Imágenes de páginas
[blocks in formation]

Homes, H., Boston, Mass......... Causes are overproduction and credit system. No legislation can

belp matters. Ou a credit system dealers overload themselves and supply exceeds demand, whereupon brisk competition ensues and

prices fall ruinously. A cash system is the remedy. Hartman, P., 36 Maiden Lane Incoherent and almost illegible. Thinks there is no overproduction; New York.

but that the scheming Republicans sold out when property was

high and now want to control the money-market. Harang, Th., Banana Grove Plan Causes: The war; the sudden abolition of slavery ; political an. tation, Parish of La Fourche.

tagonisms; the countenance given to fraudulent bankrupts and Raceland post-office, La.

other dishonest men; the clustering of people about cities. Remedies: Protection (on sugar alone it would save us $81,000,000 an.

nually); love and concord. Haley, W., editor of The Enter. Proposes in general terms colonization throngh a frontier militia, reprise, Chico, Cal.

ceiving government aid, and rendering service against the Indians. Hyde, Oliver, 122 Taylor street, Cause: Decrease in the demand for labor on account of machinery. San Francisco, Cal.

Remedy: Enforce the eight-hour law. Enlist for three years an "army of industrial occupation," to settle on government lands, and provide them with tools, stop paying off the national debt,

and prosecute public works. Fite, Samuel, Philadelphia, Pa .. Written in very general terms. He would cut down government

expenditure and restore imprisonment for debt. Thinks that if a workingman would compare his condition with that of an Indian or a Mexican, he would admit that labor-saving machinery was of

benefit to him. Hollinger. E. N., 12 East Four: Causes are-1st. Overtaxation; which is due to the number of offi. teenth street, New York City. cials, many of whom are unnecessary, at high salaries, and to the

great bonded indebtedness, national, state, and municipal. 2d. Unjust laws. Women have an advantage over men before the law; the decisions of the courts are unjust in many cases, as in the matter of the New York Elevated Railroad, where property-holders' interests were sacriticed, &c. The Fifteenth Amendment shonld be repealed. He believes that what is good for the boss is good for the workman"; and that whenever the employer can afford

to he will pay his men well. He is a bookkeeper. Harris, Nat. R., Philadelphia, Pa The whole trouble is with the currency. There is but one bulwark

against revolution, a redundancy of paper currency. Hunt, William, Woodbury, Md... Advocates the removal of duties from raw materials. If this were

done our market would widen and prosperity increase; cites the

ettect of such action in silk industry. John. R. W. S., O'Hara Glass Is a miner: thinks the chief trouble is with the workingmen them. House, Pittsburgh, Pa,

selves, and especially with the drift-men, who get from $2.50 to $4 a day, and cannot keep their families as well as sober, industrious men earning from $1.25 to $1.75 a day. The drinking men average six drinks a day, which cost them $218 a year, or enough to support them; they incite most of the strikes; the saloon is their council

hall, and when excited by drink they do what afterwards they repent. Irwin, Clarke, Oregon, Holt The whole cause of the depression is the heavy taxation of the last County, Missouri.

15 years. If our soil and climate had failed us, we should not have been surprised at the condition of affairs; but the results of heavs taxation are the same as those of "bad years," when imposed on the necessaries of life. In 1846 England was in our condition, and cured herself in a twelvemonth. We have only need to adopt her

policy of that time. -John, C. V. Fordham, N. Y ..... Thinks the trouble is with the trades-unions, and points out their

evils; they render ignorance able to compete with skill, and are

harmful alike to the sober, intelligent workman and to the employer. Kleinert, J.B., 497 Broome street, We are in a transition state, due to the introduction of labor-saving N. Y.

machinery, and there is a demand for employment. In order to furnish it take the duty off all raw material, promote ship-building, foster agriculture, granting homesteads to bona fide settlers only; tax only manufactured tobacco, incomes, and liquor; liinit the franchise, extend education, and push civil-service reform;

tax (here he is contradictory) church property except the edifice. Kinzer, G. Madison Run Sta. Tax immigrants $100 each; prohibit the admission of coolies; apply tion, Va.

