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THE NEW YORK
PUBLIC LIBRARY
5 60 1 2 7

ASTOR, LENOX AND
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS.
R
1912

L

ENTERED, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1834, by SAMUEL F

Wilson, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Maryland.

PREFACE.

The first intention of the writer of this book was to prepare an abstract of some one of the larger histories of the American Revolution, in a more compact form than any which he had met with in his own reading. The object was to present a convenient volume, which should embrace all the principal occurrences, civil, military, and political, in America and Europe, having a direct influence on the principles and progress of the revolutionary contest, at the same time that it should avoid all minor details not positively necessary to the continuity or integrity of the narrative. The military events were to be made less prominent than is usual; and all circumstantial accounts of battles and manæuyres in the field, beyond leading incidents important for the understanding of the issue, were to be avoided. After examining several of the principal authorities, the design of following any particular author was abandoned, and the present plan adopted, of re-writing and re-arranging the whole, without regard to the order or language of previous histories. These are the claims of the work to originality. Its merits are submitted to the judgment of the public. The writer has diligently compared the received authorities, and exercised his judgment freely in selecting and arranging the essential facts; and he thinks he has brought within the compass of a volume convenient for popular use, a connected narrative of the revolution, embracing all the principal events—foreign and domestic. Those portions which relate to the foreign negotiations, are more full in proportion, than the other divisions of the subject. They will be found, it is believed, correct and valuable. The author believes that this volume might be advantageously used in the instruction of youth. For the purpose of determining this point, he invites the examination of teachers, within whose system the subject is embraced, on the scale to which the size of the work is adapted.

The chief authorities consulted by the writer, are: Holmes' Annals; the histories by Botta, Paul Allen, Ramsay, and Pitkin; Marshall's Life of Washington ; Lives of the Signers ; Lives of Arthur Lee, and Richard Henry Lee, by Richard Henry Lee; Life of John Jay, by his son, William Jay; Wirt's Patrick Henry; Spark's Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution; Bancroft's life of Washington ; Walsh's Appeal; Halė's Premium History; Austin's Life of Gerry; Life of Quincy; Lee's Southern Campaigns; English Histories by Bisset, Belsham, and Miller; and other histories of particular States.

S. F. WILSON Baltimore, May, 1834.

CHAPTER 1,
General Observations on the Importance of the revolutionary Era, ., , . Page 7

CHAPTER II,

Character of the early Settlers-Motives for Emigration-Testimony to their Prin.

ciples from Hume-Party Spirit-Physical Circumstances-Religious Influences

-New England Temperament-Southern Characteristics-General Character-

Tendency towards free Institutions-Neglect of them by the mother Country

favourable to this Spirit-Testimony of British Statesmen-Causes of Affection

towards Great Britain State of Feeling at the Peace of J763,...... Page 15

CHAPTER III.

Peace of Paris, 1763-Conduct of Britain towards the Colonies, and their Services

during the War-Policy at its commencement in 1756-Attempt to establish the

Right of Taxation in 1754-Views of Dr. Franklin-Other Difficulties during the

War-Boston, Writs of Assistance-British Policy from 1756 to 1763, Page 29

CHAPTER IV.

New Ministry in England, 1763-English Finances-Treasury Schemes-Molasses

Act-Revenue Regulations-Stamp Act projected-Ulterior Schemes-Historical

Notice of the Question-Views of British Statesmen-Colonial Theory-Dr.

Franklin's Opinions in 1751–Proceedings in America on the passage of the

Resolutions-Debate in the House of Commons, 1765-Stamp Act passed

Reception by the Americans-Patrick Henry's Resolutions Other Legislatures

--Popular Movements--Stamp Act Congress meets-Proceedings Act goes into

Operation-Sons of Liberty--Non-Importation Agreement Change in the

Ministry-Repeal of the Stamp Act--Declaratory Act, 1765, ...... Page 39

CHAPTER V.

