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buried magnificently, at the expence of his master; his loss being one of the few things that touched his hardened heart.'

We tall here take leave of these valiant knights and illustrious dames, and proceed, with our Author, to the completion of this tour.

From Woburn we are conducted to Ampthill, where there is little remarkable, except Lord Ofsory's house in the park; of which, with it's paintings, Mr. P. in his usual manner, gives an account. Houghton Park and House are contiguous, and are all described. Houghton House being a very magnificent structure, is here made the subject of an elegant engraving. The house and manor, we are told, were purchased by the late Duke of Bedford from the Earl of Aylesbury, and with it the stewardship of the Honour of Ampthill, held under the crown.

We next arrive at Wreft, Lord Hardwick's, where the cu. rious traveller will meet with a grand collection of paintings. • The portraits, and their history (says Mr. P.) would take up a yolume: I must therefore be excused for giving a more brief account than their merits may demand.'

Speaking of three fine portraits, of James I. in his robes ; Anne of Denmark, in white, with a hoop, a feather fan, and her neck exposed; and their son, Henry, in rich armour, boots, and with a truncheon,-Mr. P. observes, that the prince's miJitary turn appears in the dress of all his portraits.- Our Author fubjoins the following reflection, which may be given as an instance of his candour, and perhaps of his penetration. Henry lived, England might probably have transferred the miseries of war to the neighbouring kingdom. His mother had inspired him with ambitious notions, and filled his head with the thoughts of the conquest of France. She fancied him like Henry V. and expected him to prove as victorious. I am sorry to retract the character of this lady; but I fear that my former was taken from a parasite of the court*. She was turbulent, restless, and aspiring to government ; incapable of the management of affairs, yet always intriguing after power. This her wiser husband denied her t, and of course incurred her hatred. Every engine was then employed to hurt his private ease : lhe affected amours of which she was never guilty, and permitted familiarities which her pride would, probably, have never condescended to. James was armed with indifference.'

We come next to Luton, and Luton-Ho. The former a small dirty town, but affording some remarkable monuments, and a very fine font in the church. The latter is become famous on account of its present poffeffor, the Earl of Bute. All the

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particulars

particulars we have here, of this noble seat, are comprized in the following Mort paragraph:

• Luron-Ho,' the seat of Lord Bute, lies near the London road; about three miles from the town. I lament my inability to record bis tafe and magnificence; but alas! the ofefal talent, Principibus placuiffe viris, has been unfortunately denied to me. I must therefore relate the ancient story of the favoured spot. In the 20th of Edward I, it was poffefsed by Robert, who took the addition of de Hoo, from the place; which fignifies a high fituation. His grandson, Thomas, was created Lord Hoo and Haflings, by Henry VI. in 1447 He, if no mistake is made in the account, settled two parts of the tiches on the Abbey of St. Alban's, for the use of frangers. Lord Hoo left only daughters. From one, who married Sir Godfrey Bule len, was descended Queen Elizabeth.

The next place of any considerable note, that we arrive at, is Hatfield, where the great Cecil built the magnificent house yet standing, and which is still possessed by his descendant the Earl of Salisbury. It has lately [since our Author wrote this account] been completely repaired and beautified, in the orig nal style.

Here Mr. P. had his tafte gratified, by the view of a fine collection of paintings, of the principal of which an account is here given :- And then we proceed to Gobions (vulg. Gubbins) late the seat of Sir Jeremy Sambroke, now of Mr. Hunter. Of this place we have only a short historical sketch.

We now enter Middlesex ; and after some account of the New River, Enfield Palace, Waltham Cross, Waltham Abbey, Theobald's, &c. we return with our entertaining guide to London.

The volume is closed by an Appendix, consisting of copies of original papers, relative to the ancient history, records, &c. of some monastic and other places, mentioned in the course of these Journies. The whole is followed by an Index; an advantage which no publication of any confiderable bulk ought to appear without; but of the want of which we have too frequently had occasion to take notice.

Art. II. Şermons, by Alexander Gerard, D.D. Professor of Di

vinity in King's College, Aberdeen, and one of his Majesty's Chaplains in Ordinary in Scotland, 8vo. Vol. II.