the proceeds of said tax to paying the interest on the debt; a high tariff on all we produce: admit tea, spices, coffee, &c., free; kill Mr. Wood's bill; issue plenty of green backs, tax bonds, create a United States savings-bank. (He earns 90 cents a day on a rail.

road, and supports a family. ) Kallenberg, H., New Rochelle, Cause overproduction by machinery; remedy, 8-hour law, and the N. Y.

regulation of wages according to the cost of living. Organize a department of colonization to control public works and provide settlements for colonists, with tools, &c.; the cost of the implo

ments and stock to be repaid without interest. Kennedy, A. N., 47 Jane street, Causes: repeal of bankrupt law-many went into insolvency to avail N. Y.

themselves of the old law; the proposed change of tariff, by unset. tling prices. We are comparable to a machine in perfect order, the drafts of which are stopped by the excess of fuel. Start up public works and take off some of the superfluous labor, and with this

impetus the whole machine will act once more. Kirchner, H , 813 R street N. W., In general terms advocates colonization, quoting Jackson, Webster, Washington, D. C.

and Galusha Grow; considers Mr. Wright's plan a good one.

Johouse Padurch, Hara Glass


[blocks in formation]

Landon, Albert, Rutland, Vt..... The remedy we need lies in ceasing to sell interest-bearing bonds,

retiring national bank currency, making greenbacks legal tender with gold and silver, and paying the debt therein by 1879; arrang. ing a scheme of taxation to yield an excess of $50,000,000 a year over expenditure, this surplus to be destroyed until the debt is so wiped out. Articles we can manufacture should be protected;

others should be admitted duty free. Lee, W. F., Adirondack P. O., | Believes liquor to be a chief cause. By Commissioner Raum's report N. Y.

there are over 166,000 liquor dealers in the country, and nearly

$596,000,000 were spent for liquor in 1877. Letson, Thomas, 20 Reade street, Irrelevant. Wants food-adulteration and all tricks of trade stopped.

N. Y. Mumford, J. E

Thinks the trouble is due to the revenue laws, which should be repealed; each State should contribute directly its quota of taxation.

The national banks, too, should be done away with. Miller, s. C., 110 North Third The United States shonld grant farms of -- acres, with agricultural street, Reading, Pa.

implements and a house, to families of three persons willing to form
a colony. The occupants of each farm should pay one or two hun.
dred dollars in cash; the balance of the actual cost of the house
and tools to be paid in annual installments, at 4 per cent. The gov.
ernment should hold first mortgage on the property, and the colo-
nial affairs should be under a department. No liquor should be
sold in the colonies. Eight months of schooling for children in

each year should be compulsory. Monroe, J., New York City... The war engendered habits of luxury : catering to these, indnstry

was diverted from its old channels, and to supply the place of hand labor, machinery was invented. Therein is the original source of our present depression. To remedy it the tariff should be reduced one-half. The tax upon liquor and tobacco should be so low as to make it unprofitable to defrand the revenue. State banks should not be taxed. Liberal navigation laws should be passed. Notes and 4 per cent. bonds should be interconvertible. The amount of legal-tenilers and the government expenditure should be fixed by law. By reducing the dutiable list fewer revenue officers would

be required. The Army and Navy should be cut down. McKinney, H., Plymouth, Pa.... Complains that the system of company's stores in the mining region

oppresses both the laborers, who are practically forced to deal at

them, and small tradesmien. McDonough, Th., Mont Clair, N.J. The debtor class owe chiefly in short notes, bonds, and mortgages.

