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Carriages ....
Casks, empty
Catlings
China, &c.
Clocks...
Copper manufactures
Crayons
Crystal, cut
Gauze Thread..
Hair manufactures
Harp Strings
Iron and Steel, wrought..
Japan or lacquered Ware
Latten Wire....
Lead Manufactures.
Leather Manufactures, unenumerated
Paper hangings

brown, made of old rope

all other sorts, not otherwise charged with duty........

millboard

scaleboard Pencils.......

of slate
Pewter manufactures
Pots, stone
Silkworm gut
Skin or Fur manufactures
Soap, hard

soft.

Naples
Spa ware ....
Tallow
Tin Manufactures
Tobacco pipes, clay
Turnery
Twine
Varnish
Wafers and sealing-wax
Washing balls
Whipcord
Wire, gilt and silver
Articles manufactured, unenumerated

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12. 10s. per cwt.

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10 per cent.

10 per cent.

ll. 10s. cwt. 15 per cent. 15 per cent 15 per cent. 20 per cent. 20 per cent. 20 per cent. 30s. per cwt. 20s. per cwt. 56s. per cwt.

15 per cent.
3s. 20. per cwt.

15 per cent.
15 per cent.
15 per cent.
10s. per cwt.
15 per cent.
15 per cent.
6d. per lb.
6d. per lb.
12 per cent.
20 per cent.

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SCHEDULE OF SILK DUTIES—(continued).

PRESENT RATES.

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lb.

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the lb. ......

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Silk:or, and at the option of the officers

of Customs, for every 1001. value, the lb. Silk, figured or brocaded, the lb. or, and at the option of the officers of

the Customs, for every 1001. value, the

Ib. Gauze, plain, the lb. or, and at the option of the officers of the

Customs, for every 1001. value, the

lb. Gauze, figured or brocaded, the lb. or, and at the option of the officers of the

Customs, for every 1001. value, the Crape, plain, the lb. or, and at the option of the officers of the

Customs, for every 100l. value, the

Ib. Crape, figured, the lb. or, and at the option of the officers of

the Customs, for every 100l. value, Velvet, plain, the lb. or, and at the option of the officers of

the Customs, for every 1001. value,

the lb. Velvet, figured, the lb. or, and at the option of the officers of

the Customs, for every 1001. value Ribbons, embossed or figured with velvet,

the lb.
and at the option of the officers of the

Customs, for every 1001. value
and further, if mixed with gold, silver, or

any other metals, in addition to the above rates, when the duty is not

charged according to the value, the lb. Fancy silk net, or tricot, the lb. Plain silk lace, or net, called tulle, the

square yard Manufactures of silk, or of silk mixed with

any other material not particularly enu-
merated, or otherwise charged with duty,
for every 100l. value
Millinery of silk, or of which the greater
part of the material is silk, viz. :-

Turbans or caps, each
Hats or bonnets, each
Dresses, each
or, and at the option of the officers

of Customs, for every 100l. value Vol. LXXXVIII.

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or,

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58.
6s.

15 per cent.

68.

9s. 10s,

15 per cent.

Ils.

98. 9s.

Manufactures of silk, or of silk mixed with metal, or any other

material, produce of Europe, viz. :Silk or satin, plain, striped, or brocaded, viz. :-Broad stuffs, the lb. Articles thereof, not otherwise enumerated, the lb. or, and at the option of the officers of the Customs, for

every 1001. value Ribbons, the lb. Silk gauze or crape, plain, striped, or brocaded, viz. :Broad stuffs, the lb. Articles thereof, not otherwise enumerated, the lb. or, and at the option of the officers of the Customs, for

every 100l. value Ribbons, the lb. Gauze of all descriptions, mixed with silk, satin, or any other materials, in the proportion of one-half part of the fabric, the lb. Articles thereof, not otherwise enumerated, the lb. or, and at the option of the officers of the Customs, for

every 1001. value Velvet, plain or figured, the lb.

Articles thereof, not otherwise enumerated, the lb.
or, and at the option of the officers of the Customs, for

every 1001. value
Ribbons of silk, embossed or figured with velvet, the lb.
Manufactures of silk, or of silk and any other material, called

plush, commonly used for making hats, the lb.
Fancy silk net or tricot, the lb.
Plain silk lace or net, called tulle
Manufactures of silk, or of silk mixed with any other materials,

not particularly enumerated, or otherwise charged with duty,

for every 1001. value
Millinery of silk, or of which the greater part of the material is
silk, viz. :-

Turbans or caps, each
Hats or bonnets, each
Dresses, each
or, and at the option of the officers of the Customs, for

every 100l. value
Manufactures of silk, or of silk and any other materials, and

articles of the same wholly or partially made up, not particularly enumerated or otherwise charged with duty, for every 100l, value

15 per cent.

9s. 10s.

15 per cent.

98.

28.
8s.

15 per ceni.

.........

