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Table IV shows the percentage of increase or decrease in average weekly wages for 1878, as compared with 1860, in each of the cities and towns visited. For purposes of ready comparison we repeat the columns showing the number employed in manufacturing and mechanical occupations in each city and town, according to the census of 1875, and also the number for which wages for 1860 and 1878 were obtained.

TABLE IV.- Increase or decrease in wages by cities and towns.

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NOTES ON TABLE IV. In Methuen and Newburyport the wages for 1860 could not be obtained. In Peabody the increase is in the leather industry. Rockport's decrease is in the stone industry. Salem shows a gain in leather: no figures for the cotton industry in 1860 in Salem could be secured. In Montague the increase is caused by advances in the pay of agricultural laborers and in the paper industry: the cutlery busi. ness, now so extensively carried on at Turner's Falls, in this town, has grown up since 1860. In Mon. son, on account of the great changes in the manufacture of straw goods, caused by the introduction of machiners, no comparative figures could be obtained. In Easthampton the gain is on elastic fabrics.

Table V resembles Table IV in every respect, excepting that the presentation is by occupations, instead of by cities and towns.

TABLE V.-Increase or decrease in wages by occupations.

Occupations.

Number of employés
for which wages for
1860 and 1878 were
obtained.

Whole number employ.

ed in manufacturing
and mechanical in-
dustries, according
to census of 1875.

| Percentage of increase

or decrease for 1878, i
as compared with

1860.
I

18,006

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38 per cent. increase

per cent. increase. 1, 109 per cent. increase 1, 240 38 per cent. increase 2, 458 per cent, increase. 3, 7503 per cent increase 1. 096 17 per cent, increase.

14 per cent, increase. 48, 090

2.6 per cent increase

3 per cent, increase 1. 528 12 per cent. decreas.

43 per cent increase

38 per cent. increase 2,091

13 per cent. incrrane. 268 15 per cent. inerras. 2, 394 12 per cent. iper

9 per cent. increase
6 per cent. derna.

25 per cent increase. 44, 181 16 per cent. increase

040S 6 per cent. inchrase.

** 16 per cent, increase. 3, 11923 per cent, increase. 3, 072 30 per cent, increase

8 per cent. inciras.

See note. 265 See note. 60, 176 19 per cent. inteiras 9, 69119 per cent. incrra. 1, 291 See note. 6, 620 28 per cent, increas.

20 per cent increase

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Agricultural laborers by the day ....
Agricultural laborers by the month .
Arms and ammunition
Artisans' tools ........
Blacksmiths.......
Bleaching, dyeing, and printing
Bookbinding, men.....
Bookbinding, women ...
Boots and shoes ......
Boxes, men.........
Boxes, women and girls.
Boxes, boys ......
Bread and crackers, men ...
Bread and crackers, women ...
Breweries .....
Bricks....
Brushes, men..
Brushes, women.
Brushes, boys .....
Building trades......
Cabinet-making, men...
Cabinet-making, women
Carpetings .......
Carriages....
Clothing....

Hosiery.
Corsets......
Cotton goods ...
Dressmaking.
Glass.
Leather .........
Linen and jute goods (linen).

Jute goods.
Machines and machii
Matches......
Metals and metallic goods (heavy).

Cutlery .....
Safes ......

Type
Metals and metallic goods (tine work, jewelry, fine

steel-work, &c.
Millinery ...........
Musical instruments ...............
Paints..........
Paper .........

Envelopes .....
Preserved meats, pickles, &c..
Printing .........
Rubber goods, elastic fabrics.
Ships.....
Silk ......
Soap and candles ...
Stone......
Straw goods ...,
Tobaceo .......
Woolen goods ...

Wool hats...
Worsted goods .....

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110 910) 960 101 200

27 per cent. inetrace.
See note.
See note.

9 per cent, increas, 15 per cent. increase 16 per cent. inetrace.

17, 563

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40 520 218 200 400

290 8, 145

273 1,000

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25 per cent, increase 23 per cent. incttasp.

per cent. inerras. 28 per cent, increase 41 per cent, increase. 11 per cent. decreas.

2 per cent. decrrar. 30 per cent, increase See note. 52 per cent. decreases 45 per cent, increase. 13 per cent. increase

8 per cent. increase See note. 22 per cent, increase 33 per cent increase. See note. 22 per cent increase

WOTES OX TABLE V.