The notes and bonds adapt themselves, more or less, to a fluctuating market; mortgages do not. Thus when the relation between gold and paper was 1:2, if A borrowed on mortgage, he has to pay his debt twice over when gold and paper are at par. To remedy this evil he believes a law shonld be passed making all liens on real estate payable at their gold value at the date when they were

made. May, Mrs. C. W. B., Bridgeport, All crises are dne to the credit system. Our currency rests not on Conn.

coin but on debt, and capital fears to invest. The remedy is to
* have coin-certificates as money and not to strain credit beyond
readily convertible limits." The common welfare also demands
the removal of class privileges, e. g., that one to banks of issuing
notes not based on coin ; the limitation on the powers of railroad
corporations; free trade; direct protection to weak industries;

direct taxes. Marten, A. W., 32 Oakland ave. Depression is caused by credit system and machinery. Both tend nue, Jersey City, N. J.

to the same result, the accumulation of capital in a few hands; enriching the rich, impoverishing the poor. The remedy lies in basing currency on gold and silver as nearly as possible, equal in amount per capita as the currency of nations with which we trade; in abolishing monopolies; in diverting capital to production; in paying well and employing all from the proceeds of taxes im

posed on machinery and incomes above $1,000. Millen, Ed., 139 Macdougal street, Patents, being in their nature monopolies, should be jealously issued, New York City.

and the profits from them should be limited by law. Corporations should not be allowed to inflate their capital: their surplus tarnings, now so used, should go toward reducing the prices paid by the public for their articles or services. There should be no pro

tection, and duties should be imposed on as few articles as possible. McLaughlin, M. J., Dubuque, Is an employer. Would have a low rate of interest prescribed by Iowa.

national law, and a graduated tax on incomes over $1,000, to form
a fund out of which to employ labor ou public works Prices are
now as low as in 1861 ; but wages, owing to the fact that men are
only employed a few days in a week, will not average over fifty

cents a day. Mahn, Jos., Syracuse, N. Y .... Contraction is the cause of the depression. At the close of the war

we had a good currency. It had no intrinsic value, and therefore was not hoarded but circulated. We need a per capita currency at least equal in amount to that in which the debt was contracted. All laws looking to resumption should be repealed. Labor-giving machinery will in the end be a blessing, but it is bad doctrine to preach retrenchment in consumption. To consume is life's chief pleasure ; not to do so is to be a savage, &c.

[blocks in formation]

Moore, Stephen, 1243 Third ave. The cause is a glut in the labor market. The remedy is to loan every nue, New York City.

industrious citizen $1,000, and place him on the public land, let the rate of interest be low, and collect none the first year: provide them with implements, appoint farmers as inspectors, and if any

so benefited squander their money withdraw their privileges Manning, S. N., Kankakee, Ill ....The chief causes are over-production, and great immigration. The

remedy against the latter evil is some such rule as that no person shall be allowed to come to this country who is not possessed of a capital of $1.000, if the head of a family; or, if a single man, $500,

or the right of settlement in some agricultural colony. Merriken, F. M., Baltimore, MD .. Contraction and high rates of interest are the causes. Resumption

is the remedy. Niewland, E.J., Brooklyn, N.Y.. Sends several pamphlets embodying his views; believes the chief

cause of all tinancial trouble to be the corruption of financial editors by the great capitalists. This he would remedy by establishing a paper under government control, to inform the public truth.

fully of the state of the markets. Newton, Chas. O., Homer, N. Y... Times are only hard if compared to the "flush" days of the war.

For farming communities they are better than before the war. But the present generation having grown up among fictitious values, does not know the true value of a dollar. We need more labor in

the fields and a smaller consumptiou of rum and tobacco. Nicholson, W. J., 45, Tribune The cause is small consumption. The remedy, (1) to make the naBuilding, New York.

tional currency legal tender in payment of customs and debts to the United States; (2) to establish government savings banks; (3) protection; (4) to foster ship-building; (5) to cut the Darien Canal: (6) complete the Northern and Southern Pacific roads; (7) revoke all railroad grants except sufficient roadway; (8) revise patent and postal laws; (9) make the Interior an industrial bureau, and settle Indians and other poor families on the public lands; (10) consoli. date the War and Navy Departments: (11) substitute a ward srs.

tem of nominations for that of the caucus. Pollock, J. A., 471 Newark ave In the "flush times" individual credit was overstrained, whence re. nue, Jersey City.