Effects of the Repeal-Compensation Acts-New York Legislature-New Cabinet

in England-Scheme of Taxing America revived --Other Bills adopted-Tea Act

passed 1767-Excitement in America-Sloop Liberty-Disturbances in Boston-

Convention in Massachusetts-Changes in the Ministry-Parliament-Coercive

Resolutions, 1769-Provision for the Trial of suspected Persons-Colonial Pro-

ceedings-Question stated by Philadelphia Merchants--Lord North becomes the

head of Administration January 1770-Duties repealed except that on Tea-Riot

and Afassacre at Boston-Affair of the Gaspee, Act passed in England in conse.

quence--Committees of Correspondence-Governor Ilutchinson's Letters-Ex.

amination of Dr. Franklin before the Privy Council-East India Company exports

Tea to America --Its reception-Boston, destruction of the Tea, 1773, · Page 75

CHAPTER VI.

Proceedings in Parliament, 1770-Boston Port Bill--Other Bills-Reception in the

Colonies --First Congress meets-Their Proceedings-Proceedings of Massachu.
setts-Legislature organized into a Convention--Arms the Province- New Par.
liament-Massachusetts declared in Rebellion-More Penal and Coercive Acts-
North's first Scheme of Conciliation-Increasing Excitement-Battle of Lexing.
ton-Its Influence--Seizure of Ticonderoga and Crown Point--Reinforcements
from England-Second Congress-WASHINGTON appointed Commander-in-Chief
-Battle of Bunker Hill Siege of Boston-Dispositions with respect to Indepen.

dence- Proceedings of Congress-Affairs at the Close of the Year-Expedition

against Canada-Attack upou Quebec, and Death of Montgomery, .. Page 89

CHAPTER VII.

Proceedings of Parliament --More Restrictive Laws-Hire of German Troops-

Boston Evaciated by the British-Washington occupies New York--Campaign

in Canada --Arnold's Retreat-The British attack Charleston-Repnlsed--British

Army and Fleet before New York-Public Feeling on the Subject of Indepen-

dence, up to July, 1776-DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE ....... Page 13C

CHAPTER VIII.

Position of the Armies, July 1776--Difficulties of Washington-Attempts at Nego.

tiation-Battle of Long Island Retreat of Americans-Evacuation of New

York-Skirmishing -Firther retreat-Measures of Congress-Conferences on

Conciliation, fail-Battle of White Plains-Fort Washington falls-Retreat!

throngh New Jersey-Rhode Island falls-Disasters in the North-Defeat of Ar.'

nold on Lake Champlain-Washington retires beyond the Delaware-Brilliant

Affair at Trenton-Capture of the Hessians-Battle of Princeton, and Recovery

of New Jersey-Close of Campaign of 1776, ...........1.1, Page 155

CHAPTER IX.

Negotiations abroad, 1776-7-French Policy-French Volunteers-British Parlia.
ment-CAMPAIGN of 1777--Congress-Bad System-Paper Emissions--Exchange

of Prisoners-Military Enterprises in the Spring British sail for the Chesa.

peake-Battle of Brandywine-Americans rally-Defeat of Wayne-Philadel.

phia occupied by the British-Congress assemble at York-Attempts to force

Passage for the British Fleet-Battle of Germantown,

Page 184

CHAPTER X.

NORTHERN CAMPAIGN of 1777.—Burgoyne's Expedition-Invests Ticonderoga-

American Disasters-Retreat to Fort Edward-Revival of Public Spirit-British

invest Fort Schuyler-Defeat and Death of General Herkimer-Arnold advances

British retire-Change of Prospects—Battle of Bennington-Murder of Miss

McCrea—Burgoyne crosses the River--Battle of Stillwater-Attempts of Bur-

goyne to retreat-Is surrounded-Clinton's tardy Efforts-Surrender of Bur.

goyne--Terms-Disposal of Troops-Defence of Mud Island-its fall-Americans

winter at Valley Forge-Rhode Island-Cruise of Paul Jones Other Expedi.

lions—British Preparations-Parliamentary Proceedings-Sufferings and Dis.

contents of the Troops (1780)-Rochambeau arrives with a French Fleet-Clin.

ton in South Carolina-Surrender of Charleston-Capture of American Posts-

Civil Measures of Clinton-He returns to New York-Spirit in Carolina-

Gates defeated at Camden

Page 209

CHAPTER XI.

