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companies to which the broad railway company to alter the gauge gauge railways belong can be of such railway. called upon to incur such an ex 3. That in order to complete pense themselves (having made all the general chain of narrow gauge their works with the authority of communication from the north of Parliament), nor even the more li- England to the southern coast, mited expense of laying down in- any suitable measure should be termediate rails for narrow gauge promoted to form a narrow gauge traffic. Still less can we propose, sink from Oxford to Reading, and for any advantage that has been thence to Basingstoke, or by any suggested, the alteration of the shorter route connecting the prowhole of the railways of Great posed Rugby and Oxford line with Britain, with their carrying stock the South Western railway. and engines, to some intermediate 4. That as any junction to gauge. The outlay in this case be formed with a broad gauge line would be very much more con would involve a break of gauge, siderable than the sum above provided our first recommendation mentioned ; and the evil, incon- be adopted, great commercial invenience, and danger to the tra- convenience would be obtained by veller, and the interruption to the reducing the gauge of the prewhole traffic of the country for a sent broad gauge lines to the narconsiderable period, and almost at row gauge of 4 feet 87 inches; one and the same time, would be and we, therefore, think it desuch, that this change cannot be sirable that some equitable means seriously entertained.

should be found of producing such Guided by the foregoing con entire uniformity of gauge, or of siderations, we most dutifully sub- adopting such other course as mit to your Majesty the following would admit of the narrow gauge recommendations :

carriages passing, without inter1. That the gauge of 4 feet ruption or danger,' along the 81 inches be declared by the Le- broad gauge lines. gislature to be the gauge to be (Signed) used in all public railways now

J. M. FREDERIC Smith, (L.S.) under construction, or hereafter to Lieut.-Col. Royal Engineers. be constructed, in Great Britain. G. B. AIRY,

2. That, unless by the consent Astronomer Royal. of the Legislature, it should not be Peter Barlow, permitted to the directors of any Broad and Narrow Gauges C.






Signed at Washington, June 15, 1846.



TER Majesty the Queen of the States ; and the President of the

United Kingdom of Great United States of America has, on Britain and Ireland, and the United his part, furnished with full powers States of America, deeming it to James Buchanan, Secretary of be desirable, for the future welfare Statė of the United States ; who, of both countries, that the state of after having communicated to doubt and uncertainty which has each other their respective full hitherto prevailed respecting the powers, found in good and due Sovereignty and Government of form, have agreed upon and conthe Territory on the North-west cluded the following articles :coast of America, lying westward I. From the point on the fortyof the Rocky or Stony Mountains, ninth parallel of north latitude, should be finally terminated by an where the boundary laid down in amicable compromise of the rights existing Treaties and Conventions mutually asserted by the two between Great Britain and the parties over the said territory, United States terminates, the line have respectively named Plenipo. of boundary between the territories tentiaries to treat and agree con of Her Britannic Majesty and cerning the terms of such settle. those of the United States shall be ment, that is to say :

continued westward, along the said Her Majesty the Queen of the forty-ninth parallel of north latiUnited Kingdom of Great Britain tude, to the middle of the channel and Ireland has, on her part, ap- which separates the continent from pointed the Right Honourable Vancouver's Island ; and thence Richard Pakenham, a Member of southerly, through the middle of Her Majesty's Most Honourable said channel, and of Fuca's Straits, Privy Council, and Her Majesty's to the Pacific Ocean : provided, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister however, that the navigation of the Plenipotentiary to the United whole of the said channel and

straits, south of the forty-ninth ready in the occupation of land or parallel of north latitude, remain other property lawfully acquired free and open to both parties. within the said territory, shall be

II. From the point at which the respected. forty-ninth parallel of north lati IV. The farms, lands, and other tude shall be found to intersect the property of every description, begreat northern branch of the longing to the Puget's Sound AgriColumbia River, the navigation of cultural Company, on the north the said branch shall be free and side of the Columbia River, sball open to the Hudson's Bay Com- be confirmed to the said Company. pany, and to all British subjects In case, however, the situation of trading with the same, to the point those farms and lands should be where the said branch meets the considered by the United States to main stream of the Columbia, and be of public and political importthence down the said main stream ance, and the United States' Goto the ocean, with free access into vernment should signify a desire to and through the said river or obtain possession of the whole or of rivers ; it being understood, that any part thereof, the property so all the usual portages along the required shall be transferred to the line thus described shall in like said Government at a proper valuamanner be free and open.

tion, to be agreed upon between In navigating the said river or

the parties. rivers, British subjects, with their V. The present Treaty shall be goods and produce, shall be treated ratified by Her Britannic Majesty, on the same footing as citizens of and by the President of the United the United States ; it being, how- States, by and with the advice and ever, always understood, that no consent of the Senate thereof; and thing in this article shall be con the ratifications shall be exchanged strued as preventing, or intended at London at the expiration of six to prevent, the government of the months from the date thereof; or United States from making any sooner if possible. regulations respecting the naviga.

