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Tammany Outdone in Mayor of Minneapolis as a Republican.

Changing his politics, he was at intervals Minneapolis

twice elected to the same position as a

Democrat, and changing his politics again The shocking revelations of police com- a few years ago, he was, as stated, nomplicity with vice have so uniformly exposed inated in 1900 as a Republican. At the conditions in some great metropolis that primaries which nominated him voters of people in our smaller cities have naturally either party could vote either ticket with come to think of their own municipal out challenge, and Dr. Ames is believed virtue with a snug and smug complacency to have received the votes of a great unwarranted by the facts, and peculiarly many Democrats who did not take their benumbing to the public conscience. It party allegiance seriously. In the camis true that public plunder on a vast scale paign which followed hundreds of Repubmay more readily be organized in a great licans who were disgusted with his nomcity without public knowledge, and that it ination acquiesced in his election because is more difficult there for a few public- it was a Presidential year. spirited citizens to accomplish its over- During Dr. Ames's previous administrathrow; but there is no difference whatever tions he had not been especially venal. in the kind of temptations to which public “ He was a 'spender,' not a 'grafter,' officials are exposed, and no difference and his personal dependents seem to whatever in the need of eternal vigilance have monopolized the spoils which the on the part of the public to preserve wide open city furnished. At the very municipal purity. The problem of mu- beginning of his fourth term, however, he nicipal corruption is the same in Newark set out to organize the licensing of vice as in New York, the same in Harrisburg for his own enrichment. He made his as in Philadelphia, the same in Minne- brother, Colonel Fred W. Ames, a disapolis as in Chicago. This last propo- credited officer from the Philippines, his sition at least is now indisputable, for chief of police. He made Norman W. Mr. Lincoln Steffens's article on “ The King, a former gambler, his chief of Shame of Minneapolis” in the January detectives. The collector for women of “ McClure's ” exposes a brazenness of the town was to be Irwin A. Gardner, a municipal corruption not equaled in medical student in Dr. Ames's office, Chicago or even in New York during the who was made a special policeman for the past quarter of a century.

purpose. “ These men looked over the In the fall elections of 1900 Dr. Albert force, selected those men who could be Alonzo Ames was nominated as the Re- trusted, charged them a price for their republican candidate for Mayor of Minne- tention, and marked for dismissal 107 men apolis at the direct primaries. The out of 225, the 107 being the best policemen responsibility for his nomination, there- in the department from the point of view of fore, cannot be lifted from the ordinary the citizens who afterwards reorganized voter and saddled upon a corrupt political the force.” The carnival of corruption machine. His loose private character which followed is vividly depicted by was known at the time of his nomination. Mr. Steffens, and a few of his strong He came of good Puritan stock. His lines will indicate the character of the father-also a physician-was one of the picture : pioneers of Minneapolis, and Dr. Ames himself was a man of great professional

The administration opened with the revoluskill, who from the first had one supreme thieves in the local jail, and made known to the

tion in the police force. They liberated the virtue of a political leader-genuine kind- Under World generally that “ things were ness toward the poor. But, along with doing" in Minneapolis. The incoming swindlers this attractive quality, he was from his reported to King or his staff for instructions and young manhood sensuously self-indulgent, detectives in charge. Gambling went on openly

went to work, turning the “swag" over to the and as years advanced this characteristic and disorderly houses multiplied under the grew upon him, and he not only made fostering care of Gardner, the medical stufriends of the poor by his generosity, but dent. ... [Even before this disorderly houses friends of the corrupt by moral affinity.

were practically licensed by the city, the

women appearing before the clerk of the MuEntering politics early, he was elected nicipal Court each month to pay a “fine ” of $100. Unable at first to get this “ graft,” conspirators began to rob one another, and Ames's man Gardner persuaded women to start the whole situation became chaotic. The houses, apartments, and, of all things, candystores

