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the author's closing words of loyalty to ing a hopeless position, General De Wet his adopted country, have called out two thinks, really brought the defeat upon criticisms. Some, to whom Christiaan himself, whereas he might have sought to Rudolf De Wet has been not only an make good his escape in a night attack ideal cavalry leader and strategist, but upon the beleaguering forces. “If I prealso in unbending Boer loyalty an ideal sume to criticise his conduct on this occahero, declare that he must have somehow sion,” says our author, “it is only because sold himself, that the book with its dedi- I believe that he ought to have sacrificed cation represents the first step in his pre- his own ideas for the good of the nation, ferment by Great Britain, and hint that and that he should not have been courby such means the British Government ageous at the expense of his country's may finally have ended a war which was independence, to which he was as fiercely draining the best blood and treasure of attached as I.” Intrepid soldier that he England and her colonies. Others, how- was, General Cronje evidently thought ever, pro-Boer as well as pro-British, feel, that to abandon his laager was quite too in our author's words, that " loyalty pays much for De Wet or any one else to ask ; best in the end, and loyalty alone is worthy at all events, the latter says that, while of a nation which has shed its blood for Cronje's view was either to stand or fall Freedom.”
with the laager, he did not consider the cerBefore considering General De Wet's tain consequence of a possible fall, namely, treatment of the war it is well to consider an “indescribable panic throughout not General De Wet himself. His portrait only all the laagers on the veldt, but even by Mr. Sargent, the frontispiece of the those of Colesberg, Stormberg, and Ladyvolume, tells us at a glance much about smith.” For “if Cronje were captured, the man. No better delineator of the how could any ordinary burgher be exhuman face could have been chosen for pected to continue his resistance ?" To this purpose than our foremost American The contention of the Cronje party that, portrait-painter; in his work we see the had the attempt been made which De Wet "slim" Boer—that shrewd, alert, clever, urged, the Boers would have been purcalculating, indomitable something which sued and overtaken by Lord Roberts's has distinguished the best as well as the forces, our author replies : worst Boers, which was as evident in a
The English at that time did not em wy as Joubert as in a Kruger. The portrait is scouts Kaffirs and Hottentots, who could lead one which remains impressed on the mind; them by night as well as by day ; moreover, long after we have closed the pages of
with the reinforcements I had received, I had
about sixteen hundred men under me, and this volume we see the man's face before
they would have been very useful in holding us at every turn ; and his face gives a back the enemy until Cronje had made his double impact to his words.
escape. No words can describe my feelings Those words are both descriptive and
when I saw that Cronje had surrendered and
noticed the result which this had on the burghcritical. As to description, they do not
ers. Depression and discouragement were narrate what the author himself has not written on every face. The effects of this seen. In this respect the “ Three Years' blow, it is not too much to say, made themselves War" is a soldier's story, first-hand and
apparent to the very end of the war. unpadded, in many respects worthy to After this surrender De Wet immedistand alongside two accounts by great ately set about doing what he could to soldiers of their own experiences--General allay the panic which had seized upon the Grant's “ Autobiography" and Lord Rob- Boers. Feeling that Lord Roberts’s troops erts's "Forty-one Years in India." While must remain for some time at Bloemthere is not a page of the description fontein in order to obtain needed rest, which is not readable, perhaps the most De Wet decided to take advantage of the interesting are those pages which give us expected circumstance; for, in his opinion, a new realization of the staggering blow there was but one way to restore Boer to Boer enthusiasm dealt by Lord Rob. prestige—to let his soldiers go home, and erts's victory at Paardeberg—the turning- there to weed out all of the incapables, or point of the war-involving the defeat discouraged, or traitors; then, with those and capture of General Cronje. That who were willing to fight to the end, to Boer officer, by his obstinacy in maintain- make another stand. De Wet felt surę that the best fighters would return in full firing. Indeed, I had the greatest difficulty in number. His confidence was ultimately calming them and in inducing them to stop, well justified. General Joubert, who had for they were, as may well be imagined, furious
at the misuse of the white flag. Strewn everycome from the Transvaal into the Free where about on the ground lay the English State hoping to be able there to discover killed and wounded. According to the official some method for checking Lord Roberts's statement, they had a hundred casualties, the advance, was anything but pleased to hear killed. We took four hundred and seventy
commanding officer himself being among the of the De Wet plan, and exclaimed: prisoners of war.
“Do you mean to tell me that you are going While there are undoubtedly two sides to give the English a free hand, whilst your to this story (the misuse of the white flag men take their holiday?" * I cannot catch a hare, General, with un
is said to have characterized the Boers willing dogs," I made reply. But this did not more than the British), there is one feasatisfy the old warrior at all. At last I said : ture of the Boer conflict-the horrors of
** You know the Afrikanders as well as I do, the war as affecting women and childrenGeneral. It is not our fault that they don't know what discipline means.
