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Homes, H., Boston, Mass.. Causes are overproduction and credit system. No legislation can
help matters. On a credit system dealers overload themselves and supply exceeds demand, whereupon brisk competition ensues and
prices fall ruinously. A cash system is the remedy. Hartman, P., 36 Maiden Lane, Incoherent and almost illegible. Thinks there is no overproduction; New York.
but that the scheming Republicans sold out when property was
high and now want to control the money-market. Harang, Th., Banana Grove Plan. Causes: The war; the sudden abolition of slavery; political an:
tation, Parish of La Fourche, tagonisms; the countenance given to fraudulent bankrupts and Raceland post-office, La.
other dishonest men; the clustering of people about cities. Remedies: Protection (on sugar alone it would save us $81,000,000 an.
nually); love and concord. Haley, W., editor of The Enter- Proposes in general terms colonization through a frontier militia, reprise, Chico, Cal.
ceiving government aid, and rendering service against the Indians. Hyde, Oliver, '122 Taylor street, Cause: Decrease in the demand for labor on account of machinery. San Francisco, Cal.
Remedy: Enforce the eight-hour law. Enlist for three years an “army of industrial occupation," to settle on government lands, and provide them with tools, stop paying off the national debt,
and prosecute public works. Fite, Samuel, Philadelphia, Pa .. Written in very general terms. He would cut down government
expenditure and restore imprisonment for debt. Thinks that if a workingman would compare his condition with that of an Indian or a Mexican, he would admit that labor-saving machinery was of
benefit to him. Hollinger, E. N., 12 East Four- Causes are-1st. Overtaxation; which is due to the number of offi. teenth street, New York City. cials, many of whom are unnecessary, at high salaries, and to the
great bonded indebtedness, national, state, and municipal. 2d. Unjust laws. Women have an advantage over men before the law; the decisions of the courts are unjust in many cases, as in the matter of the New York Elevated Railroad, where property-holders' interests were sacrificed, &c. The Fifteenth Amendment should be repealed. He believes that "what is good for the boss is good for the workman"; and that whenever the employer can atford
to he will pay his men well. He is a bookkeeper. Harris, Nat. R., Philadelphia, Pa The whole trouble is with the currency. There is but one bulwark
against revolution, a redundancy of paper currency. Hunt, William, Woodbury, Md... Advocates the removal of duties from raw materials. If this were
done our market would widen and prosperity increase; cites the
effect of such action in silk industry. .John, R. W. S., O'Hara Glass Is a miner; thinks the chief trouble is with the workingmen them. House, Pittsburgh, Pa,
selves, and especially with the drift-men, who get from $2.50 to $4 a day, and cannot keep their families as well as sober, industrious men earning from $1.25 to $1.75 a day. The drinking men average six drinks a day, which cost them $218 a year, or enough to support them; they incite most of the strikes; the saloon is their council.
hall, and whenexcited by drink they do what afterwards they repent. Irwin, Clarke, Oregon, Holt The whole cause of the depression is the heavy taxation of the last County, Missouri.
15 years. If our soil and climate had failed us, we should not have been surprised at the condition of affairs; but the results of heavy taxation are the same as those of “bad years," when imposed on the necessaries of life. In 1846 England was in our condition, and cured herself in a twelvemonth. We have only need to adopt her
policy of that time. -John, C. V. Fordham, N. Y Thinks the trouble is with the trades-unions, and points out their
evils; they render ignorance able to compete with skill, and are
harmful alike to the sober, intelligent workman and to the employer. Kleinert, J.B., 497 Broome street, We are in a transition state, due to the introduction of labor-saving N. Y.
machinery, and there is a demand for employment. In order to furnish it, take the duty off all raw material, promote ship-building, foster agriculture, granting homesteads to bona fide settlers only; tax only manufactured tobacco, incomes, and liquor; limit the franchise, extend education, and push civil-service reform;
tax (here he is contradictory) church property except the edifice. Kinzer, G. C., Madison Run Sta. Tax immigrants $100 each; prohibit the admission of coolies; apply tion, Va.