, which sold sweets to children and conspirators held together well enough to tobacco to the "lumber Jacks” in front, while secure the dismissal from office of a a nefarious traffic was carried on in the rear. county sheriff who attempted to restrain But they paid Ames, not the city. ::. But their excesses, but soon the honor necesthe money still paid direct to the city in fines, some $35,000 a year, fretted the Mayor, and at sary to successful thievery failed, and the last he reached for it. He came out with a different conspirators failed to protect declaration, in his old character as friend of one another's protégés. At this juncture the oppressed, that $100 a month was too

a grand jury was drawn in the ordinary much for these women to pay. They should be required to pay the city fine only once in way, one of whose members, Hovey C. two months. This puzzled the town till it Clarke, was a man of extraordinary force became generally known that Gardner col- of character. Mr. Clarke was made forelected the other month for the Mayor. man of the jury, and, finding that some of " In a general way,” says Mr. Steffens, his associates would support him, he de" all this business was known. It did termined to overthrow the whole syndicate not arouse citizens, but it did attract crim- of corruptionists in control of the city. inals, and more and more thieves and The determined jurors went to the jail swindlers came hurrying to Minneapolis." and saw two bunco-steerers who had not When the whole orgy of profit-sharing received the expected protection and with crime was finally exposed, it was were nursing their grievances against shown that detectives were stationed at the officials who had failed them. One of the doors of gambling-houses which swin- these men afterwards stated that he was dled their clients, for the express purpose persuaded to turn State's evidence because of scaring the victims if they threatened he “sized up ” Clarke as a man who was to complain, and, if possible, running them bound to keep up his fight till he won. out of town in fear that they would be “We," he said, meaning criminals generprosecuted. If the victims insisted upon ally,“ are always stacking up against juries taking their complaints to the Chief of and lawyers who want us to holler. We Police, the Mayor's brother would first try don't because we see they are quitters. to wear them out with long delays and They can be pulled off.” Clarke and his then he too would attempt to browbeat associates could not be “pulled off," them into silence. What this policy though Clarke was offered $28,000 to quit, yielded to the administration is graphi- and his life seemed to be in danger from cally presented to the eye by photographic the wrath of the criminal elements. excerpts from the ledger of one of the “ What startled the jury most, however," swindling concerns. The first entry in says Mr. Steffens," was the character of this ledger ran as follows:

the citizens who were sent to dissuade Accounts NOVEMBER 18 To 25

them from their course. No reform I (Expenditures.)

[Receipts.] have studied has failed to bring out this Nov. 18 Mayor Ames.... $500.00 Monday... $533.00 Gardner 50.00 Tuesday:

phenomenon of virtuous cowardice.” In [Detective) Norbeck Wednesday.. 622.00 three weeks the jury was able, by means Chief Ames.

Thursday... 575.00

321.00 of hard personal work and heavy personal Kerosene Oil..



393.00 expenditures, to collect enough evidence

to bring in indictments, and, with some Nut of Joint..... $646.25

$2,718.00 45% Steerers

difficulty, the assistant public prosecutor Bid...... $1,123.10

was persuaded to institute proceedings. Bal. Joint...$1.494.90 The Grand Jury paid the cost of bring


ing witnesses from as far as Idaho. First

Bal. to Crd... $848.65 Gardner was tried and convicted, then Some members of the police force did not Captain Norbeck of the detectives, then stop at direct participation in robberies, Fred Ames, and then Chief of Detectives one police captain having stood guard King. As conviction followed convicwhile a safe was robbed by confederates. tion and one piece of evidence supple

The final breakdown of the conspiracy mented another, a panic spread among came from dissensions within. As plun- the conspirators. Among those who fled der increased greed increased, different were two heads of departments against


50.00 20.00 1.00

.25 25.00


whom nothing had been shown or dis- practically applied in the conduct of life? covered until their flight revealed another This test is thus stated by Professor source of “graft” in the sale of supplies James in “ The Varieties of Religious to public institutions, and the diversion Experience.” After quoting at some of provisions to the private residences length from Sir Henry Maudsley, one of officials. Mayor Ames, under indict- of the ablest representatives of materialment and heavy bonds, fed from the istic philosophy, he adds: “In other State on a night train. By this time words, not its origin, but the way in which it was evident that the side of the it works on the whole, is Dr. Maudsley's prosecution was the side of victory, and final test of a belief. This is our own men who had feared to act before were empirical criterion ; and this criterion the now eager to take part in driving out the stoutest insisters on supernatural origin last vestiges of the overthrown régime. have also been forced to use in the end." In a few months a decent government was The italics are those of Professor James. established, and Minneapolis had an un- Using this test, how does the theory that forgetable lesson not only in the appall- mental force and physical force are idening possibilities of municipal corruption at tical work when applied to the conduct the hands of a few public plunderers, but of life? in the inspiring possibilities of municipal There are in philosophy two contrasted regeneration at the hands of a few deter- skeptical theories: one, that there is no mined men of dauntless public spirit. matter, all is mind; the other, that there