55. Boards, Dilly. 1782. N our Review for December, 1780, we gave an account of

the first volume of Dr. Gerard's Sermons; and what was said of the first, may, with equal justice, be applied to the second yolume. There are very few writers who have a clearer or more distinct view of the subjects they treat of than Dr. Gerard, who possess greater strength of reasoning, or who lhew more candous and ļiberality of sentiment,

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He goes on to explain the several particulars implied in found doctrine. It is in general, he says, the pure genuine doctrine of the Gofpel, the very doctrine taught by Christ and his Apostles: entire, without the omiffion of any part of it: unperverted, without being strained or wrested: fincere, unmixed with any thing else, either in the matter or in the manner of expression : proposed chiefly in the sound words in which Christ and his Apostles delivered it.-Sound doctrine means the pure doctrine of the Gospel, particularly as distinguished from all human definitions, limitations, refinements, and super-additions. The Apostle explicitly and anxiously sets it in opposition to all these. His expreffions are levelled directly against the corruptions of doctrine which prevailed at that time, they are so chosen as to be likewise, in strict propriety, applicable to all posterior corruptions of it; he foresaw these, and foretold them, and has an eye to them in several passages of his writings. All the curious or forced explications of Chriftian doctrine, all the groundless or precarious deductions from it, all the subtile controversies about it, which have infested the church, demonstrate themselves to be such adulterations as be condemns; they are marked by the very features which he has delineated; they have produced the very effects which he has described.

They had already begun, says our Author, and they quickly Spread wider and wider. Forgetful that the Gospel was not given to exercise ingenuity, or gratify curiosity; and defirous of recommend, ing it to unbelievers, particularly the philosophers; partly too, it must be owned, swayed by their own preconceived notions, and expeating to display the accuracy of their own apprehenfion, fome Christians began very early to conceive the articles of their faith, according to the theories of the Greek philosophy, chiefly the Platonic; to define them with scientifical precision, and in the phraseology of the schools; and to adopt fimilitudes for illustrating them, and hypotheses for accounting for them, not only arbitrary, but generally improper. They were accused of error. Their accusers were not wile enough to satisfy themselves with proving, that the Scripture did not imply or admit the sense to which they determined it; but, infected with the spirit of the same philosophy, run into opposite definitions, comparisons, hypotheses, and terms of science, oftea equally improper, and equally involving error. These were jully recorted upon them by their adversaries. Controversies were agitated concerning these contradictory definitions ; multitades ranged themselves on each side: they broke out into contention, animosities, unjust fufpicions and infinuations, mutual reproaches and invectives. False. hood was eagerly fought for, and for the most part easily found, in the abftract, subtile definitions of each party. In the progress of disputation, new terms, new distinctions, new comparisons were invented on each side, for marking with precision the peculiarity of its own opinion ; and new hypotheses were contrived for reconciling it to Scripture or to itself, and tor evading the objections urged againft it, Every such attempt produced new questions; and every new question became more frivolous, more nosional, more abArule than the former.

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In discoling it, new refinements of distinction, and new intricacies of argumentation, were introduced. Every disputant added something according to his owo manner of apprehenfion.

• The church was distracted, bewildered, and enflamed. Councils were assembled to determine the points in question, and to extinguilh the heats which they had raised. But, instead of holding fast ibe form of found words, instead of recalling all parties to the fimple do&rine of the Gospel, and rejecting the unscriptural, precarious explications by which both fides went beyond it; they entered into all the minutiæ of the controversy, they debated them with prejudice and palion, they indulged cavil and chicane, they broke forth into clamoor and outrage, inco mutual accusations and threatenings, and fometimes they proceeded to tumult and violence. The itronger party over powered the weaker by their superior vehemence, by the terror of their menaces, by mere force, or by a plurality, it may be, a very small plurality, of voices. They approved all the fubtleties, refinements, and inventions of one party; adopted wbatever hard words and technical terms they thought fittelt for discriminating them from those of the other party; and by a decree of usurped, but formidable authority, they determined all these to be articles of faith, and their chosen terms of art to be the test of the truth. All who refused submiffion to their impositions, they condemned as adherents to the contrary party, and ftigmatized as beretics; and they reviled, anathematized, excommunicated, and, whenever they could get the civil power to enter into their resentments, persecuted, banished, or put them to death. Other councils were assembled, and often gave opposite decisions, established the contrary tenets, and fenced them by contrary terms of art; but till decided in the same spirit of party contention, and violence. None of their decrees ever ended a single controversy. On the contrary, they perpetuated the controversies then subfting, increased the bitterness of contention, and diffused it wider. They never failed likewise to produce new controversies. The persons who opposed them, contrived new terms, diftinctions, and cavils, in contradi&tion to the subtleties implied in their decrees: they differed about thefe, and split into lesser parties. Those who adhered to the decrees, disagreed about their meaning, broke out into fierce contention, charged each other with error or with blafphemy, and disdained communion with one another. By the rage of controversy, and she spirit of faction in all, the Christian church was di. vided and subdivided, and again and again subdivided into sects innumerable, hating and execrating one another; but distinguished only by verbal differences, or by notions, of none of which the Scriptore affirms any thing, or of which the human faculties can form no clear conception, and of which any conception or thought at all is both unnecessary and unprofitable.