Whatever I might which justifies vigorous language. Before have said or done, the burghers would have Lord Roberts left South Africa he had gone home; but I'll give you my word that issued proclamations prescribing that any those who come back will fight with renewed
building within ten miles of the railway courage." I knew very well that there were some who would not return, but I preferred
where the Boers had broken up the railto command ten men who were willing to fight way line should be burnt down. rather than a hundred who shirked their duties.
This was also carried out, not only within Among British Generals, General Knox
the specified radius, but also everywhere occupies most space in the book. Lords throughout the State. Everywhere houses Roberts and Kitchener seem to have were burnt down, or destroyed with dynamite; comparatively scant consideration. The and, worse ştill, the furniture itself and the
grain were burned, and the sheep, cattle, and author's most interesting reference, how
horses carried off. Nor was it long before ever, is to General Buller. He says that horses were shot down in heaps and the sheep 6 whatever his own people have to say to
killed by thousands by the Kaffirs and the his discredit, Sir Redvers had to operate
national scouts, or run through by the troops
with the bayonets. The devastation became against stronger positions than any other
worse and worse from day to day. And the British General.” Concerning his own Boer women-did they lose courage, with this achievements, the best of the war, the before their eyes? By no means. As when most brilliant leader that any recent war
the capturing of women (or rather the war
against them and against the possessions of has produced is, as we should expect, the Boers) commenced, they took to bitter modest, and extremely concise in language, Aight, to remain at least out of the hands of especially in describing the battle at the enemy. In order to keep something for Sanna's Post, where the hitherto little carriages with grain and with the most indis
themselves and their children, they loaded the known burgher administered such a crush- pensable furniture. When then a column ing defeat to Colonel Broadwood that no approached a farm, even at night, in all sorts less than 350 Englishmen were killed or of weather, many a young daughter had to wounded, and 480 prisoners, 7 cannon, and
take hold of the leading-rope of the team of
oxen and the mother the whip, or vice versa. 117 wagons captured. A few days later, Many a smart, well-bred daughter rode on with only 800 men, near Reddersburg, horseback and urged the cattle on, in order to facing three times that number of English, keep out of the hands of the pursuers as long De Wetinflicted a similar defeat-a defeat,
as at all possible, and not to be carried away
to the concentration camps, which the British however, characterized, according to our called refugee camps (camps of refuge). How author, by treachery on the part of the incorrect indeed! Could any one ever have British. They had hoisted the white fag, thought before the war that the twentieth and De Wet with his men galloped to
century could show such barbarities? No!
Any one knows that in war cruelties more wards them, but before they reached them horrible than murder can take place, but that the British again began to shoot, killing a such direct and indirect murder should have Boer officer.
been committed against defenseless women
and children is a thing which I should have This treacherous act enraged our burghers, staked my head could never have happened in who at, once commenced to fire with deadly a war waged by the civilized British nation. effect. Soon the white flag appeared above And yet it happened. Laagers containing no almost every stone behind which an English- but women and children and decrepit man lay, but our men did not at once cease old men were fired upon with cannon and
rifles. . . . I could append now hundreds of his thousands of troops would have found declarations in proof of what I say.
themselves shut up, in Pretoria, where they
would have perished of hunger. . . . Had not It is, however, when General De Wet
so many of our burghers proved false to their comes to speak of something to him still own colors, England, as the great Bismarck more incredible, the treachery of his own
foretold, would have found her grave in South
Africa. nen, under the work of national (Boer) scouts used by the British, that his lan- Many an excerpt might be taken from guage becomes more forceful :
this interesting volume, full of description
-perhaps not always exact enough—and England's great power was pitted against equally full of criticism which spares neiEuropean countries, were nearly uninhabited. ther friend nor foe. His foe triumphed The mighty empire employed against us, in the end. It was an expected triumph, besides its own English, Scotch, and Irish but a quarter-million men were finally soldiers, volunteers from the Australian, New required to bring down such “embattled Zealand, Canadian, and South African colonies, hired against us both black and white farmers as De Wet, Delarey, and Botha. nations, and, what is worst of all, national Finally these were brought low. Resistscouts from our own nation, sent out against ance was no longer possible. They did us. . . . If there had been no national scouts and no Kaffirs, in all human probability mat
the manly, the courageous, and what to ters would have taken another turn. ... The many seems the impossible thing, they English oniy learned the art of scouting during not only submitted to the conqueror, the latter period of the war, when they made they pledged allegiance to the only Govuse of Boer deserters. . . . The English, we
ernment which thenceforth could rule in admitted, had a perfect right to have such sweepings and to use them against us, but we
South Africa. They had fought for indeutterly despised them (the deserters) for allow- pendence and freedom; in losing indeing themselves to be hired. We felt that their pendence who shall say that they have not motive was not to obtain the franchise of the gained a greater freedom than any they Uitlanders, but-five shillings a day! And if it should by any chance happen that any one
had yet enjoyed or could enjoy under a of them should find his grave there-well, the Boer oligarchy? It is to be hoped that generation to come would not be very proud the magnanimous spirit of General De of that grave. No! it would be regarded with
Wet animates the majority of his countryhorror as the grave of an Afrikander who had helped to bring his brother Afrikanders to their
men. In impressive words he thus sums downfall. , . . Such men, alas! there have up his own position : “ There was nothalways been, since in the first days of the human ing left for us now but to hope that the race Cain killed his brother Abel. . . . It was
Power which had conquered us, a Power far easier to fight against the great English army than against treachery among my own
to which we were compelled to submit, people, and an iron will was required to fight though it cut us to the heart to do so, against both. If only our orders had been and which, by the surrender of our arms, carried out a little more strictly, and if only the most elementary rules of strategy had
we had accepted as our ruler, would draw been observed in our efforts to break the Brit
us nearer and ever nearer by the strong ish lines of communication, Lord Roberts and cords of love."
