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to find his congenial career, but he must spared by the Liberalism of our gener always have the knowledge that, if for tion. The historical work he has alread any reason he should give up his political done is, in its way, complete and imperis occupation, he can at any moment return able. But the Liberal party has yet 1 to some pursuit in which he has already recover its place and to regain the leade won an established fame. There are not ship of England's political life. Ever many political leaders of our time about effort which the Conservatives in offic whom the same could fairly be said. For have lately been making to hold thei myself I may frankly say that I hope full mastery over the country has onl James Bryce will henceforward devote shown more and more clearly that the himself especially to that political career have not kept up with the movements a in which he has accomplished such great thought and are not able to understan things. English public life cannot well the true requirements of the time. afford to lose his services just now and the other hand, the limp and shattered for some time to come. A man who can condition of the existing Liberal party bring to political work such resources of only shows the absolute necessity for the thought and of experience, who can look recognized leadership of men who under beneath the surface and above the mere stand the difference between the work of phrases and catchwords of political par- guiding the country and the ignoble func ties, who can see that Liberalism in its tion of competing for power by imitation true sense must mean progress, and who and by compromise. In the new effort can at the same time see clearly for him- now so sorely needed to create once more self what progress really means, and in a true Liberal party, the country requires, what direction and by what methods it is above all things else, the constant service to be made-such a man could ill be of such men as James Bryce.

01

The Young Finlander and the National

Spirit

E

By H. Montague Donner
VENTS have moved with a swift in Finland, and more particularly to famil-

pace indeed since the writing of iarize ourselves, if possible, with the plan

my article published in The of action of the generation of young FinOutlook of September 20, 1902, and the landerson whom the problem of the last gleam of hope that feebly irradiated future weighs most immediately and the murky skies of oppression hanging heavily. over Finland has now faded away, leaving From the time when the Swedish Helthe inhabitants of that unhappy land sings first established themselves through gazing in consternation at the dark horizon right of conquest on Finnish soil, and where national obliteration begins. more markedly since the beginning of

Now that the mask has been definitely Muscovite domination, there has existed dropped from the Russian designs and in Finland a dual racial problem, which, active persecution ushered in with the at all times difficult of solution, has not issue of the famous--and infamous- infrequently been marked by an access ukases of October 2, the paramount care of bitterness on the part of the factions of the Finnish people is no longer to

concerned that has invariably proved a appeal, but to act; no longer to entreat, source of weakness by which the wily but to resist; and from the generation Russian has seldom failed to profit when but recently out of its teens must the occasion invited. The language question larger works of salvation come.

it was that long divided Finland, to its Hence it becomes incumbent upon us undoubted injury, into the rival camps of to understand something of the status of the Svekomans and Fennomans. parties and the workings of public opinion As the names indicate, the Svekomans

comprised the inhabitants of Swedish Svekoman and Fennoman hostility. In extraction, inhabiting the western, south- the face of the threatened extinction of rester, and part of the southern coast the national life, the Svekomans, guided line to a distance of about eighteen miles by the wise counsels of Van Born, Wrede, inland, and speaking as their mother Schybergson, Axel Lille, former editor tongue the language of their neighbors of the suppressed “Nya Pressen," and across the Gulf of Bothnia, and imbued V. Söderhjelm, have abandoned their with the traditions of Swedish social, uncompromising attitude on the questions political, and literary supremacy; while of language and franchise reform, to under the banners of the Fennoman fac- devote all their energies to the defense of tion were gathered the people of pure the common fatherland, while the FennoFinnic stock, whose aim was the triumph man party has split into two irreconcilable of the Finnish idiom, not merely as the halves, the Old Fions and the Young dominant factor in the domains of society Finns. The last-named faction, under and government, but also as the proper the leadership of ex-Consul Wolff (whose expression of the national spirit.