the proceeds of said tax to paying the interest on the debt; a high tariff on all we produce; admit tea, spices, coffee, &c., free; kill Mr. Wood's bill, issue plenty of greenbacks, tax bonds, create a United States savings-bank." (He earns 90 cents a day on a rail
road, and supports a family. ) Kallenberg, H., New Rochelle, Cause overproduction by machinery; remedy, 8-hour law, and the N. Y.
regulation of wages according to the cost of living. Organize a department of colonization to control public works and provide settlements for colonists, with tools, &c.; the cost of the impla
ments and stock to be repaid without interest. Kennedy, A. N., 47 Jane street, Causes: repeal of bankrupt law-many went into insolvency to avail N. Y.
themselves of the old law; the proposed change of tariff, by unset. tling prices. We are comparable to a machine in perfect order, the drafts of which are stopped by the excess of fuel." Start up public works and take off some of the superfluous labor, and with this
impetus the whole machine will act once more. Kirchner, H , 813 R street N. W., In general terms advocates colonization, quoting Jackson, Webster, Washington, D.C.
and Galusha Grow; considers Mr. Wright's plan a good one.
Landon, Albert, Rutland, Vt..... The remedy we need lies in ceasing to sell interest-bearing bonds,
retiring national bank currency, making greenbacks legal tender with gold and silver, and paying the debt therein by 1879; arranging a scheme of taxation to yield an excess of $50,000,000 a year over expenditure, this surplus to be destroyed until the debt is so wiped out. Articles we can manufacture should be protected;
others should be admitted duty free. Lee, W. F., Adirondack P. 0., Believes liquor to be a chief cause. By Commissioner Raum's report N. Y.
there are over 166,000 liquor dealers in the country, and nearly
$596,000,000 were spent for liquor in 1877. Letson, Thomas, 20 Reade street, Irrelevant. Wants food-adulteration and all tricks of trade stopped.
N. Y. Mumford, J. E
Thinks the trouble is due to the revenue laws, which should be re
pealed; each State should contribute directly its quota of taxation.
The national banks, too, should be done away with. Miller, S. C., 110 North Third The United States should grant farms of -- acres, with agricultural street, Reading, Pa.
implements and a house, to families of three persons willing to form
each year shonld be compulsory. Monroe, J., New York City.... The war engendered habits of luxury: catering to these, industry
was diverted from its old channels, and to supply the place of hand labor, machinery was invented. Therein is the original source of our present depression. To remedy it the tariff should be reduced one-half. The tax upon liquor and tobacco should be so low as to make it unprofitable to defrand the revenue. State banks should not be taxed. Liberal navigation laws should be passed. Notes and 4 per cent. bonds should be interconvertible. The amount of legal-tenders and the government expenditure should be fixed by law. By reducing the dutiable list fewer revenue officers would
be required. The Army and Navy should be cut down. McKinney, H., Plymouth, Pa.... Complains that the system of company's stores in the mining region
oppresses both the laborers, who are practically forced to deal at
them, and small tradesmen. McDonough, Th., Mont Clair, N.J. The debtor class owe chiefly in short notes, bonds, and mortgages.
The notes and bonds adapt themselves, more or less, to a fluctuating market; mortgages do not. Thus when the relation between gold and paper was 1 : 2, if A borrowed on mortgage, he has to pay his debt twice over when gold and paper are at par. To remedy this evil he believes a law should be passed making all liens on real estate payable at their gold value at the date when they were
made. May, Mrs. C. W. B., Bridgeport, All crises are due to the credit system. Our currency rests not on Conn.