In the manufactures of hosiery, corsets, jute goods, and heavy metallic goods, no figures for 1460 evuld be obtained. The wages of glass-makers for 1860 were not secured, but employers expressed the opinion that there was no material difference between 1860 and 1878. Mannfacturers of matches reported ten per cent. less help employed in 1878, at about the same wages as in 1860. No comparative figures could be obtained in the rubber-goods industry, but employers said wages were thirty per cent. higher than in 1860. The great change in the manner of manufacturing stravo goods renders comparisons impossible. One hundred hands, with present machinery, can turn out as much work as two hundred did formerly. Besides, this business was once partially a home industry, much work being given out; but now the greater part of the labor is performed in the shops. In the wool-hat industry the loss of books by fire prevented our securing wages for 1860.

By independent but verifying averages, drawn from the preceding tables, of wages by towns and industries, we find that the returns for 63,515 employés in the occupations considered, in the cities and towns visited, show that average weekly wages, on a gold basis, were twenty-four and four-tenths per cent. higher in 1878 than they were in 1860.

PRICES.

The above result concerning wages being arrived at, the subject of the cost of living becomes a vitally interesting question.

We first present a table showing the prices of groceries, provisions, fuel, dry goods, boots, rent, and board for 1860, 1872, and 1878, together with a column showing the percentage of increase or decrease on each item of expense for 1878 as compared with 1860: TABLE VI. - Average retail prices, 1860, 1872, and 1878.

- - - - - -

Average retail prices.

Standard, gold.

Articles.

Percentage of increase
or decrease for 1878 as
compared with 1860.

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GROCERIES.
Flour, wheat, superfine .....
Flour, wheat, family....
Flour, rye
Corn meal...
Codfish, dry
Rice ......
Beans.....
Tea, Oolong.......
Coffee, Rio, green.
Coffee, roasted.
Sugar, good brown...
Sugar, coffee.
Sugar, granulated ....
Molasses, New Orleans
Molasses, Porto Rico
Sirup ... ..
Soap, common...
Starch...

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Beef, roasting......
Beef, soup ..........
Beef, rump steak ..
Beef, corned
Veal, fore quarter..
Veal, hind quarter ..
Veal cutlets .......
Mutton, fore quarter
Mutton, leg.......
Mutton-chops.
Pork, fresh ....
Pork, salted.
Hams, smoked..
Shoulders, corned.
Sausages ........
Lard.....
Mackerel, pickled.
Butter .....
Cheese.....
Potatoes..
Milk......
Eggs ......

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TABLE VI.-Arerage retail prices, 1860, 1872, and 1878–Continued.

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Averaging and consolidating the above returns under the group-heads designated in the table, we find that in 1878, as compared with 1860 :

Per cent Groceries have advanced in price....... Provisions have advanced in price... Fuel has advanced in price...... Dry goods have fallen in price ..... Boots have advanced in price.... Rents have advanced in price.. Board has advanced in price..

On all these items of expense entering into the cost of living we find that the arerage price was fourteen and a half per cent. higher in 1878 than it was in 1860.

Continuing our examination of Table VI, we find that groceries were 53 per cent. higher in 1872 than they were in 1860, and 43 per cent. higher than they were in 1875. Provisions were 50 per cent. higher in 1872 than in 1860, and 17 per cent. higher than in 1878. Fuel in 1872 was 52 per cent, higher than in 1860, and 44 per cent. higher than in 1878. Dry goods were 28 per cent. higher in 1872 than in 1860, and 40 per cent, higher than in 1878. Men's heavy boots were 43 per cent. higher in 1872 than in 1860, and 21 per cent. higher than in 1878. Rents were 156 per cent. higher in 1972 than in 1860, and 105 per cent. higher than in 1878. Board was 104 per cent. higher in 1872 than in 1860, and 37 per cent, higher than in 1878. On all these items of ex. pense prices were 76 per cent. higher in 1872 than in 1860, and 54 per cent. higher than in 1878. The final result, then, for 1878, as compared with 1860 and 1872, shows, on all the items of expense, prices 141 per cent, higher in 1878 as compared with 1860, and prices 54 per cent. lower as compared with 1872.

These average prices were based upon returns from 30 out of the 34 cities and towns which supplied the returns of wages. The four places from which we did not secure prices were the towns of Montague, Quincy, and Webster, and the city of Worcester. In order to show the local variations in the prices of groceries, provisions, &c., we subjoin the following city and town showings. It should be borne in mind that the classification of articles under the heads - groceries," “ provisions," &c., is the same as that followed in Table VI. In each city and town showing, in order to make it complete in itself, we have also given the percentage of advance on all the items of expense and the percentage of increase or decrease in wages.