speech at St. Petersburg on behalf of It was but natural that the majority of Finland on the occasion of the first monthe governmental body and the official ster petition to the Czar in 1899 made class as a whole should belong to the such a profound impression in Europe), Svekoman party, and just as natural that Castrèn, the writer Aho, the poet Erkko, the guns of the Fennomans should be and Professor Otto Donner, have thrown trained upon them with most pertinacity to the winds the old differences with their and determination. It was also only in Swedish-speaking fellow-country men, with the order of things—according to decree the result that the two have coalesced of nature, let us even admit—that the under the title of the Constitutional party, Fennomanic ideal, especially since the which proclaims as its one great object discovery of the Kalevala, of a young and

the retention of the autonomous governvigorous people, distinctively Finnish in ment of Finland, and has come to reprecharacter and tongue, ready to take its sent the sentiment of the nation at large, place in the ranks of nations by the side with whom the Senate and the Old Finns of the recently emancipated Rumania, have fallen into complete disfavor. Servia, and Bulgaria, should have steadily The policy of this latter party, sacrificcontinued to gain adherents among the ing everything, from the time of the first rising generation, irrespective of party manifesto of February, 1899, to the fetich affiliations. Thanks largely to the more of party aggrandizement, has been one of or less active interference of Russian consistent abandonment of all opposition diplomacy-whose peculiar forte it has to the autocratic will of the Russian Govalways been, constantly is, and ever will ernment, of abject surrender at each be to foment discord and create disunion successive attack of the cohorts of buin the ranks of its present or prospective reaucracy; and in this attitude of selfvictims, and which saw in the weakening effacement, ardently advocated in its of the hitherto superior political power semi-official organ “Uusi Suometar,” it the most favorable opportunity for hasten- has had the guidance of three men of ing the accomplishment of its own nefari- signal ability and far-reaching influence, ous designs on the autonomy of Finland Archbishop Johansson of Abo, and former itself-the Fennomans succeeded, as the Senators Yrjö-Koskinen and J. R. Danielstruggle went on, in gaining material son, the latter an eminent jurist and politiadvantages over their Svekoman rivals. cal writer, and in earlier days one of the The Finnish language came to be recog- stanchest upholders of Finnish autonomy nized as on an equal footing with Swedish and opponents of Russian aggression. as the official tongue, and an ever-increas. Yrjö-Koskinen is in some respects the ing proportion of important government foremost figure in the Grand Duchy-a posts fell to the share of the party. man of great mental alertness, abounding

The present crisis, affecting as it does energy, and a personal influence that once the very life of the Finnish nation, has, seemed little short of hypnotic. But that however, revolutionized the old standing this strange power of his is at last desertof parties, and we hear little nowadays of ing him in some measure is shown by the fact that many of his former adherents roots of his native pine; slow in the formhave lately left him, among them Tudéer, ing of opinion as the growth of his primeformerly Vice-President of the Senate, val forests, but unendingly stubborn in the and hitherto one of the most faithful maintenance of it when formed ; slow to dancers to Koskinen's piping, while A. wrath, but, if once aroused, silent and imMeurman, a communal councilor and one placable in the nursing of his resentment. of the most influential of the faction, From his childhood at war with nature to shows signs of kicking over the traces wring from her a scant livelihood, he feels and transferring his allegiance to the that when he has learned to conquer her Constitutional party.

she is, verily, his mother; that, motherThe specious plea of the Old Fenno- like, she is tender with him, eager out of man party has been that, by due and her penury to lavish upon him of her best. “ loyal” submission to the will of their She sets on his brow the triple crown of monarch, the Finnish people would retain fortitude, patience, and resignation, whisthe Czar's good will and at the same time pering to him that, rooted in her, flesh of build a bridge over the present chasm of her flesh and bone of her bone, he must misunderstanding upon which the auto- be both tender and indomitable, unyieldcrat and his Finnish subjects may meetingly true to her and her ideals, and ready at some future day of enlightenment and to defend them to his last gasp. perfect a compact whereby an equal meas- Out of this close daily communion with ure of justice to both Finland and Russia the soul of Nature, and the contemplation shall be insured. Surely it is small matter of her orderly processes, the Finn has for wonder, in view of the latest mani- drawn a fundamental faith in God and a festations of the Russian Government's belief in ultimate divine justice that is hatred of Finnish institutions, its indiffer. nowhere excelled, if anywhere equaled, ence to past promises and pledges, and on the face of the earth ; and, concomiits contemptuous flouting of its servile tantly with this spiritual conviction, he is instrument, the “reorganized ” Finnish imbued with a regard for law and order Senate, and the reduction of that body to that amounts almost to veneration. When, an innocuous "advisory " capacity, that therefore, he sees these overturned with the more self-respecting among Yrjö Kos- complacency, if not positive derision, by a kinen's followers should have cominenced hand that he had for a century been acto blush for their weakness, and that the customed to look upon as that of, in the Old Fennoman faction should now show, main, a guardian and well-wisher, what in spite of frantic efforts to disguise its wonder that he undergoes a gradual revulreal condition, unmistakable signs of sion of feeling, culminating in silent wrath approaching disintegration.