Mr. Steffens's stirring story should is no mind, all is matter. It is not easy be read everywhere, for it strikes at to refute either by pure reason; but the very heart of both of the twin stu- neither works well in actual life. How pidities which dull the conscience of do we know that matter exists? We see American municipalities—the optimism it and touch it? But this only means which says that all is so good that that certain sensations take place in us nothing need be done, and the pessi- which we attribute to external causes. mism which says that all is so bad that How do we know that they are due to nothing can be done.

external causes ? How do we know that we are not dreaming, that matter is any

thing more than a phantasmagoria, a sucThe Practical Test cession of mental images, a series of pure

imaginings? How does the materialist What shall a Christian believer say to know that there is an electric battery? How one who apparently denies the very foun- does he know that there is a brain? The dation of Christian faith by altogether answer is that we have to live as though denying the existence of spirit; who insists matter existed. This is the practical that only matter and force exist, that there answer, and it is all-sufficient. If I think is but one kind of force, that the differ- i am cold, the coldness may be only a ence between the force generated by an “mortal thought;" but I shall continue to electric battery and that generated by the think cold, until I can think coal and put brain of a Shakespeare is a difference it on what I think is a fire. The answer, only in quality and result, not in essence, and the only answer, so far as we can see, that as the electric power ceases when to pure idealism is that it does not work the battery decays, so the mental power well ; whether matter exists or not, we ceases when the brain decays, that as have to act as though it exists. there can be no music without an instru- Similarly, How do we know that mind ment, so there can be no spiritual life exists? We reason, feel, resolve ; but except as it is connected with and pro- how do we know that reasoning, feeling, duced by the body? This question in resolving, are anything more than a phase various forms is often asked-has been of physical energy, a more subtle form of often asked of The Outlook.

electricity, a material force generated by The reply to this question is to be the brain ? How do we know but that found in the principle that the test of any the statement of one of the older materitheory, whether in philosophy or in sci- alists is true, and that “the brain secretes ence, is simply this : Can the theory be thought as the liver secretes bile"? The answer to this question is the same as the would better act as though matter is real, answer to the other. The theory of ma- or you will very soon come to grief. To terialism does not work well. We cannot the materialistic skeptic we should say, If apply it to the conduct of life. As we it be true that the brain secretes thought have to act as though there were matter, as the liver secretes bile, you would better so also we have to act as though there see to it that your brain secretes the right were mind. Physical forces are not sub- kind of thought if you wish to enjoy the ject to moral judgments; we do not con- esteem of your fellow-men. If what we demn gravitation as guilty of wrong-doing call the life of the soul is inseparably Spiritual forces are subject to moral bound up with the body, and ends when judgments; we do condemn spiritual the body ends, still let us make that forces as guilty of wrong-doing. If a life high, pure, true, noble.

. Religion is paper-weight falls off the desk and hits life; and to all philosophical skepticism, you on the knee, you do not think the whether of the pure idealist or the pure desk, paper-weight, or gravitation deserv- materialist, our reply would be, Let us live ing of condemnation ; if a man throws a as though life were real, life were earnest. stone and hits you on the knee, you do It is not by the theories which we brood think the man worthy of condemnation. in our studies that we are to be tested, but Society could not go on except upon the by the life we live in the world of men. assumption that man is a free moral agent; that his acts are not the necessary sequence of purely physical conditions ; The Gifts of Millionaires that he deserves praise for some actions and blame for others. Except on this The daily papers report simultaneously assumption there could be neither govern- two addresses, one by John A. Hobson, ment nor public opinion, neither good the English economist, delivered in Philmorals nor good manners. Civilization adelphia, the other by Professor John is based on the hypothesis that matter Bascom, of Williams College, delivered exists; it could not go on upon any other in Chicago. Both, if they are correctly hypothesis. Society is based upon the reported, maintain as a principle that hypothesis that mind exists; it could not educational, philanthropic, and religious go on upon any other hypothesis. So institutions should refuse to receive gifts long as a man acts as though there were from donors whose money, in the judgmatter, and as though there were mind, ment of the trustees, or perhaps we should society does not care what theories he say in the judgment of the general public, broods in his study. But when a man has been obtained by unrighteous methods. acts as though matter had no real exist- We quote from the newspaper reports a ence, we call him crazy. If he attempts few sentences to indicate the principle to put his theories into practice, he is implied or affirmed. Thus, from the liable to be sent to the insane asylum. If report of Mr. Hobson's address : “Is he acts as though mind did not exist, and society to be saved by the millionaires ? ignores all moral responsibility for his The fact that they give us great gifts action, we call him immoral, and he is should not keep us from tracing the origin liable to be sent to the penitentiary of their wealth. . . . Is it safe to take Neither pure idealism nor pure material- money so gained [i.l., by unrighteous ism works. Life repudiates them both. methods] and spend it for public pur