Political and civil Events in 1777-Powers of Congress-Articles of Confederation

--The Finances-Paper Issues-Tender Laws, &c.--Army Embarrassments-In.

trigues against Washington-Sufferings at Valley Forge-Foreign Negotiations

during 1776-7-8—Treaties with France-Effects of Burgoyne's fall in England-

Debates in Parliament-New Schemes for Conciliation--Commissioners appoint-

od-Reception of Bills in America-Skirmishes in the Spring of 1778 . Page 232

CHAPTER XII.

CAMPAIGN OF 1778.- Arrival of French Fleet-British evacuate Philadelphia-Battle

of Monmouth-French Fleet blockade New York; sail for Newport-Enterprise

against Rhode Island-Skirmish between the Fleets-French sail for Boston-

Sullivan retreats-French sail to the West Indies-Partial Expeditions -Mas.

sacre of Wyoming-Americans in Winter-Quarters-Campaign in Georgia-

Defeat of General Robert Howe-Surrender of Savannah, and Submission of

Georgia-Review of Affairs in 1778—Policy of Spain-Her proffered Mediation

fails—War between Spain and Great Britain-Attempts of the British to sepa.

rate the Allies--Aims of the Bourbon Courts

Page 256

CHAPTER XIII.

CAMPAIGN OF 1779.-French Fleet in the West Indies-Difficulties of Washington

Partial Enterprises in the Chesapeake-Stoney Point-Tryon's Expedition

Penobscot. Southern Campaign.-British repulsed at Port Royal (S.C.)– Tories

defeated-Gen. Ashe defeated— The Rally in South Carolina --Lincoln crosses into

Georgia-British move against Charleston-Retreat before Lincoln-Skirmish

at Stono Ferry-French Fleet arrives-Attack on Savannah fails-Measures of

Cornwallis-Battle of King's Mountain-Greene takes command-British Ex.

pedition against Rhode Island fails--Arnold's Treason--Capture and Death of

Andre-Americans go into Winter-Quarters-Mutinies-Revival of public Spirit

Improvement of Finances, and foreign aids of Money-Foreign Affairs-War

between Great Britain and Holland-Expedition to Virginia ..... Page 275

CHAPTER XIV,

1781. Southern War-Designs of Cornwallis—Battle of the Cowpens-Retreat into

Virginia-Battle of Guilford-Greene rallies, instanily-Cornwallis retires to

Wilmington-Greene forces his way to South Carolina - Cornwallis marches to

Virginia--Greene repulsed at Camden-Rallies—British evacuate Camden-

British Forts taken-Greene besieges Ninety-Six-Forced to retire precipitately

--Rallies-Takes Post on the Santee Hills--Death of Colonel Hayne--Battle of

Eutaw Springs—British driven into Charleston-British Expeditions--Cornwallis

retires to Yorktown--Washington in the North-His Plans against New York-

Marches for Yorktown-De Grasse in the Chesapeake-Expedition against Con.

necticut-Groton Massacre-Newport Fleet arrives in the Chesapeake-Siege,

and Surrender of Cornwallis-Its Effects-Review of the state of Affairs, · P. 318

CHAPTER XV.

Foreign Relations of the United States up to the Capture of Cornwallis-Views

of the European Powers-Proceedings in Parliament --Vote for Peace-Lord

North overthrown-Negotiations commenced-Independence acknowledged by

Holland-Dificulties in the Negotiations-French and Spanish Intrigues-In.

structions to the American Commissioners-Instructions viulated–Treaty con

cluded-Military Events -Embarrassments of civil Affairs-Attempts to create

Mutiny, defeated-British evacuate New York-Washington takes leave of the

Oficers, and resigns his Commission

Page 347

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