sulted an abnormal development of trade; on account of the shrinkage in values the debts so freely contracted then have now to be paid in a currency worth twice that in which they were con tracted, and thus the capital which should be pushing forward is busy bringing up the rear. Other causes are, high rates of inter est; the absorption of capital by the national debt in bonds : laborsaving machinery; the concentration of trade into large firms, killing out small enterprises (for the profits on iron, wool, cotton, &c., are too small to support trade except on a great scale); the present too great economy of all people: and finally, intemperance. Be war of remedy are suggested, a railroad built by the government ont of its lands across the continent, and carrying freights at actual cost; another one from New York to the Mississippi River; and the fostering of agriculture by a national loan to counties, and by them to all who desire to go into farming, the rate of interest be

ing 2 per cent. Pingree, L. F., 8 High street, Port. The cause of the depression is the abundance of all kinds of securi. land, Me.

ties in the market which bear a high rate of interest: these divert capital from industrial investments. The remedy lies in a redis

tribution of labor. The national bank system should be abolished. Peck, A. T., Danbury, Conn ..... The reason labor does not earn enough to buy the products of farms

and factories, is that capital finds in funds and banking the best investment. The history of national banks shows that it does not injure the government or increase the debt for the Treasury to loan money without interest, Establish, therefore, all over the conntry branch banks at which any voter can borrow $5,000 to secure & home, pledging himself to pay principal and 4 per cent interest, and to maintain national and legal-tender notes at par. As every dollar would be secured by a dollar's worth of property, there

would be no loss. Parker, T., Baltimore, Md ..... Proposes this scheme of colonization. Let the government survey

bodies of land, good for farming, containing 1,000 lots of 160 acres each, to be numbered, the even-numbered lots to belong to the United States, and to be sold by them. Let the odd-numbered lots be taken up by inhabitants of cities containing over 25,000 souls; the grantees to be over 25 years old and residents of the country for five years and of the city for one. Advance to the colonists A tents and ammunition, together with a non-interest bearing loan of $500 payable in fifteen years. From this loan let them buy at cost from the government depot necessary stock and implementa Give them free transportation to the colonies, and require an oath to support its welfare. Let the land only be granted to the desti. tute and confirm the title at the end of fifteen years on payment of the loan by the settler or his heirs. Let the colonies be under supervision by agents, and do not allow one to be started until the en. tire 1,000 lots of every other one are occupied. This plan wonld relieve the prevailing distress, restore prosperity, and solve the

Indian problem. Packard, A., 155 South street, The various religious organizations shonld be allowed to pre-eropt New York City.

townships and to settle on each one colonies of 100 families.

"ing of a from continenad built intempale); thaton, &c.

[blocks in formation]

Palmer, E. F., 560 Third avenue, On behalf of the "Society of Industry and Labor," writes in very gen· New York City.

eral terms that the present depression is due to misgovernment, and could be remedied by prosecuting public works, promoting coloni

zation, fostering commerce, and destructively taxing corporations. Purdy, James W., 33 Lawrence The cause is over-production through machinery. There is plenty street, Newark, N. J.

for sale but no money to buy with. The remedies are (1), to cur. tail the hours of labor ; (2), to prevent the employment of children under fifteen in factories; (3), a protective tariff; (4), to issue greenbacks to pay the debt; (5), to establish government deposito

ries in which the people might bank. Ract, B ......

The government should establish savings banks paying 4 per cent. on deposits up to $1.000, deposits to that amount to be invested in a bond. There should also be government pawn-shops, the interest on pledges not to exceed 8 per cent. There should also be a gov. ernment tobacco factory. These three measures would afford great

relief. Rich, Josiah, 75 Broad street, New The cause is a protective tariff. He argues this at length.