In witness whereof the respecttion of the said river or rivers, not in- ive Plenipotentiaries have signed consistent with the present treaty. the same, and have affixed thereto

III. In the future appropriation the seals of their arms. of the territory south of the forty Done at Washington, the fifteenth ninth parallel of north latitude, as day of June, in the year of our provided in the first article of this Lord one thousand eight hundred treaty, the possessory rights of the and forty-six. Hudson's Bay Company, and of all Richard PAKENIAM. (L.S.) British subjects who may be al JAMES BUCHANAN. (L.S.)



our volume for the year 1845, discoveries (and in especial in

and in the 189th page of the astronomy), the merit has been CHRONICLE, the reader will find claimed by at least two parties, briefly recorded the discovery of a and their respective causes have new planet, by M. Henke, of Ber- been taken up with great warmth lin. This event, sufficiently inter- by their friends and countrymen. esting in itself, and more so from Without pretending to express any the circumstance that it has verified opinion as to whom the chief credit the scientific suspicions of philo- is due, it may be permitted sophers, that such a body (being one to observe, that had our distinof the group of small planets situ- guished countryman, Mr. Adams, ated between Mars and Jupiter, been as decided in promulgating called Asteroids, of which Ceres, his calculations as his French Juno, Pallas, and Vesta are the competitor, the honour of the disother members) must, should it covery would unquestionably have really exist, in the course of its belonged to England ; but as M. periodic revolution round the sun Le Verrier had proceeded with his pass near the position in which elaborate calculations simultaneM. IIencke's diligence finally dis- ously, was the earliest in announccovered it, has now received an in- ing his theory, and the discovery creased degree of importance, by of the planet resulted more imthe discovery in this year of another mediately from such publication planet exterior to all similar bodies than from the private communicaof our system. This latter dis- tion of Mr. Adams to his scientific covery partakes in no degree of that friends, the French have very character of accident which is at- plausible grounds for claiming the tached to one part of the discovery of honour for their gifted countryman. Astræa ; for whereas the latter was The following extracts from the perceived by M. Hencke while Report of the Royal Astronomical sweeping that part of the heavens Society will convey the most corwith his glass, immediately known rect and most scientific account of by him to be a new body, and these important discoveries : suspected to be the planet which I. Report Jan. 1, 1846. the reasoning of astronomers had nouncement of the Discovery of taught was to be expected in that the new planet Astræa; with Obserpart of the system, this new and vations, Elements, &c. more wonderful discovery was the The addition of a new planet to result of pure reason and calcula- the solar system is a fact so intion, and affords an admirable teresting and important in astroproof of the truth and accuracy of nomy, as to require that the nuastronomical science. As has been merous communications of which the case with many other great it has already been the subject


should be treated and discussed, in viz. that at which those bodies the publications of this Society, were afterwards discovered. It with a greater regard to classifi was at least worthy of an attempt cation and arrangement than is at its verification, and such was necessary, or indeed always prac- accordingly instituted by several ticable, in other cases of less pro- astronomers. Lambert appears minent interest. Instead, therefore, first to have suggested the idea of of giving an abstract of each se the existence of a yet undiscovered parate communication that has body, and Bode's celebrated embeen received respecting the new pirical law was published by him in planet Astræa, it is proposed to 1772 ; but no serious attempt by give, first, a brief historical notice means of co-operation was made to of its discovery, and of the man- effect its discovery till the autumn ner in which the search after it was of the year 1800, when an Associaprosecuted; secondly, a tabular tion of twenty-four astronomers was statement of the observations of formed, having Schröter for their the planet which have been re- president and Zach for secretary, ceived ; and, thirdly, the elements who engaged to observe thoroughly which have been computed. With every star visible within the zoregard to its history, the first fact diacal limits. The announcement that occurs to us, as equally credit of the discovery of Ceres by able to its discoverer and instruct- Piazzi, on Jan. 1, 1801, was made ive to amateur astronomers and to Lalande, Bode, and Oriani on others who are desirous to extend the 24th of January following: the bounds of astronomical science, very soon after the formation of is, that its discovery was by no this Association, and its planetary means accidental, but the reward nature was soon recognised. This of long and well-directed search. discovery was speedily followed by Perhaps many persons are apt, on

that of Juno by Harding, and of occasions like the present, to re Pallas and Vesta by Olberst. The gard the discovery of any new body last planet, it is well known, was in our system as a lucky accident, discovered through a search sug; resulting from a casual or careless gested by the curious yet natural sweep among the stars, though the hypothesis of the bodies being fact with regard to the greater fragments of a large planet which number of such discoveries is had been shattered into fragments. directly the opposite of this. The Uranus also, to use Sir John Herfour asteroids which have been for schel's own words, “was disyears recognised as belonging to covered by Sir W. Herschel, in the our system were the reward of course of a review of the heavens, three or four successive steps of in which every star visible in a true philosophical inquiry. An telescope of a certain power was obvious analogy existed in the dis- brought under close examination, tances of the primary planets from when the new planet was immedithe sun, which, though not the result of any known law of nature, * It is a singular fact that Piazzi was was yet sufficiently evident in fact not a member of this Association, and to draw the attention of astro

that, in spite of such an organization, the nomers to its equally remarkable discovery was, in fact, accidental.

+ Pallas was discovered in 1802; Juno failure at one particular distance, in 1804; and Vesta in 1807.

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