coin but on debt, and capital fears to invest. The remedy is to “have coin-certificates as money and not to strain credit beyond readily convertible limits." The common welfare also demands the removal of class privileges, e. g., that one to banks of issuing notes not based on coin ; the limitation on the powers of railroad corporations; free trade; direct protection to weak industries;
direct taxes. Marten, A. W., 32 Oakland ave. Depression is caused by credit system and machinery. Both tend nue, Jersey City, N. J.
to the same result, the accumulation of capital in a few hands; en. riching the rich, impoverishing the poor. The remedy lies in basing currency on gold and silver as nearly as possible, equal in amount per capita as the currency of nations with which we trade; in abolishing monopolies: in diverting capital to production; in paying well and employing all from the proceeds of taxes im
posed on machinery and incomes above $1,000. Millen, Ed., 139 Macdougal street, Patents, being in their nature monopolies, should be jealously issued, New York City.
and the profits from them should be limited by law. Corporations should not be allowed to inflate their capital; their surplus rarnings, now so used, should go toward reducing the prices paid by the public for their articles or services. There should be no pro
tection, and duties should be imposed on as few articles as possible. McLangblin, M. J., Dubuque, Is an employer. Would have a low rate of interest prescribed by Iowa.
national law, and a graduated tax on incomes over $1,000, to form a fund out of which to employ labor ou public works. Prices are now as low as in 1861; but wages, owing to the fact that men are only employed a few days in a week, will not average over fifty
cents a day. Mahn, Jos., Syracuse, N. Y Contraction is the cause of the depression. At the close of the war
we had a good currency. It had no intrinsic value, and therefore was not hoarded but circnlated. We need a per capita currency at least equal in amount to that in which the debt was contracted. All laws looking to resumption should be repealed. Labor-8 lving machinery will in the end be a blessing, but it is bad doctrine to preach retrenchment in consumption. To consume is life's chief pleasure ; not to do so is to be a savage, &c.
Moore, Stephen, 1243 Third ave. The cause is a glut in the labor market. The remedy is to loan every nue, New York City.
industrious citizen $1,000, and place him on the public land; let the rate of interest be low, and collect none the first year; provide them with implements, appoint farmers as inspectors, and if any
so benefited squander their money withdraw their privileges. Manning, S. N., Kankakee, Ill.... The chief causes are over-production, and great immigration. The
remedy against the latter evil is some such rule as that no person shall be allowed to come to this country who is not possessed of a capital of $1,000, if the head of a family; or, if a single man, $500,
or the right of settlement in some agricultural colony, Merriken, F. M., Baltimore, Md .. Contraction and high rates of interest are the causes. Resumption
is the remedy. Niewland, E. J., Brooklyn, N. Y .. Sends several pamphlets embodying his views : believes the chief
cause of all tinancial tronble to be the corruption of financial editors by the great capitalists. This he would remedy by establishing a paper under government control, to inform the public truth
fully of the state of the markets. Newton, Chas. O., Homer, N. Y... Times are only hard if compared to the "flush" days of the war.
For farming communities they are better than before the war. But the present generation having grown up among fictitious values, does not know the true value of a dollar. We need more labor in
the fields and a smaller consumptiou of rum and tobacco. Nicholson, W. J., 45, Tribune The cause is small consumption. The remedy, (1) to make the naBuilding, New York.
tional currency legal tender in payment of customs and debts to the United States'; (2) to establish government savings banks; (3) protection; (4) to foster ship-building; (5) to cut the Darien Canal; (6) complete the Northern and Southern Pacific roads; (7) revoke all railroad grants except sufficient roadway: (8) revise patent and postal laws; (9) make the Interior an industrial bureau, and settle Indians and other poor families on the public lands; (10) consoli. date the War and Navy Departments; (11) substitute a ward sys.
tem of nominations for that of the caucus. Pollock, J. A., 471 Newark ave- In the "flush times" individual credit was orerstrained, whence re. nue, Jersey City.