3s. 6d.

78. 11. 10s.

15 per cent.

15 per cent.

THE BROAD AND NARROW GAUGE.

EXTRACTS FROM THE REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONERS,

May it please your Majesty,—We, terms their sense of the delay, inthe Commissioners appointed by convenience, and damage arising writ, under your Majesty's Privy to the public in the three former Seal, bearing date the 11th of cases, and the danger which may July, in the ninth year of your

occur to the state in time of war, Majesty's reign, to inquire whether, and of expense and inconvenience in future private acts of parliament in time of peace, in the latter. for the construction of railways, The Commissioners proceed, in provision ought to be made for the second place, to discuss the securing an uniform gauge, and various means proposed for obwhether it would be expedient and viating these evils, in cases where practicable to take measures the break actually exists, or where, bring the railways already con in the course of construction of structed, or in progress of con- railways of different gauges, it may struction, in Great Britain, into hereafter occur.—The plans prouniformity of gauge, and to inquire posed are four in number, viz. :whether any other mode could be 1. What may be termed teleadopted of obviating or mitigating scopic axles; an arrangement of the the evil apprehended as likely to wheels and axles of carriages perarise from the break that will occur mitting the wheels to slide on the in railway communications from axle, so as to contract or extend the want of an uniform gauge, beg the interval between them in such dutifully to submit, that we have a manner that they may be adapted called before us such persons as

to either of the gauges. we have judged to be, by reason

2. A form of truck adapted to of their situation, knowledge or ex- the broad gauge, but carrying upon perience, the most competent to its upper surface pieces of rail 4 afford us correct information on the feet 8 inches asunder, so that a subject of this inquiry; and we have narrow gauge carriage may be run required the production of such books upon these rails without any disand documents from the various turbance of its wheels. railway companies as appear to us

3. A method of shifting the to be the best calculated to aid our bodies of carriages from a platform researches.

and set of wheels adapted for one The Commissioners then pro- gauge, to a different platform and set ceed to investigate the incon- of wheels adapted to the other gauge. veniences attending a break or in 4. A proposal to carry merterruption of gauge : 1st, as ap- chandize and minerals in loose boxes plying to fast or express trains; which may be shifted from one 2nd, to ordinary or mixed trains; truck to another, and of which 3rd, to goods trains ; 4th, to the only one would probably be carried conveyance of Her Majesty's forces. upon a narrow gauge truck, while With regard to all of which the two would be conveyed on a broad Commissioners express in strong gauge truck.

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All these plans the Commis- which might be considered prefersioners unequivocally condemn. able to either, if any such there

The Commissioners proceed, be. thirdly, to consider the general But our position is different from policy of establishing an uniformity this, since we have to consider not of gauge throughout the country. only the relative length of the difThe Commissioners say :

ferent systems, the comparative We approach this momentous mechanical efficiency of each, the question with a full conviction of general superiority of one above its importance, and the responsi- the other, their adaptation to the bility that rests upon us.

wants of the country, and the posThat an uniformity of gauge is sibility as well as the policy of a now an object much to be desired, change, but also the pecuniary there can, we think, be no question. means of effecting it. We have In the earlier period of the railway further to look to the consequences history of this country the great of an interruption of the traffic trunk lines were so far separated during the progress of an alteraas to be independent of each other, tion. and, as it were, isolated in their There is still another view of the respective districts, and no diversity question ; that is, the expediency of gauge was then likely to inter- of having, on lines of railway, adfere with the personal convenience ditional rails, so as to afford the or the commercial objects of the facility of using engines and carcommunity ; but now that railways riages on both gauges. are spreading in all directions, and This expedient, in whatever form becoming interlaced with each other adopted, cannot be considered as in numerous places, that isolation free from difficulties. If two rails, is remov

noved, that independence has forming a narrow gauge way, are ceased, and the time has arrived placed between the two rails which when, if steps cannot be taken to form a broad gauge way, carriages remove the existing evil of the of the different gauges may run in diversity of gauge, at least it ap- the same train without alteration pears to us imperative that a wider even of their buffers, which in the spread of this evil should be pre. ordinary construction of the carvented.

riages correspond exactly on the If we had to deal with a question broad and narrow gauges.

But not affecting the interests of parties, the expense of such an insertion who are not only unconnected, but would probably be not less than who are opposed to each other in a that of an entire change of gauge, spirit of emulation, if not of rivalry; including, in the latter, the change or if we were dealing with the pro- of engines and carrying stock ; and perty of the public, and not of pri- the complication which it would invate trading companies; we should troduce at the crossings might promerely have to consider whether duce danger to rapid trains, unless that uniformity of gauge which we their speed were diminished at apdeem to be so desirable would be proaching such points. The diffitoo dearly purchased by an altera- culty of packing the rails, if longition of one gauge to suit the other, tudinal sleepers were used, would or of both to some fresh gauge also be much greater than if rails

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