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IRELAND has, for seven centuries, pre race, that had grown secure, if not sented the spectacle of two nations strong, under the operation of the existing in one kingdom. Unlike the penal laws — the other, one just Gauls and Franks in France, or the awakening from a torpor—the efSaxons and Normans in England, or fect of a heavy blow_under which the Picts and Celts in Scotland, it it had lain for three quarters of a would seem as if there was or could century, prostrate yet, but now just be no cementing of such discordant feeling as if it had the right, and particles as ours. No more than the strength, and would soon acquire the iron and the clay in the feet of the pro. power to assume equality, and, in due phet's image, could they coalesce so as time, predominance. To both nations to form any thing that was stable. It --for as separate we must behold them is not for us here to explain this -the penal laws, like all vicious and difficulty of: fusion. All we desire unwise enactments, were most injurious to say is, that towards the close of reacting on the oppressor and the the last century the two races remained oppressed – producing characteristics still distinct — still strongly charac that have survived the enactments that terized by features which, though gave them birth, and of which the unexceedingly unlike, yet were, in their happy effects are to be seen and felt at respective aspects, exceedingly de this day. They made the Protestants formed-the one, a self-sufficient, over insolent, factious, corrupt and improbearing, but sometimes a generoust vident-so secure and self-sufficient as

Connaught Legends. By the Author of “ Connaught in 1798." 8vo. Dublin : 1839. † The assumption that one human being possessing power may inflict penalties on another, because differing in religious sentiment, being learned and borrowed from the Church of Rome, was, when resorted to on a principle of retaliation by Protestants, never carried out into unmitigated operation. Unlike the exterminating severity exercised in France and Spain, where public opinion was found backing the law, and carrying all its strongest enforcements into effect; in Ireland the Protestants, content with seeing that the Roman Catholics were excluded from political power, took no care to enforce penalties affecting persons or property. Neither priesis nor schoolmasters were, as they might be, informed against and banished; nor were the Romanists jealously, as they might be, debarred from the acquisition or retention of property. In this way very many properties were vested in trust with the Protestant gentry for the benefit of their Roman Catholic neighbours, and it was a singular thing, and universally sco. .ied at, when a Protestant took advantage of the law, and proved a traitor to his point of honour. The fact is, that while penal laws enforced by Romanism did their work effectually, and drove Protestantism out of popish lauds, they were com. paratively inoperative in Ireland, and Roman Catholics increased in numbers and in property, in a proportion, perhaps, not equalled since the disabilities were removed.

VOL. XVI.

B

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