We do not think there is much use in poses at the wish of the millionaire ?" arguing with either the idealistic skeptic The answer that Mr. Hobson evidently or the materialistic skeptic. We never expects to this question Professor Bascom knew of much progress made in such gives: “ John D. Rockefeller's dollars argument. It is best to let him play with have sealed the lips of every instructor his pet doll before the study fire as much at the University of Chicago. . . . In the as he likes. It is certainly not a living East it is considered necessary to teach child, and cannot go out by itself and political economy and sociology in any enter into the tussles of actual life. To large institution of learning. How are the idealistic skeptic we should simply professors at the Chicago University to say, Whether there is matter or not, you do this? They have accepted this man's money, and in fairness to him and them- and Mr. Rockefeller together; Professor selves they must not tell the young men Bascom is reported as saying that “it and women who come to their school would be all right to accept Mr. Carnegie's how their benefactor gained his dollars. money,” but all wrong to accept Mr. ... There are men at this university Rockefeller's. Who shall decide? Are who are being prepared to fill pulpits and the Board of trustees by a majority teach the law of God. They should vote to settle a standard of ethics by know of the business immorality which which past business transactions are to exists. Can they be taught that at the be judged ? And when they have decided University of Chicago ? Dr. Harper can upon a standard, how shall they decide as say nothing uncomplimentary about the to the transactions ? Are they to constimanner in which Rockefeller gained his tute themselves into a court to investigate dollars. He would cease to be a gentle- the method by which Mr. Carnegie made man if he did.”

the wealth offered to the library, and Mr. Whether these reports accurately repre- 'Rockefeller the money offered to the unisent Mr. Hobson and Professor Bascom versity, and Mr. Vanderbilt the money it is not important for us to determine. offered to the hospital, and Mr. Drexel They represent accurately enough for our the money offered to the institute? They purpose a principle which is specious but cannot presume a man guilty because he we believe, thoroughly unsound: the prin- is wealthy. Surely they cannot condemn ciple enunciated in the report of Mr. him without investigation on common Hobson's address, namely, that it is the report. If they are to condemn him at duty of those to whom wealth is offered all, they must give him a hearing in his for use in public service to trace the own defense. This would be a curious origin of the wealth, and to decline it if, result: that whenever money is offered to in their opinion, it has been acquired by a board of trustees they must, before unrighteous methods. In our judgment, accepting it, put the donor on trial to see the trustees of religious, philanthropic, whether he acquired it righteously or not. and educational institutions have no And yet this is what they must do, if it is such duty; and no such consequences their duty to trace wealth to its origin result from a failure to perform this im- before accepting it for public uses. And practicable task as is more than intimated the inquisition must be a discriminating in the report of Professor Bascom's address. one. They must determine what propor

Before such a principle is accepted it tion of the wealth has been acquired by must be thought out to its logical conse- righteous and what proportion by unrightquences. If the trustees of a hospital or eous methods. Does any unrighteousness college or church are to trace to its origin vitiate the whole? Then there can be very wealth offered for the public service, and few donations received. If not, what proto refuse such wealth as in their judgment portion of unrighteousness is required to has been unrighteously acquired, they make rejection of the donation a public must first of all establish a standard of duty ? business morality by which to test the It is quite impracticable for trustees commercial transactions of the proposed to undertake any such inquisitorial funcbenefactor. The prohibitionist trustee tion as this principle would lay upon them; who holds that it is wrong to make money but if they were able to perform it, and by selling beer will refuse Matthew Vas- in the performance of it found that all the sar's money for the founding of Vassar money was acquired by methods wholly College. A A more radical temperance immoral, this would of itself constitute no companion will refuse money from the adequate reason for refusing to accept the hop-grower, because hops are used chiefly money in trust for the public. Let us for beer. The Sabbatarian will vote suppose the clearest of cases. A man has against receiving money from a railroad made his money as a professional gambler. millionaire if the railroad has been oper- Now that he has it, he desires to give it ated on Sunday. The vegetarian will to the public. What better use can he decline money from Mr. Armour, because put it to ? He cannot ordinarily search it is wrong to destroy animal life for out the men whose money he has won and food. Mr. Hobson classed Mr. Carnegie return it to them. If he converts it into

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