• Different systems of philosophy were successively in vogue. With each of these in its turn, the doctrine of the Gospel was unnaturally incorporated. By this means it assumed a variety of forms, but all of them very onlike to its original fimplicity. When the philosophy of Aristotle obtained unrivalled poffeffion of the schools (a philosophy from the beginning subtile, disputatious, and contentious, and rendered more lo by the perversion of the scholaftics), the Christian doctrine, by being adapted to it, ranged according to its forced mode of

distribution,

He goes on to explain the several particulars implied in found. doctrine. It is in general, he says, the pure genuine doctrine of the Gospel, the very do&rine taught by Christ and his Apostles: entire, without the omiffion of any part of it: unperverted, without being strained or wrested : fincere, unmixed with any thing else, either in the matter or in the manner of expression: proposed chiefly in the found words in which Christ and his Apostles delivered it.- Sound doctrine means the pure doctrine of the Gospel, particularly as distinguished from all human definitions, limitations, refinements, and super-additions. The Apostle explicitly and anxiously sets it in opposition to all these.

His expressions are levelled directly against the corruptions of doctrine which prevailed at that time, they are so chosen as to be likewife, in ftri& propriety, applicable to all posterior corruptions of it; he foresaw these, and foretold them, and has an eye to them in several passages of his writings. All the curious or forced explications of Chriftian doctrine, all the groundless or precarious deductions from it, all the subtile controversies about it, which have infested the church, demonstrate themselves to be such adulteracions as be condemns; they are marked by the very features which he has delineated; they have produced the very effects which he has described.

They had already begun, says our Author, and they quickly Spread wider and wider. Forgetful that the Gospel was not given to exercise ingenuity, or gratify curiosity ; and desirous of recommend, ing it to unbelievers, particularly the philosophers; partly too, it must be owned, fwayed by their own preconceived notions, and ex. pecting to display the accuracy of their own apprehenfion, some Christians began very early to conceive the articles of their faith, ac, cording to the theories of the Greek philosophy, chiefly the Platonic; to define them with scientifical precision, and in the phraseology of the schools ; and to adopt similitudes for illustrating them, and hypotheses for accounting for them, not only arbitrary, but generally improper. They were accused of error. Their accusers were not wile enough to satisfy themselves with proving, that the Scripture did not imply or admit ihe sense to which they determined it; but, infected with the spirit of the same philosophy, run into opposite definicions, comparisons, bypotheses, and terms of science, often equally improper, and equally involving error. These were jusly retorted upon them by their adversaries. Controversies were agitated coo. çerning these contradictory definitions ; multitudes ranged themselves on each side: they broke out into contention, animofities, onjuft fufpicions and infinuations, mutual reproaches and invectives. Fairehood was eagerly fought for, and for the most part easily found, in the abftract, subtile definitions of each party. In the progress of difputation, new terms, new distinctions, new comparisons were invented on each side, for marking with precision the peculiarity of its own opinion ; and new hypotheses were contrived for reconciling it to Scripture or to itself, and tor evading the objections arged againftit, Every fuch attempt produced new questions; and every new

question became more frivolous, more notional, more abltrule than the former.

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