Bishop Potter on Industrial Duties '
ISHOP POTTER'S Yale lectures larger, for it is incomparably the better.
consist of two very distinct parts: Bishop Potter's incursions into the field
first, the personal observations of of economic statistics seem to have been the author regarding the moral side of the chiefly confined to the study of such industrial relationships of our modern popularizers as Mr. Mallock and Mr. life; and, second, the statistical generali- Willey, and his uncritical citation of their zations which his reading upon the sub- views gives this part of the work a capitalject has led him to accept. The first of istic trend quite at variance with most of these portions is fortunately much the Bishop Potter's personal observations.
Nothing could seem more capitalistic, for The Cuizen in his Relation to the Industrial Situa- example, than Bishop Potter's apparent tion. Yale Lectures by Henry Codman Potter, D.D., LLD. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York,
approval of Mr. Mallock's citation of
Leoni Levi's assertion that the entire advance in rents. Yet no such correction rental “of all the land in England, if is made in reckoning the change in th divided equally among the adult popula- capitalist's income, and the rate of inter tion, would give each man about two est he receives is reckoned to have de pence a day and each woman about three creased two or three times as rapidly a halfpence.” Were the statement true, it the census figures show. It is to b would be but a hackneyed method of regretted that a book which ought to b belittling the concentration of wealth; and read so widely as this of Bishop Potter? it has not even the merit of being true. should contain such one-sided statement The income of English landlords, as regarding the important subject of th returned by themselves for taxation, is economic separation of classes. $250,000,000 a year from agricultural Fortunately, these statements do no land alone, $900,000,000 from city land indicate the spirit of the book. No recen and houses, and $50,000,000 from mines writer has brought out more sharply thai and quarries—a total of twelve hundred does Bishop Potter the separation o millions, or an average of $150 a year classes which the spirit of Christianity i for every family in the pation. If this bound to combat. “ It is in vain," he estimate be cut in two because the says, " that we endeavor by amiable soph tax returns include the rental of houses isms ... to obscure to ourselves or to as well as land, the figure is still treble others that tremendous cleavage which that indicated by Mr. Mallock. The in our time has come to pass between the American figures cited upon the same rest of human society and those who make question of the distribution of wealth up what we call the working classes. .. are better grounded, but also stand in Almost the worst enemy to the progress need of more critical treatment. The of human society is the spirit of caste; and money wages of city workmen, it is stated the tragic element in the constitution of on good authority, rose al 50 per cent. our modern social structure is that, under between 1860 and the early seventies, forms of government that profess long ago and, on the whole, kept this gain during to have renounced and abandoned it, it the twenty years of falling prices which still rears its head in forms more insolent followed, so that the purchasing power of and more mischievous than any that in wages in 1891 was from 60 to 70 per any age of human history it has assumed." cent. greater than in 1860. The rate of This citation indicates the moral tem interest, it is next stated upon no authority, per with which Bishop Potter regards the fell from seven per cent twenty years ago growing power of the capitalist class. It: to four or five per cent to-day. Then dominant spirit of commercialism is a from these two statements there is deduced thing utterly hateful to him, and its arro the startling conclusion that “the last gant attitude toward the men who do the quarter of a century—to speak in general work of manual laborers is even more terms-has brought to the workingman repellent than the same attitude wher an increase in his earnings of from 60 assumed by the heirs of a long line of to 70 per cent., while the same period feudal ancestry. There are many practi has cost the capitalist the loss of from cal suggestions as to the methods by which 20 to 30 per cent. upon his." This the public can curb aggression on the part conclusion rests upon a perfect network of organized wealth, and there are still more of unwarranted assumptions. In the practical suggestions as to how it may lift first place, it is assumed that the earnings up the manhood of the poor by shortening of workmen rose from 60 to 70 per cent. the hours of labor and granting wages and during "the last quarter of a century,"conditions which permit wholesome living whereas the figures cited showed no The observations made to the well-to-do advance since 1873, except such as came classes regarding their industrial duties from the fall in prices. If this fall in are by no means confined to the direct prices increased