York. Ramage, Adam, Holyoke, Mass .. Protests as a workingman against being represented by the average

labor-reformer. The cause of the depression was the war expendi. ture of borrowed money. At the close of the war the army of consumers became producers, and every one found himself in debt. The remedy is to go to work and pay our obligations. If Congress will only let matters alone it will be worth more to each citizen

than $80 and two mules. William Ruchrwein, with Fay & Incloses his letter to Cincinnati Gazette. Proposes the setting Co., Cincinnati, Ohio.

apart of 25 sections of government land as a commencement. The t'nited States to furnish a steam plow, a house for each family that will take a farm on its terms, provided they are moral citizens and out of work; each house to be built on four acres of the middle section, fifty acres additional being provided each family for farming; crops to be brought to government storehouse for sale: the government to hold part of the land ; night schools to be established, &c. The estimated cost of so locating 240 families is $331,680; the estimated rate

$95,400. - George Rhey, Millwood, Pa.... Commenced farming on his present location in 1860, when the prices

of agricultural produce were about the same as those of the previous decade. Laborers were comfortable, and owners reaped abont six per centum on inoney invested in land. During the war prices reached their maximum and remained thereat until the crisis of 1873. Since then they have gradually fallen, and now are for most articles at the minimum of the last thirty years. The price of farms has risen and fallen in like ratio. During the war and until 1873 farmers realized at least six per cent. on capital invested. Now they do not realize 2 per cent. Farm producto are more abundant now than in 1860. Prior to 1873 operatives were fully employed. Now the demand for their services is greatly curtailed, and those who are at work are on short time. Wages are as low as at any time during forty years. Manufacturers and mining operators are losing money. The end will be that all gov. ernment and corporate securities will lose their value unless their

holders diminish their demand. Joslin, J. H., Second Auditor's Incloses a printed slip, wherein he attributes the cause of the de. Office, Washington, D. C.

pression to labor-saving machinery. Schulein, S., Fort Scott, Kans ... The prevailing depression and three-fourths of the failures, drunk.

enness, and idleness are due to secret mercantile agencies. Sharp, Th. W., 1018 Berks street, The remedy lies in fixing wages at from $2 to $2.50 per diem, and Philadelphia, Pa.

curtailing the hours of work. Samelson, w., 7 Rutgers Place, Argues in a very long communication to the general effect that the New York.

introduction of labor-saving machinery is the great cause of the depression. But for it there would be an increased employment of labor, and consequently of consumption. It should be taxed out

of existence. So far as the effect of this upon our foreign relations I is concerned, it may be said that we can dispense with their luxu

ries better than they can forego our necessaries. Smith, Q. L., Buffalo, N. Y ....... The cause of the prevailing distress is not so much lack of work as

starvation wages. There is production in excess of demand.

The remedy lies in shortening the day's work. Sperry, D, R., Batavia, nu...... Argues against leasing convict labor to contractors, as its competi.

tion is ruinous. No State should be allowed to adopt such a System; but convicts might properly be employed in chain-gangs on public works. States prisons shonld be abolished. Each

county should manage its own criminals. Selleck, M., New York City ..... Proposes many general measures by way of remedy, chief among

which are the abolition of the l'nited States Senate, the issue of currency at the fixed rate of $58 per capita, and a gradual diminu

tion of the hours of labor, beginning with a six-hour law. Singleton, W. B., Lockport, N. Y. The government should plant colonies. Every colonist should bind

himself to remain five years on the land granted him, at the end of which time he should have the fee. The government should reserve alternate farms in the colonies, from the sale of which the expenses of the undertaking might be defrayed. A compromise should be effected with the railroads, under which cheap transpor.

u Berks street, therehe


[blocks in formation]

Singleton, W. B.-Continued..... tation could be had for the settlers. Capitalists would find a re

munerative field for investment in colonization. Steuber, A., 61 Bowers street, The chief cause of the depression is the control of legislation by eap. Jersey City Heights, N.J.

ital, and especially by corporations. The payment of large divi. dends on watered stock depresses the rate of wages. We need tenure of office during ood behavior for all officials, including thereunder members of Congress; an eight-hour law; direct taxation; courts of arbitration, instead of the present courts, wherein

the expense of litigation would be borne by theState, &c. Thompson, J. S., Chicago, Ill..... Is a workingman, who saves more than he did in war times, and

thinks there is no real depression. Has always found work. Be

lieves liquor and labor agitators are the great causes of discontent. Ullman, H. C., 137 Broadway, Chietly a quotation from Webster's speech of May 25, 1832, on the New York.

