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· M. Abich first attempted the compression of water in a tourket barrel, by means of a piston forced into it, and which was exactly fitted to its cavity; but, by means of the great force employed, the barrel, which was only a line thick, burst. He then procured a stronger cylinder, formed of brass, the fides of which were three quarters of an inch thick. Here he found that the included water sensibly yielded to the compressing force, which was exerted by a piston, put in motion by means of a screw. On a repetition of the experiment, however, several drops of water appeared on the outside of the cylinder ; and it was found that they had been forced through small fiffures which the water had made in the metal.
M. Abich then constructed a cylinder, the fides of which were nearly an inch and a quarter thick; and which was found to refift effectually the immense power employed in compresling the water, or the other Auids, with which it was successively filled. The different degrees of compression were produced by means either of a screw, or of a long lever, to which different weights were succeffively appended; and the quantity of the compreffion was ascertained by the contraction of the water in bulk, as indicated by the descent of the piston.
As this last mentioned effect however might be suspected to have been, in part at least, produced by the distension of the metal cylinder; which might be supposed to yield to the very great power employed in these experiments; an addition was made to the apparatus, which shewed, in a very satisfactory manner, that no change of dimensions in the cylinder had taken place, in consequence of the great force employed.
It appears from one of these experiments, in which the greateft effects were produced, that 261 cubic inches of water visibly loft by pressure no less than I cubic inch and }; so that the compreffion sustained by the water, in this case, produced a diminution in the bulk of the whole mafs, nearly equal to the 1- 24th part. From calculations it appears, that well water, subjected to this compressing force, must have had its specific gravity so much increased, as to acquire a density even greater than that of fea water.
After giving a particular account of the experiments made by means of this apparatus with well water, water saturated with fea falt, milk, brandy, &c. the Author proceeds to consider the doubts that may yet remain respecting the results. These prin. cipally relate to the pores or cavities which may exist in the internal surface of the cylinder ; the compression or yielding of the leathers belonging to the pifton; and the air contained in the water, or other fuids which have been examined. Of these doubts the last seems to be the most worthy of attention : but it appears from the experiments here related, that water, from Rev. Feb. 1783
which the greatest part of its air had been expelled by boiling, suffered apparently as great a compression as common well water.
It appears too that the quantity of compression of the different Auids that were tried, is not, as might have been expected, in the inverse ratio of their specific gravities. Brandy, which was the lightest of them, nevertheless suffered the leait degree of compression,
M ON THL Y CATALOGUE,
For FEBRUARY, 1783.
POLITICA L. Art. 15. An Authentic Copy of the Provisional and Preliminary
Articles of Peace, between Great Briiain and the United States of America, the King of France, and the King of Spain, ligoed
Nov. 30, 1782, and Jan. 20. 1783. i s. Stockdale, &c. Art. 16. Authentic Copies of the Preliminary Articles, &c. (as
above). Debret, &c. Art. 17. Preliminary Articles, &c. (as above) in French and
English. BY AUTHORITY. Harrison and Co. WE
E leave the three foregoing publications to be criticized by
Reviewers of an HIGHER ORDER. Art. 18. A Free and Impartial Examination of the Preliminary
Articles of Pacification. With a Retrospective view of the Rise and various Stages of the War, &c. By a MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT 8vo. 1 $ 6 d. Fielding.
Though free, these observa:ions are decent. The Preliminary Articles are condemned by our Author ; but his are such as we meet with in every news-paper; and from those popular and plentiful sources of political invelligation, many of his frictures seem to be drawn. Art. 19. A Letter to the Earl of Shelburne, on the Peace. 8vo.
