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Hence it appears that in 1875 there was an increase of 1,970 vessels (2,556 of them steamers capable of performing two or three voyages for one of sailing vessels) as compared with 1849; of 2,795,350 tons in their capacity, and of 47,057 in the number of men employed. The following is an account of the tonnage of British and foreign vessels, sailing and steam, entering and clearing, with cargoes and in ballast, at ports in the United Kingdom from and to foreign countries and British possessions :

Tonnage of vessels entered and cleared.




Excess of

British tonnage.

1840.. 1854. 1861. 1871 1872 1873. 1874. 1875.

6, 490, 485 2, 949, 182 9, 439, 667 10, 744, 849 7,924, 238 | 18, 669, 087 15, 420, 532 11, 175, 109 26, 595, 641 28, 034, 748

13, 513, 130 41, 547, 878 28, 719, 090 13, 781, 935 | 42, 501, 025 29,647, 344 | 14, 792, 642 44, 439, 986 30, 089, 663 15, 339, 274 45, 428, 957 30, 944, 74415, 332, 094 46, 276, 838

3, 541, 303 2,820, 611 4, 245, 423

14,521 14, 937, 155 14, 750, 409 14, 904, 702 15, 612, 650

The cost of a ship of 1,000 tons register, with sea equipments, not including provipions, equal in strength of fastening and quality of material to a first-class ship, may be stated thus:

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Present rate of wages on British ships, August, 1878.

Per month. First officer...

£8 Second officer, large ships.

6 Third officer, small ships

5 Stewards and cooks..

5 Boatswain, large ships

5 Carpenter ...

6 108. Sailors' wages to Liverpool, with advance.

3 108. Sailors' wages to East, with advance....

2 158. 10 able seamen as a rule, 18 seamen, 2 ordinary, 6 boys, and 13 apprentices to East.

Present rates of wages paid on board British steamers and ships.
Steamers, 1,000 tons and over:

Per month. Captain £25 per month and 4 per cent. on the gross freight, less foreign dis

bursement. First officer..

£11 Second officers.

7 Third officer.

6 Chief steward.

7 Second steward.

4 Cook ...

6 Second Cook.

4 Carpenters..

6 108. Boatswain.

6 108. First engineer.

18 Second engineer.

14 Third engineer.

10 Fourth engineer. Stokers and trimmers

3 Sailors....



Sailing-ships, 1,000 tons and over:

Per month. Captain, £300 a year. First officer..

£7 and £8 Second officer...

5 Third officer and boatswain.

£4 and £4 108. Steward..

5 Cook..

£4 to £4 108 Sailors....

3 to 3 108 We have po law now regarding apprentices; formerly each vessel was bound to carry a certain number, say from four to six according to tonnage; most of the ship-owners, however, do carry them (from two to four per ship); they are bound for five years, and generally receive about £30 for the above term. Formerly in some of the London ships (Green's, for instance) apprentices used to pay a premium. LIVERPOOL, September 23, 1878.

Pauperism in England and Wales.

all classes.


1849. 1863* 1864. 1871. 1-72. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876.

17, 564, 656 934, 419 20, 590, 3561, 142, 624 20,834, 496 1, 009, 289 22, 760, 359 | 1,089, 926 23,067, 835 977, 664 23, 356, 414 890, 372 23, 648, 609 829, 281 23, 944, 459 815, 337 24, 244, 010 749, 593

*American war and cotton famine. Thus pauperism has steadily decreased since 1872, and with a much larger popula tion there are in 1876 185,000 less paupers than in 1849.

Imports and exports of England.

1855 1860 1865 1870 1873 1874 1875

I have not the figures for 1876, 1877.

Total imports and exports.


375,052,224 489,903,861 547,338,070 682,292,137 667,733,165 655,551,800

Mr. MaRSHALL subsequently furnished the following memorandum:
Memorandum of wages paid longshoremen from 1860 to 1877.

Per hour, Per hour,

day work. night work. Laborers

40 cents. 80 cents. Riggers...

45 cents. 80 cents Foremen

50 cents. 80 cents.

Wages paid from January, 1877, to present time.

Per hour, Per bour.

day work. night work. Laborers

30 cents. 45 cents. Riggers.

40 cents. 45 cents. Foremen

45 cents. 45 cents. With the exception of cotton, tobacco, and oil gangs, who still receive forty cents per hour. The average wages of the steady men employed from 1860 to 1877 was $16 per week. At present our best men average about $12 per week. The best years during above time were 1871, 1873, 1874, when steady men averaged $20 per week.

The wages paid in New York.

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Mr. MARSHALL subsequently furnished the following paper :

I desire to amend my testimony before the committee so far as my statements in regard to the cost of wooden and iron vessels are concerned.

I stated that the cost of wooden vessels was at present from $60 to $65 a ton. This fignre is too high. Wooden ships can be built "down East" to-day at $50 per ton. An inferior ship can be built for less; but a first-class vessel, capable of the highest classification, would cost even now at least $50 a ton, ready for sea, with what is called an “ East India outfit;" but the above price would hardly include the cost of metaling.

There is very little activity in ship-building at the present time, and the yards of the country are comparatively idle. Ship-builders, therefore, are willing to accept a contract for a ship at almost the cost of construction, in order to use up their material on hand and to give employment to their workmen. Messrs. Chapman & Flint, of Bath, told me they would build a ship for no profit at all, simply to give wages to their workmen, superintendent, &c. As materials are also very cheap, it is no wonder that the cost of building wooden ships is very reasonable, and the price I have given ($50) is one created by abnormal circumstances, and is hardly a criterion as applied to ordinary times.