sulted an abnormal development of trade; on account of the shrinkage in values the debts so freely contracted then have now to be paid in a currency worth twice that in which they were con tracted, and thus the capital which should be pushing forward is busy bringing up the rear. Other causes are, high rates of interest; the absorption of capital by the national debt in bonds : labor. saving machinery; the concentration of trade into large firms, killing out small enterprises (for the profits on iron, wool, cotton, &c., are too small to support trade except on a great scale); the present too great economy of all people: and finally, intemperance. By way of remedy are suggested, a railroad built by the government ont of its lands across the continent, and carrying freights at actual cost; another one from New York to the Mississippi River; and the fostering of agriculture by a national loan to counties, and by them to all who desire to go into farming, the rate of interest be
ing 2 per cent. Pingree, L. F., 8 High street, Port. The cause of the depression is the abundance of all kinds of securiland, Me.
ties in the market which bear a high rate of interest : these divert capital from industrial investments. The remedy lies in a redis
tribution of labor. The national bank system should be abolished. Peck, A. T., Danbury, Conn The reason labor does not eam enough to buy the products of farms
and factories, is that capital finds in funds and banking the best investment. The history of national banks shows that it does not injure the government or increase the debt for the Treasury to loan money without interest. Establish, therefore, all over the country branch banks at which any voter can borrow $5,000 to secure a home, pledging himself to pay principal and 4 per cent interest, and to maintain national and legal-tender notes at par. As every dollar would be secured by a dollar's worth of property, there
would be no loss. Parker, T., Baltimore, MD Proposes this scheme of colonization. Let the government survey
bodies of land, good for farming, containing 1,000 lots of 160 acres each, to be numbered, the even-numbered lots to belong to the United States, and to be sold by them. Let the odd-numbered lots be taken up by inhabitants of cities containing over 25,000 souls; the grantees to be over 25 years old and residents of the country for five years and of the city for one. Advance to the colonists A tents and ammunition, together with a non-interest bearing loan of $500 payable in fifteen years. From this loan let them buy at cost from the government depot necessary stock and implements. Give them free transportation to the colonies, and require an oath to support its welfare. Let the land only be granted to the destitute and confirm the title at the end of fifteen years on payment of the loan by the settler or his heirs. Let the colonies be under supervision by agents, and do not allow one to be started until the en. tire 1,000 lots of every other one are occupied. This plan would relieve the prevailing distress, restore prosperity, and solve the
Indian problem. Packard, A., 155 South street, The various religious organizations should be allowed to pre-empt New York City.
townships and to settle on each one colonies of 100 families.
Palmer, E. F., 560 Third avenue, On behalf of the "Society of Industry and Labor," writes in very gen. New York City.
eral terms that the present depression is due to misgovernment, and could be remedied by prosecuting public works, promoting coloni
zation, fostering commerce, and destructively taxing corporations. Pardy, James W., 33 Lawrence The cause is over-production through machinery. There is plenty street, Newark, N. J.
for sale but no money to buy with. The remedies are (1), to curtail the hours of labor ; (2), to prevent the employment of children under fifteen in factories : (3), a protective tariff; (4), to issue greenbacks to pay the debt: (5), to establish government deposito
ries in which the people might bank. Ract, B
The government should establish savings banks paying 4 per cent. on
deposits up to $1,000, deposits to that amount to be invested in a bond. There should also be government pawn-shops, the interest on pledges not to exceed 8 per cent. There should also be a gor. ernment tobacco factory. These three measures would afford great
relief. Rich, Josiah, 75 Broad street, New The cause is a protective tariff. He argues this at length.