Debret. Lord S's. angry correspondent sets out with recapitulating the ear. lier circumstances of the war; a gloomy retrospect ! terminated, howa ever, by the annihilation of Lord N's. ministry.--The view then brightens, through the success of Rodney, and the bravery of the garrison of Gibralcar; by wbich our affairs are greatly retrieved. At this period, in the year 1782, Lord S. (according to our Author] humbles us at the feet of our enemies.- Here a wide field opens for the display of the Writer's declamatory powers; which are not inconsiderable. He severely condemns the concesions made to America, particularly in the abandonment of the Loyali&s, and the limitation of Canada. He then proceeds to charge his Lord thip with a criminal profusion of liberality to Spain, by adding the ceffion of the Eafi to her acquisition of Waf Florida. As to France, his accusation is no less weighty, especially in regard to the relinquifament of St. Lucia, the importance of which he estimates at a very high rate. it in the most offenfive, illiberal ityle. In brief, he raves in too outrageous a manner, for any sober reader to be influenced by his coarse declamation. Parties will never be gainers by employing fuch intemperate agents. Art. 30. Consideration of Taxes : Submitted in a Series of Let
ters to Lord North, his Majesty's late First Lord of the Treasury, and Chancellor of the Exchequer. To which are prefixed a Memorial to the Lords Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury; and a Letter to Richard Burke, Esq. By J. R. Staub, Notary Public. 8vo. 1 s. 6d. Stockdale. 1782.
Mr. Staab having generously corresponded, during five years, with Lord Norik, on the subjects of taxation and public credit, without any notice being taken of his letters ; thought proper, on the change of the Ministry, to write also to Mr. Burke, Joint Secretary to the Treasury, inclohng copies of his letters to Lord North, for the confideration of the new commissioners at that board: but these also failing to recommend him to notice, he finished his correspondence by a memorial to the Lords of the Treasury, ftating his pretensions to some reward, as the first proposer of the tax on bills of exchange and notes of hand, in the above-mentioned letters; and by this final appeal to the Public at large, we are left to infer, that he is equally disatisfied with all his state corre!pondents.
What Mr. Staub may expect from this publication, is difficult to guess; but from a review of its contents, and of the treatment he has received, we freely declare, that we think few could juftly blame him did his resentment, for the contempt shewn him by two Admini. ftrations, even provoke him to withhold his affillance from all mini. fters whatever, and leaving the State to take care of itself, to confine his future attention wholly to his own proper concerns, ac No. 14, in Sweeting's Alley.
AMERICAN. Art. 31. 1 Reply to Sir Henry Clinton's Narrative * Wherein
his numerous Errors are pointed out, and the Conduct of Lord Cornwallis fully vindicated from all Aspersion: including the whole of the Public and Secret Correspondence between Lord George Germaine, Sir Henry Clinton, and his Lordship; as also intercepted Letters from General Wahhington. 8vo. 2s. Faulder, &c. 1783
Io this anonymous reply, Lord Cornwallis is vindicated from the misconception of orders, and discretionary conduct, ftated in Sir Henry Clinton's' narrative; and Sir Henry is charged with bold. ing out delutive promiles of succour to his Lordihip. It is not always easy, after reading both sides, in such complicated tranractions, clearly to determine where the blame relts ; but it is easy to see who is best acquainted with decency; and we cannot avoid remarking, that Sir H. C. relates his story in a plain modeft Aile, that gives dignity to his narrative : whereas, every page in this reply is debased with such illiberal epithets and sarcastic turns of exo preffion, as (whatever may be the concealed writer's intentions) are very far from doing any service to the cause he has undertaken.
Lord C.'s own defence of himself in our next.
• For the Narrative, see our laft Month's Catalogue.
than yielding.'-This Writer, however, is not always fufficiently dispaliionate in his mode of investigation ; nor will all his conclufions, perhaps, appear so evident to such of his readers who may differ from him in sentiment, as we charitably suppose they appear to himself. Art. 23. A Report of the Proceedings of the Committee of Asociation,
appointed at the adjourned General Meeting of the County of York, hold on the 28th of March 1780, presented to the General Meeting of the County of York, held on the 19th of December 1782. With an Appendix, containing the Circular Letter of November the ift, 1782, &c. Proceedings at the General Meeting of the County of York on the 19th of December : Account of Debate, &c. at that Meeting; and Proceedings of the Committee of Affociation on the 17th, 18th, 20th, and 21st Days of December 1782. 410. 1 8. 6 d. Stockdale. 1783.