TOWN OF ADAMS, COUNTY OF BERKSHIRE.

Groceries have advanced 3 per cent., provisions 9.5 per cent., boots and shoes 4 per cent, and the price of board 50 per cent. Fuel is 1.6 per cent. lower, and dry goods 28.4 per cent. Rents remain unchanged. Average increase of 5 per cent. on all items of expense. Wages have advanced 40 per cent.

TOWN OF GREAT BARRINGTON, COUNTY OF BERKSHIRE.

Groceries have advanced 10.7 per cent., provisions 15.5 per cent., boots and shoes 9 per cent., fuel 4.4 per cent., rents 20 per cent., and the price of board 25 per cent. Dry goods are 18 per cent. lower. Average increase of 12.5 per cent. on all items or expense. Wages have advanced 47 per cent.

TOWN OF LEE, COUNTY OF BERKSHIRE.

Groceries have advanced 12.8 per cent., provisions 21.4 per cent., boots and shoes 13 per cent., and the price of board 18.9 per cent. Fuel is 9 per cent. lower and dry goods 8 per cent. Rents remain unchanged. Average increase of 5.8 per cent. on all items of expense. Wages have advanced 63 per cent.

TOWX OF PITTSFIELD, COUNTY OF BERKSHIRE.

Groceries have advanced 17.7 per cent., provisions 16.2 per cent., boots and shoes 25 per cent., rents 20 per cent., and the price of board 41 per cent. Fuel is .7 per cent. lower and dry goods 11 per cent. Average increase of 18 per cent. on all items of expense. Wages have advanced 29 per cent.

CITY OF HAVERHILL, COUNTY OF ESSEX.

Groceries have advanced 32 per cent., provisions 58 per cent., boots and shoes 40 per cent., fuel 25 per cent., rents, 65 per cent, and the price of board 66.6 per cent. Average increase of 39 per cent, on all items of expense. Wages have advanced 10 per cent.

TOWN OF IPSWICH, COUNTY OF ESSEX.

Groceries have advanced 12 per cent., provisions 43.2 per cent., boots and shoes 30.7 per cent., fuel 3.7 per cent., and no return for the price of board in 1860. Dry goods are 6.2 per cent. lower. Rents remain unchanged. Average increase of 8.7 per cent. on all items of expense. Wages have advanced 16 per cent.

CITY OF LAWRENCE, COUNTY OF ESSEX.

Groceries have advanced 20.6 per cent., provisions 28.5 per cent., boots and shoes, 22.7 per cent., rents 30 per cent., and the price of board 59.3 per cent. Fuel is 3.6 per cent. lower and dry goods 7.3 per cent. Average increase of 27 per cent. on all items of expense. Wages have advanced 16 per cent.

(ITY OF LYXX, COUNTY OF ESSEX.

Groceries have ailvanced 8.2 per cent., provisions 31.3 per cent., boots and shoes 31 per cent., fuel 21 per cent., rents 41 per cent., and the price of board 63 per cent. Dry goods are 11.4 per cent. lower. Average increase of 32 per cent, on all items of expense. Wages have advanced 56 per cent.

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Groceries have advanced 16 per cent., provisions 71 per cent., boots and shoes 33.3 per cent., fuel 19 per cent., rents 25 per cent., and the price of board 64 per cent. Dry goods are 6.6 per cent. lower. Average increase of 27 per cent. on all items of expense. No return was made for wages in 1860.

CITY OF NEWBU'RYPORT, COUNTY OF ESSEX.

Groceries have advanced 7.6 per cent., provisions 34 per cent., boots and shoes 28 per cent., fnel 12.5 per cent., rents 12 per cent., and the price of board 34 per cent. Dry goods are 10 per cent. lower. Average increase of 15 per cent. on all items of expense. No return was inade for wages in 1860.

TOWN OF PEABODY, COUNTY OF ESSEX.

Groceries have advanced 18.2 per cent., provisions 68.2 per cent., boots and shoes 27.2 per cent., fuel 19.6 per cent., rents 25 per cent., and the price of board 50 per cent. Dry goods are 2.6 per cent. lower. Average increase of 26 per cent. on all items of expense. Wages have advanced 10 per cent.

TOWN OF ROCKPORT, COUNTY OF ESSEX.

Groceries have advanced 19.9 per cent., provisions 64.8 per cent., boots and shoes 54.5 per cent, fuel 15.6 per cent., rents 27 per cept., and the price of board 58.3 per

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