the purchasing power of employers of labor. Every one who purthe wages of workmen--who had to meet chases goods, Bishop Potter strongly advancing rents—it also increased the urges, is indirectly an employer of labor, purchasing power of the interest of the and is morally bound to give his or her capitalist, who generally profited by the trade to factories and stores which treat their employees honorably and well. Nor in inducing those awful lapses that condo our industrial duties end with our sist in the prostitution of the human deatment of those who serve us. We body, and they will tell you what madness all have another and most vital duty in seizes upon the young when the lust of the matter of moderating our demands personal display is appealed to by a gold for service from others. One of the most brooch or a pair of diamond earrings. . .. dangerous foes of the higher life of our The question must needs come home to modern communities is the temptation to every man and woman among us: “If I luxury. It corrupts, says Bishop Potter. have wealth, how far am I warranted in not only the rich who yield to it, but the indulging this craze, in feeding this passion, poor who witness it. “As enervating whether in myself or others, or in using character, as debauching morals, as threat- great expenditure in whatever form to ening-nay, destroying—the purity of the promote the creation of a standard by family and the integrity of the individual, which no good end is served and every there is no other single influence that can bad and base
bad and base passion inflamed and surpass it, if there is any that can equal stimulated ?'” If we would have the it. Ask any experienced worker among community free from materialism, our low and outcast women what in the case own lives must not be ruled by its standof young girls has been most productive ards.
Books of the Week This report of current literature is supplemented by fuller reviews of such books as in the judgment of the editors are of special importance to our readers. Any of these books will be sent by the publishers of The Outlook, postpaid, to any address on receipt of the published price, with postage added when the price is marked • net.” Americans in Process: A Settlement Study. Strong's “Turner" the influence of certain
By Residents and Associates of the South End regrettable qualities of personality on the work
of a great artist ; in this appreciation by MM. net.
Geffroy and Alexandre we have a more enReserved for later notice.
couraging and optimistic impression. As to Birds of God : Angels and Sundry Imaginative landscape-painting, not even Turner himself Figures from the Pictures of the Masters of the
so energized and broadened it as did the Renaissance. Selected for Children by J. B. Rad- more admirable Corot, according to some cliffe Whitehead. R. H. Russell, New York. 11x14 enthusiasts perhaps the only worthy successor
of Claude Lorraine; while as to genre work, An elaborately prepared portfolio of mono
what name may be put alongside Millet's ? tint reproductions of many famous pictures,
Why these things are so may be appreciated intended to serve as an introduction to art
first of all, it must be owned, from such a appreciation by children. The title given to the book is singular and not very apt.
comprehensive and acutely appreciative biog
raphy as Julia Cartwright's “Millet” (a new Book of Meditations (A). By Edward How- edition of which has just appeared); such a
ard Griggs. B. W. Huebsch, 150 Nassau Street, New volume as the present, however, should also York. 5X734 in. 236 pages. $1.50. (Postage, 10c.)
be in the hands of every lover of French paintUnder this modest title is found high worth
ing. If the work cannot be read in the origithe observations and reflections of a cultured
nal, the American or English reader can take mind. at home and abroad, at home everywhere that art and books are found, in sym
advantage of this sympathetic translation by
Mr. Edgar Preston. The text is lavishly pathy with human life in all its experiences, illustrated with reproductions of Corot's oil and Nature in all her moods. Professor
paintings, decorative paintings, charcoal drawGriggs's “ Meditations” are as many-sided as
ings, and etchings, and with reproductions of the world that suggests them, and stimulating
Millet's crayon studies, pen drawings, dryto all that is best in thought and conduct. It points, heliographs, woodcuts, oil paintings, is a good book to have on the table, conven
and water-colors. ient for intellectual and moral refreshment in the chance moment of leisure.
Correggio. By Leader Scott. (Bell's Minia
ture Series of Painters.) The Macmillan Co., New Corot and Millet : With Critical Essays by York. 4x6 in. 68 pages. $1.
Gustave Geffroy and Arsène Alexandre. Edited Reserved for later notice.
Country Without Strikes (A). By Henry DemThere are no more inspiring names in the arest Lloyd. Doubleday, Page & Co., New York. history of modern French painting than those 412X71/4 in. 183 pages. of Camille Corot and Jean François Millet. A timely cheap edition of the one important We have recently seen in Sir Walter Arm- book on compulsory arbitration.