The great national objects which this very respectable Association have had, and Rill have in view, are so well known, as to render it unnecessary for us, at this time, to point them out; indeed we have frequently mentioned them, in the course of our periodical labouss. -We are glad to see, by this report of their proceedings at large, that the Yorkshire patriots continue firm ; that their correspondence and connection with other counties, and committees of association, are extended; and that they nobly persevere in their laudable zeal for promoting a more equal representation of the people of this kingdom in the House of Commons, in order to check, ai least, the pro: gress of parliamentary corruption. Art. 24. The Propriety of retaining Gibraltar impartially confi
dered. 8vo. S:ockdale. 1783. By a short statement of plain facts, which the Author is of opinion (and surely he is right) will weigh more with men of sense and judge ment, than any laboured attempt at oratory and declamation, we are here shewn the impropriety of retaining Gibraltar, fuppofing that setencion hould prove an inn moveable obitacle to the conclusion of the treaty of peace. The subject here discussed naturally divides ir self into three parts, viz. What right Great Britain has to the porsellion of Gibraltar? Of what importance it is to this countryand, Whether it would be for the interest of Great Britain to reftore that place to the Spaniards, for a juft and adequate confideration ? Tbese points are all treated with sober and weighty investigation ; and, on the whole, this sensible, well-informed, and dispaflionate Author, has rendered it very evident, that the best thing we can do with this eoormously expensive, and to us almoft useless fortress, is to get rid of it, on the best serms that can be obtained, as ao equivaleot. From all accounts it appears, that Porto Rico, if offered to us, would have been an excellent bargain on our side. But, perhaps, the most weighey point of confideration with us, is the probability that no peace will be LASTing, while this bare bone of contention remains, to Rimulate the two nations to enmity. Spain will never lose fight of what the most natorally long to repoffels, and which, though but of light * and temporary account with us, is to her an
*“ A feacher in our cap," says the Author.."
object object of consequence, solid and permanent as the rock of which it is composed. Art. 25. Serious Matter for the Confideration of the Members of
both Houses of Parliament, during the Christmas recess. Being Proposals for disposing of Convicts, and for rendering them useful to the Community ; in a Manner agreeable to the ideas of several Magiftrates. By an Independent Man. 8vo. 6 d. Kearsley, &c.
Experience has sufficiently demonstrated the fatal effects of confining convicts for limited terms, in hopes of reforming their morals, and then exposing the public to a renewal of their depredations. The present plan is to send young offenders on board prison-ships, ftationed dear the guard-thips at the Nore; there to be clothed, maintained, and taught the common manual operations of feamanthip, and when fit, to be drafted off on board tips going on service. Those rejected op board the navy, the Author * would send to the Shetland Inands, to be kept ia fervitude for ttipolared terms; those sent to Africa as soldiers, baving been reported to desert to the Dutch with their arms and accoutrements. He adds, that he submits every thing necessary for clearing the plan of legal obstructions, to the wir. dom of the Legiflature, being confident that it may receive such improvements, in a Committee of the House of Commons, as may ren. der it of extensive benefit: and we trust, that his well-meant and well-timed hints will not be overlooked by those who superintend the internal police of the country. Art. 26. À Letter to Mr. Debret, being an Answer to “ Lucu
brations during a short Recess +;" which Pamphlet contains a Plan for altering the Representation of the People. To which is added, dedicated to the Right Hon. Wm. Pirt, a Plan for the immediate Payment of the National Debt; to be inserted in the Bill for amending the Representation, that the whole may form a complete Syftem. 8vo. 1 s. Bladon. 1783.
Mr. Sieclair is treated with great illiberality in this produ&ion, as well by its being addressed to his publisher, as in the tart ftile of examining his plan for reforming the representation of the people. The subject is, indeed, too important, and includes too many confiderations, for the discussion of such light pens as that of the writer now before us; for while political reasoning on popular rights, dic. tates an extenfion of the right of election ; expediency, on a review of the various disorders jocident to popular elections, may dictate sather a contraction of such a privilege. There is, perhaps, the less reason to urge the projected reform if we attend to two writers, far more equal to their task than Mr. Debret's correspondent; the first of whom I contends, that the most able and public-spirited members of the House of Commons, have represented those boroughs which
• Some letters introduced, relating to the plan, are addressed to G. P. Towry, Esq; Golden-square. .+ Sec Rev. Vol. LXVI. p. 383.
I Letter to the Author of Lucubrations, &c. Rev. Vol. LXVII. P. 303.