity is in some measure an apology



for any little defects in quality. The Lady never loses her teeming time, but breeds regularly every year. The laft, that was schoold by us, was a lufty lass, called The BELLE'S STRATAGEM. The present is a chopping boy, christened WHICH IS THE MAN? He has not all the charms and graces of his fifler ; yet there is a strong family likeness, and we may fairly say of him, as Richard says of the young Duke of York,

He's all the Mother from the 19p to th' toe! Since this Authoress first devoted her talents to the theatre, she feems to have applied herself with a laudable diligence to the perusal of our dramatic writers; and from the general attempt at smartness and gaiety in her dialogue, as well as of intricacy in her fable, and bustie in the incidents, it is not difficult to conjecture the models she has admired and perused. The dialogue of all her characters aims at vivacity; but they too evidently speak the language, and utter the sentiments of the fair Author, rather than their own.-- The mo. ment of triomph!-- Anglicè, the moment when, having thewn myself at half the houses in St. George's, I am set down at St. James's!' The well-instructed Mrs. Cowley might naturally introduce an explanation by the Latin word Anglicè; but we should expect a very different kind of Anglicism from Lady Bell Bloomer. Even the Per. dragons, who seem to be the writer's chief favourites, are furnished with all the wit and observation of their ingenious author. The boy, especially, is intended as a mixture of archness and fimplicity : but neither are confiftent; and he discovers a fhrewdness and penetration at some times, not agreeable to his rudeness and ignorance at others. Mr. Fitzherbert, whose manners are rough, and whose heart is tender, is but a faint copy of the same character by other hands; and, though he is used as a principal mover in the several events of the fable, his part is neither interesting nor pleasant. Lord Sparkle is also a picture from imagination, rather than drawn after the life.

The fable of this comedy is built on improbabilities, which are industriously multiplied, in order to produce what, in the cant of playhouse criticism, are called theatrical ftuations ; fome of which may, for aught we know, have a tolerable effect on the fage, but appear absurd, or insipid, in the closet. That Lord Sparkle, honourably soliciting Lady Bell Bloomer, should, at the same moment, without the least encouragement, attempt to seduce Julia Manners, when under her roof, and under her protection ; that Julia Manners, ·already secretly married, on the base suggestion of another marriage, pressed by no urgent circumstances, should fly from the house of her protectress; that the hould be conveyed first to Lord Sparkle's, and from thence to the house of Mr. Beauchamp; that a Lady of character should, without the least regard to decency, take it into her head 10 visit Mr. Beauchamp, merely to become the accidental instrument of discovering the asylum of Julia Manners; all these, and many other circumstances are, in our opinion, such grofs outrages of probability, that the perplexities they occasion cannot be sufficiently interesting or amusing, to atone for the violence by which they are produced. The best part of the play, and the scenes which do most credit to the delicacy of the writer, are those that relate to Beauchamp and Lady Bell Bloomer. There is a trait at the beginning of the 5th A& that we


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