York. Ramage, Adam, Holyoke, Mass Protests as a workingman against being represented by the average
labor-reformer. The cause of the depression was the war expendi. ture of borrowed money. At the close of the war the army of consumers became producers, and every one found himself in debt. The remedy is to go to work and pay our obligations. If Congress will only let matters alone it will be worth more to each citizen
than $80 and two mules. William Ruchrwein, with Fay & Incloses his letter to Cincinnati Gazette. Proposes the setting Co., Cincinnati, Ohio.
apart of 25 sections of government land as a cominencement. The United States to furnish a steam plow, a honse for each family that will take a farm on its terms, provided they are moral citizens and out of work; each house to be built on four acres of the middle section, fifty acres additional being provided each family for farming; crops to be brought to government storehouse for sale: the government to hold part of the land ; night schools to be established, &c. The estimated cost of so locating 240 families is $331,680; the estimated rate of payment to the government
$95,400. George Rhey, Millwood, Pa.... Commenced farming on his present location in 1860, when the prices
of agricultural produce were about the same as those of the previous decade. Laborers were comfortable, and owners reaped about six per centum on money invested in land. During the war prices reached their maximum and remained thereat until the crisis of 1873. Since then they have gradually fallen, and now are for most articles at the minimum of the last thirty years. The price of farms has risen and fallen in like ratio. During the war and until 1873 farmers realized at least six per cent. on capital invested. Now they do not realize 2 per cent. Farm products are more abundant now than in 1860. Prior to 1873 operatives were fully enployed. Now the demand for their services is greatly curtailed, and those who are at work are on short time. Wages are as low as at any time during forty years. Manufacturers and mining operators are losing money. The end will be that all gov. ernment and corporate securities will lose their value unless their
holders diminish their demand. Joslin, J. H., Second Auditor's Incloses a printed slip, wherein he attributes the cause of the de.
Office, Washington, D. C. pression to labor-saving machinery.
enness, and idleness are due to secret mercantile agencies. Sharp, Th. W., 1018 Berks street, The remedy lies in fixing wages at from $2 to $2.50 per diem, and Philadelphia, Pa.
curtailing the hours of work. Samelson, W., 7 Rutgers Place, Argues in a very long communication to the general etfect that the New York.
introduction of labor-saving machinery is the great cause of the depression. But for it there would be an increased employment of labor, and consequently of consumption. It should be taxed out of existence. So far as the effect of this upon our foreign relations is concerned, it may be said that we can dispense with their luxu
ries better than they can forego our necessaries. Smith, Q. L., Buffalo, N. Y The cause of the prevailing distress is not so much lack of work as
starvation wages. There is production in excess of demand.
The remedy lies in shortening the day's work. Sperry, D. R., Batavia, III. Argues against leasing convict labor to contractors, as its competi.
tion is ruinous. No State should be allowed to adopt such a Hystem; but convicts might properly be employed in chain-gangs on public works. States prisons shonld be abolished. Each
county should manage its own criminals. Selleck, M., New York City Proposes many general measures by way of remedy, chief among
which are the abolition of the United States Senate, the issue of currency at the fixed rate of $58 per capita, and a gradual diminu
tion of the hours of labor, beginning with a six-hour law. Singleton, W. B., Lockport, N. Y. The government should plant colonies. Every colonist should bind
himself to remain five years on the land granted him, at the end of which time he should have the fee. The government should reserve alternate farms in the colonies, from the sale of which the expenses of the undertaking might be defrayed. A compromise should be effected with the railroads, under which cheap transpor.
Singleton, W. B.--Continued.... tation could be had for the settlers. Capitalists would find a re
munerative field for investment in colonization. Steuber, A., 61 Bowers street, The chief cause of the depression is the control of legislation by capJersey City Heights, N.J. ital, and especially by corporations. The payment of large divi:
dends on watered stock depresses the rate of wages. We need tenure of office during good behavior for all officials, including thereunder members of Congress; an eight-hour law; direct taxation; courts of arbitration, instead of the present courts, wherein
the expense of litigation would be borne by theState, &c. Thompson, J. S., Chicago, Ill..... Is a workingman. who saves more than he did in war times, and
thinks there is no real depression. Has always found work. Be
lieves liquor and labor agitators are the great causes of discontent. Ullman, H. C., 137 Broadway, Chietly a quotation from Webster's speech of May 25, 1832, on the New York.