and hatred of the alien tyrant who, Among a people so imbued with the robbing him of one cherished birthright spirit of liberty as the Finns, the doctrine after another, would reduce him to the of blind obedience to the behests of a debased level of the ignorant, spiritless despot can find acceptance no more read- Russian mijik ! ily than it did among the English under In view of the fact that the last faint Charles I. and James II., or the Dutch hope of ultimate justice has been dispelled under Philip of Spain. Against the gran- by the retention of Bobrikoff as Governorite-bound steadfastness of the elemental General, followed by the placing of suFinn it is in vain that the storm breaks preme power in his hands, at the cost of

the independence, not only of the Senate For of what is compounded the ele (which, considering the present“ reorganmental Finn ? That we may comprehend ization” of that body, is of little consethe might of his bloodless resistance, we quence), but even of the judiciary, hitherto ask: “Who and what is this stern son of the final bulwark of Finnish liberties, the the North, to the full stature of whom the present generation of Finland finds itself Russian autocrat, by the very nature of a compelled to adopt a definite plan of tyrant's limitations, must ever fail to action to avert the destruction, not merely grow?" Verily, he is the child of the of its autonomous form of government, rock-ribbed land that gave him birth- but of the national existence itself. tenacious of purpose as the rock-clasping And what is this plan of action ? As

and rages.

far as it has been definitely evolved, it part, to practice a rigid economy in houseconsists, first and foremost, of a silent hold matters, especially by abandoning movement, practically universal in Fin- luxuries of every description and limiting land, to carry out to the limit the doctrine the scope of family and social festivities, of passive resistance to each and every so as to provide a gigantic national fund step of Russian aggression. In the mat- for the assistance of conscientious and ter of the problem most pressingly con- fearless officials who have been arbitrarily fronting the Finnish people, the enlist- deposed by the Governor-General to make ment in Russian regiments of the youth way for Russian interlopers. of the country, who, after much pressure, But the most formidable project of all were induced or frightened last summer the plans mooted, the most aggressive into finally responding to the illegal ukase and threatening toward the Muscovite (which the clergy throughout the country oppressor, and most pregnant with possirefused to read from their pulpits), and bilities of his discomfiture, is one that has presenting themselves for military inspec- been lately put forward in all seriousness, tion and enrollment (to the number of only and in the present hopelessness of the 14,642 out of a total of 25,080 summoned), Finns has found wide acceptance where this resistance takes the form of a refusal it would have been scouted even a twelveto appear at the impending mustering-in. month ago as too radical a departure from This action has been deliberately deter- Finnish traditions. This is nothing less mined on, despite a printed appeal issued than to place Finland at the head of all by certain of the Old Fennoman faction the dissatisfied factions and nationalities as the result of a meeting called by its tributary to Russia and systematically leaders and held in Helsingfors last Oc- ground down by her ruthless bureaucratic tober, under the presidency of Professor machinery: the Poles, Lithuanians, EsDanielson, to consider the best means of thonians, Courlanders, Little Russians, meeting the threatened widespread "re- Caucasians, and Jews, and the constantly bellion against authority”—which meet- growing revolutionary party in the body ing disclosed a pitiful attendance of some of the Empire itself, thus supplying the fifty-odd members, and furnished indubi- indispensable cohesion so far lacking table proof of the general disrepute into among these various elements. which the Senate and the Russophile fac- Never has dissatisfaction with the ruling tion have fallen.