bill to renew the charter of the l'nited States bank, pointing out the evils of a paper currency. Paper money, corporate mismahagement, heavy taxes, and the bankrupt law just repealed he be

lieves to be the causes of the distress. Van Wagenan, J., 38 Bayeaux st., Writes at great length, maintaining that nearly all the distress of the Poughkeepsie, N. Y.

country is due to the use of intoxicating liquor; if this is checked

the country will soon recover. Vose, N., Whittier, Lake County, Underconsumption, due to contraction, and not overproduction is Illinois.

the cause. The remedy is to return to the old amount of currency. Van Benschotten, s 76 Broad Is a merchant of thirty years' standing, and believes that labor-saving street, New York.

machinery, railroads, and telegraphs, which have revolutionized the methods of business, are the causes of the depression. The rema edy is to colonize the idle on public lands, advancing to each family of five $250. For the present push on public works and let al

who can employ labor. Warmoth, M. M., Brandenburg, Contraction is the cause; inflation is the remedy.

Ky. Winston, W. H., New York......Sends an exposition of the causes assigned for the depression by the

Greenback party, and indorsed by Mr. Peter Cooper. Wood, s. s., 27 West Twenty: Is an iron-worker, and believes the duty on raw materials and the fourth street, New York.

great number of o:licials are one among the chief causes of the depression. Capital, he thinks, is aggressive in its influence on legis lation and will seek, before long, to establish a large standing arms

for its protection. Woodruff, E. P., Chicago, Ill..... Gives a great many statistics to show that the manufacturing inter

est is developed out of proportion to agricultural interests And gives the details of a colonization scheme in which the only remedy lies. The government should stop the sale of public lands and settle people upon them, retaining itself the fee, and defraying the er

pense by an issue of greenbacks, to be repaid by the colonists. Wolz, Wm., San Francisco ..... Secretary of the Cigar Makers' t'nion, San Francisco. In 1860 cigar

makers received from $18 to $30 a thousand; in 1866 they received from $15 to $20 a thousand; now they receive from $7 to $12, so that wages do not average $7 a week. The causes are the tenement

house system of the East and Chinese immigration. Whitehouse, F.C., Newport...... Calls attention to the manner in which capitalized expectation of

profit is made to do duty as capital. (His letter is among those

accepted.) Workingman's Society, 115 Chris Submit the case of a tailor who came to this country twenty-five years tie street, New York.

ago with household goods and $225. This, with $600 more inherited is gone. The family of three, working sixteen hours a day, only earn $10 a week. The causes of the depression are long hours and

labor-saving machinery Whiteford, J., 1188 Union avenue, Does not agree with Mr. Ho:ace White that people won't go on the Kansas City, Mo.

land. Of 1.000 men with whom he talked in Saint Louis soup-houses 360 "took the pledge," and said that it was their great desire to take up government land. A great cause of depression is the amount

of capital consumed in vice. Winslow, Ed., Boston, Mass.... Thinks the trouble is due to mental causes, which cannot be eradi:

cated in this generation, but may be in the next; i e., people are not content to live modestly on small earnings. The remedy is in education, partly by offering prizes to well-educated families, by giving rewards as well as inflicting punishments, and by abolishing

time-contracts. Wolf, G. F., 277 East Fayette st., | Every one shonld spend freely. The government should prosecute Baltimore, Md.

public works; by the consequent circulation of money prosperity

would return. Williams, S. M., 128 Leroy street, The number of office holders should be reduced to 60,000; this would New York,

save $90,000,000. The national banks should be abolished, and greenbacks issued with which to buy $700,000,000 of bonds. The saving of interest so et ected, together with that due to the reduction of officials, would enable us to pay annually $100, 0.10,000 of our

debt. Young, F. S., 110 E. Seventeenth The panic was due to contracting the currency from $50 to $15 per street, New York.

capita. The remedy is indation. Zuarf, John H.....

Lay an export duty on raw material except coal and iron; las no im

port on prime materials. Enable cit zens to buy vessels abroad. Give no subsidies to private lines, but give premiums to ship-builders for vessels made during a specified time.

« AnteriorContinuar »