bill to renew the charter of the l'nited States bank, pointing out the evils of a paper currency. Paper money, corporate misinanagement, heavy taxes, and the bankrupt law just repealed he be
lieves to be the causes of the distress. Van Wagenan, J., 38 Bayeaux st., Writes at great length, maintaining that nearly all the distress of the Poughkeepsie, N. Y.
country is due to the use of intoxicating liquor; if this is checked
the country will soon recover. Vose, N., Whittier, Lake County, Underconsumption, due to contraction, and not overproduction is Illinois.
the cause. The remedy is to return to the old amount of currenes. Van Benschotten, S., 76 Broad Is a merchant of thirty years' standing, and believes that labor-saving street, New York.
machinery, railroads, and telegraphs, which have revolutionized the methods of business, are the causes of the depression. The remedy is to colonize the idle on public lands, advancing to each family of five $250. For the present push on public works and let all
who can employ labor.
Greenback party, and indorsed by Mr. Peter Cooper. Wood, s, S., 27 West Twenty Is an iron-worker, and believes the duty on raw materials and the fourth street, New York.
great number of oficials are one among the chief causes of the depression. Capital, he thinks, is aggressive in its influence on legis lation and will seek, before long, to establish a large standing army
for its protection. Woodruff, E. P., Chicago, Ill.... Gives a great many statistics to show that the manufacturing inter
est is developed out of proportion to agricultural interests. And gives the details of a colonization scheme in which the only remedy lies. The government should stop the sale of public lands and sei. tle people upon them, retaining itself the fee, and defraying the el
pense by an issue of greenbacks, to be repaid by the colonists. Wolz, Wm., San Francisco .... Secretary of the Cigar.Makers' t'nion, San Francisco. In 1860 cigar:
makers received from $18 to $30 a thousand; in 1866 they received from $15 to $20 a thousand; now they receive from $7 to $12, so that wages do not average $7 a week. The causes are the tenement
house system of the East and Chinese immigration. Whitehouse, F. C., Newport...... Calls attention to the manner in which capitalized expectation of
profit is made to do duty as capital. (His letter is among those
accepted.) Workingman's Society, 115 Chris Submit the case of a tailor who came to this conntry twenty-five years tie street, New York.
ago with household goods and $225. This. with $600 more inherite', is gone.
The family of three, working sixteen hours a day, only earn $10 a week. The causes of the depression are long hours and
labor-saving machinery. Whiteford, J., 1188 Union avenue, Does not agree with Mr. Ho:ace White that people won't go on the Kansas City, Mo.
land. of 1,000 men with whom he talked in Saint Lonis soup-bouses 360 “took the pledge," and said that it was their great desire to take up government land. A great cause of depression is the amount
of capital consumed in vice. Winslow, Ed., Boston, Mass... Thinks the trouble is due to mental causes, which cannot be eradia
cated in this gene ration, but may be in the next; i e., people are not content to live modestly on small earnings. The remedy is in education, partly by offering prizes to well-educated families, by giving rewards as well as inflicting punishments, and by abolishing
time-contracts. Wolf, G. F., 277 East Fayette st., Every one should spend freely. The government should prosecute Baltimore, Md.
public works; by the consequent circulation of money prosperity
would return. Williams, S. M., 128 Leroy street, The number of office holders should be reduced to 60,000; this would New York,
save $90,000,000. The national banks should be abolished, and greenbacks issued with which to buv $100,000,000 of bonds. The saving of interest so ef ected, together with that due to the reduction of officials, would enable us to pay annually $100,0J0,000 of our
debt. Young, F. S., 110 E. Seventeenth The panic was due to contracting the currency from $50 to $15 per street, New York.
capita. The remedy is intation. Zuarf, John H
Lay an export duty on raw material except coal and iron; las no im.
port on prime materials. Enable cit zens to buy vessels abroad. Give no subsidies to private lines, but give premiums to ship-builders for vessels made during a specified time.