I have written to several ship-builders for information on the above points, but I regret to say that I have received but few responses; but from these replies, and from conversations with those who possess a knowledge of the subject, I have no hesitation in saying that what I bave stated is substantially correct. To build a first-class ship in all respects, and give her an East India outfit, wonld, in my opinion, cost, without copper, $50 a ton. I subjoin a list of vessels launched and in process of building during the year 1877, which may be of use in its bearings on this subject.

After the delivery of my testimony before the committee I wrote to England for information as to the cost of iron ships and steamers, and I now submit to the committee the results of that correspondence.

From a gentleman connected with the board of trade, and who has competent sources of information, I have received the following:

"A first-class iron ship with 'East India outfit' could, I believe, be contracted for to-day at £12 12s. per register ton, and a good steamer, suitable for ordinary trades, at £10 to £11 per ton on her dead-weight capacity. The East India ontfit for the ship includes all stores ready for sea except provisions, and the value of it would be about £3 per ton over the values of hull, masts, and spars; but, as I have said above, the total cost would, I believe, be to-day £12 128. per ton.

“As to the capacity, consumption of coal, speed, &c., of a steamer, everything de pends upon the work sbe is registered for, and apart from this any opinion given to you would not be worth having.

“There is a fair amount of activity in ship-building on the Clyde, but nothing ertraordinary, and, as far as niy information goes, I should say there is an indisposition on the part of capitalists, large and small, to invest in shipping property, except in the case of those already embarked in the trade, who are obliged to provide for their requirements and to obtain from time to time vessels of modern construction and with modern improvements.

“Steamships in this country, in my opinion, are fairly employed, but that is all. I do not know that many steamships are laid up now, except steamers, which are, as your question suggests, obsolete and unable to compete with those of modern constructiou.

“The terin 'floating coffin'is one I fail to understand. If it is supposed to describe a class of ships peculiar to British ownership, it is, to those well acquainted with shipping affairs, absurd.

"In England, as in other countries, there are badly-built, badly-sailed, and badly. laden vessels to be met with ; but these are the exceptions and not the rule, and I am not aware that the exceptions in England are more numerous than elsewhere.

“Mr. Plimsoll's efforts were mainly against overloading and to secure a recognized and approved load-line. I have not heard of any efforts being made by ship-owners or ship-builders to obtain a change of the navigation laws of America, and I do not feel qualified to offer an opinion as to the bearing of these on the English shippiug interest."

From another correspondent I have the following: "Thecurrent price per ton of an iron sailing ship of, say, 1,550 tons gross register, with highest class in English Lloyds Liverpool registry for iron vessels, Germanic Lloyds, or in the Bureau Veritas, with a first-class ouitit, well finished in all respects and ready for sea (except provisions), built by builders of repute, would be £ 13 to £13 108. per ton. This vessel would carry 2,250 tons of dead-weight or even more.

“All modern iron ships in this country are built so that they can take the highest class in one or the other of the above books.

“In some instances the general finish of fittings about the decks and in the cabins is inferior, and the outfit less ample and of not so good a quality. By this I mean rigging, running-gear, bawsers, sails, and a short supply of smaller gear; also a suit and a half of sails. In such cases we should consider a vessel inferior, and her cost would be from 5 per cent. to 10 per cent. a ton less than the price quoted above.

“The term • East India outfit' is now almost obsolete. It was in vogue when the conveying of cargo and passengers was done by wooden vessels sailinge from London to India. It bas gradually died out, as iron sailing-vessels and steamers have taken their place. At the same time, what is now known as a first-class outfit is quite equal if not superior in many respects to an • East India outfit.' Provisions are not included in the outfit.

"Steamers are seldom contracted for by the ton, as they vary so much in proportion and grades of strength and class that to give the price per ton would be misleading. The current price for a steamer, to take the highest class in either of the registers, would be, with accommodation for, say, 25 cabin passengers, length 360 to 370 feet, 40 feet beam by 32 feet depth, with a speed of from 10 to 11 knots an hour, £62,000 to £65,000. Consumption of coal, 26 tons a day of 24 hours. Carrying capacity, including coal, on a draught of 23 feet, 3,500 tons dead-weight.

“I believe the cost of the Germanic' White Star Line was about £190,000. I think such a steamer could now be built for £120,000 to £130,000.

“Ship-building on the Clyde, Mersey, Thames, is not very brisk. On the east coast there is more doing, principally steamers for short voyages, such as the Baltic, Mediterranean, and coasting trade.

“ There are not many iron sailing-vessels building at present.

“Ship-owners are giving their attention to steamers, and I am of the opinion that they are right, if they are only fortunate enough to get steamers properly proportioned for their requirements, which in too many instances has not been the case. This is one of the drawbacks that steam has had to contend with.

A great proportion of the sailing and steam shipping of the United Kingdom is owned by co-owners in one ship. I do not think there are many vessels building now in anticipation of better times. Probably this was the case some twelve or eighteen months back. The long continuation of low freights has to a great extent put a stop to that.

“There is a considerable amount of steam-tonnage unemployed in the United Kingdom, but not nearly so much as there was eighteen months back. Many of those still unemployed are of such construction in hull and machinery tbat it is questionable if they would pay even in good times. Some of these are being reconstructed, and the cost of doing this is in some cases almost equal to that of a new vessel.

“There are a good many sailing-ships laid up, but the greater proportion of them ara wooden ships uvfit for service or which require extensive repairs.

“Plimsoll's crusade was against anything likely to endanger the lives of sailors, whether overloading worn-out and unsound vessels or defective construction.

"The commercial marine of England is composed of English, colonial, and States-built

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