class been so widespread among all classes This, however, represents but a phase in Russia itself as it is now, when even of the activiiy of young Finland. A work those parts of the social organism that of incalculable importance has also been have hitherto been most devoted to the for some time in operation—that of instill- doctrine of blind submission are becoming ing in the minds of Finnish children of permeated with the ideals of social and all classes an adequate sense of the political regeneration, and when even the sacredness of Finnish constitutional lib- military arm of the State has begun to erties and law; an intimate knowledge of show signs of disaffection most alarming the traditions and history of the race; an to the bureaucratic class. Therefore, abiding love for its literature, as enshrined having nothing more to lose, these young in Kalevala and the poems of Runeberg, Finlanders argue, it beconies Finland's Topelius, and others; and a vital con- highest duty to proclaim herself the chamception of Finland's standing and mis- pion of the struggling cause of liberty sion among the nations. In this labor and enlightenment throughout the Muscoof love no hamlet is too remote for the vite Empire. Then, by inculcating among step of the teacher to penetrate or the all the dissatisfied factions the doctrines voice of the Finnish patriot to reach of constitutional law and liberty, as she Officials who, trembling for their means has herself practiced and perfected them, of livelihood, give way to Russian press- she will crystallize the purpose of the ure, are, cruel though it may seem, at hitherto disunited and ill-organized bodies, once made to feel the public resentment furnish them with a perfectly definite proand scorn, while a widespread movement gramme which they shall unitedly strive has been set afoot, in which the women their utmost to bring to triumphant adopof the stricken land play an important tion, and direct their campaign with the invaluable aid of Finnish enlightenment and suffering in their native land with the and practical experience in sound, pro- desire to evade all responsibility in the gressive social and political organization. tremendous task that confronts the FinViolence will be discredited as out of nish youth and manhood of to-day. They keeping with the fundamental Finnish may say, “ We must contribute of our reverence for orderly development, and means to swell the patriotic funds at this very fact will, it is confidently ex- home.” Well and good, but does their pected, be the means of greatly strength responsibility end with this immediate ening the movement and securing for it material aim ? No; theirs is the further the practical adhesion of the more stable duty of spreading a fuller knowledge of and responsible elements of the social Finland, its institutions and its people, structure, which are none the less deter- among the nations of the earth, so that mined on a change in the principles of no portion of the civilized world may government because they discountenance remain in ignorance of the part which the "propaganda of the deed." Though that far northern land, humble and forthe present generation may not live to see gotten though it have lain these centuries it, the triumph of the great liberating past, has played and continues to play in movement will undoubtedly be greatly the world drama of political, social, and hastened by the active participation in it intellectual progress. By the slow but of the people of Finland, armed with the unfailing force of example, by word and wisdom and knowledge garnered during deed, they must show what splendid traincenturies of gradual political development ing Finland has given her sons in citizenand its accompanying moral and intellect- ship and culture, and thus bring to the ual achievement. Then will Finland various lands of their adoption the wellonce more come by her own, and the defined conviction that the whole world vision of Tolstoï be fulfilled, when Russia is concerned, in a very real and vital shall achieve her real unity through the sense, in the final defeat, not merely of peaceful process of being Fennicized, Russia's intended annihilation of Fininstead of through the incredibly blind land's national life and thought, but of and fatuous policy of the attempted Russi- each and every attempt of an inferior civilification of Finland by the strong arm. zation to destroy a higher one, under what

And what then remains for such of soever pretext or by whatsoever ineans Finland's sons as have taken up their such attempt be made. So shall the time abode without the gates and watch their assuredly be hastened—though we live country's pain and peril from afar in not to see it—when the triumph of broad, sheltered peace? Have they no duty, enlightened international opinion over the too? Can they not take part in the battle narrow dictates of national prejudices for justice and restitution ? Of a surety shall have ceased to be a mere dream of they did not flee from present oppression Utopia!

The

Boer Side of the

the Boer

War'

I

a

F Sir Conan Doyle's description of with Oom Paul's work because it seems

the Boer War is regarded as to be animated by a greater regard for

British apologia, General De Wet's exactness of statement, because of the book may with equal justice be regarded absence of archaic notions, of deep-rooted as a Boer defense. Coming only a fort prejudices, which disfigure the pages night after the appearance of ex-Presi- written by the venerable exile in Holland. dent Kruger's memoirs, it challenges General De Wet's book is one which attention because, like Oom Paul's storyshould be read both by pro-Britons and it is written with simplicity, directness, pro-Boers, because of its reasonableness; vividness; and it challenges comparison the author seems to be aware of this

quality, and dedicates the volume “ To my "Three Years' War. By Christiaan Rudolf De llet fellow-subjects in the British Empire.”

S. Scribner's Sons, New York.

Such a striking dedication, together with

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