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JUL 18 1935

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1885, by

P. V. N. MYERS, in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.



HIS work is a continuation of my Outlines of Ancient His

tory. The two books are alike in general plan, but the present volume is intended for pupils of somewhat maturer minds than those for whom the first book was written.

Ueberweg's definition of History, that it is the unfolding of the essence of spirit, has, I perhaps ought to say, had much to do in determining the character of the work. It is under the influence of this conception that I have estimated the value of facts and judged of the significance of events. My aim has been to deal with the essential elements, not the accidental features, of the life of the race. The book, therefore, gives prominence to the virtues, rather than the vices, of men. It concerns itself mainly with those phenomena and institutions which are the expression of the permanent tendencies of the developing spirit of humanity.

The guiding idea mentioned has controlled the analysis of the subject matter. The principles of grouping are the laws of historic levelopment. Events have not, as a rule, been gathered under eigns or dynasties.

The divisions and subdivisions of the subject being thus philophical and natural, with cause and effect as the associating prinle, the whole has unity and cohesion, and, readily impressing If upon the memory of the reader, forms a permanent outline his guidance in all further historical work. At times, the mate

rial is gathered about prominent personages, but only because these are the representatives of great principles or tendencies.

With the analysis completed, my aim has been the expansion of this into a clear, continuous, and attractive narrative, – into a story that should at every point hold the attention and throughout sustain the interest of the reader. The infinite difficulty of giving proper perspective and artistic form to the work, on account of the very superabundance of the material to be dealt with, will be appreciated by all students of these periods of history. An honest effort, however, has been made to do this, considerable portions of the volume having been rewritten several times. The book has been kept within moderate compass and prevented from becoming a niere schedule of names and dates, only by the rigid adhesion to two rules. First, facts have been regarded as available and of value simply as they might be used to illustrate historic laws, principles, or tendencies. This rule has excluded a multitude of details whose presence, instead of rendering clearer the vision, would simply tend to obscure the view. Second, from among many possible illustrative facts, only the most striking or typical have been selected, and these have been presented with as much background and atmosphere as possible in limited space ; for simply to mention facts and not frame them, is to give the reader a page which will leave nothing but a blur upon the memory.

Writing primarily for the student and the teacher, I have tried to keep ever before me the necessity of condensed and suggestive statement. My effort has been to lodge germs in the mind, not to transplant into it fully-developed ideas. Consequently, while the text is designed for memorizing by the pupil, it is also adapted to being made the basis of easy amplification by illustration and comment on the part of the teacher.


I have, of course, carefully avoided a controversial tone, and yet I have not thought I should conceal, nor have I concealed, my profound sympathy with the principles of religious toleration and of political democracy. Especially have I not thought that the impartiality which should characterize a work like the present forbade my endeavoring, by every art in my power, to foster in the mind of the young student a hatred of all forms of political exclusiveness and tyranny, and a hopeful and sympathetic interest in the institutions of self-government.

I scarcely need to add that the book is not a political history, nor yet the history of any single element of civilization. It aims to blend in a single narrative accounts of the social, political, literary, intellectual, and religious developments of the peoples of mediæval and modern times, — to give in simple outline the story of civilization since the meeting, in the fifth century of our era, of Latin and Teuton upon the soil of the Roman Empire in the West.

As the pupil is supposed to be familiar with United States history before he comes to this text-book, I have referred to the affairs of our own country, only when necessary to show the influence of the New World upon the Old. Nor have I attempted to give any connected account of the nations of Eastern Asia, for the double reason of lack of space, and because they lie so aside from the main currents of history, I could leave them out without omitting any essential feature of the story I had to tell.

In the preparation of the book, I have not failed to refer to all the best authorities within my reach. From among the many Forks I have used, I desire to make special mention of the followng, because it is their guidance I have mainly followed in treating he subjects with which they severally deal: Freeman's History of e Norman Conquest; Michaud's History of the Crusades;

Bryce's The Holy Roman Empire; Symonds's The Renaissance in Italy; Green's History of the English People; Motley's Rise of the Dutch Republic; Hallam's Constitutional History of England; Schuyler's Peter the Great; and Thiers's The French Revolution.

From among the numerous other works to which I am indebted, though in a less degree than to the above, I desire to name the following: Hallam's Middle Ages; Hodgkin's Italy and her Invaders; Finlay's History of the Byzantine and Greek Empires; Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; Lecky's History of European Morals; Muir's Mahomet and Islam; Osborn's Islam under the Arabs; Ockley's History of the Saracens ; Montesquieu's The Spirit of Laws; Lea's Superstition and Force; Guizot's History of Civilization; Lea's Studies in Church History; Milman's History of Latin Christianity; Ranke's History of the Popes; Alzog's Universal Church History; Trench's Lectures on Mediæval Church History; Freeman's Historical Geography of Europe; Draper's Intellectual Development of Europe; Stubbs's Constitutional History of England; Bontaric's Le Régime Féodal; Johnson's The Normans in Europe; Mill's History of Chivalry; Robertson's History of Charles V.; Prescott's several histories; Morgan's Ancient Society; Martin's and Kitchen's histories of France ; Seebohm's The Era of the Protestant Revolution and The Oxford Reformers of 1498; Baird's History of the Rise of the Huguenots; Fisher's History of the Reformation; Schiller's, Gardiner's, and Gindely's histories of the Thirty Years' War; Rambaud's History of Russia; Taine's History of the French Revolution; Lamartine's History of the Girondists; Lecky's History of England in the XVIIIth Century; Shaw's History of English Literature; May's Constitutional History of England; McCarthy's History of Our Own Times; and Müller's Political History of

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