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gravated now; and the House must party, and had claimed for himself come to one or other of these two al- the privilege which was formerly ternatives—it must either maintain claimed for himself by Anacharsis the existing law, or propose some Cloots, namely, that of being the facilities for the importation of fo- Attorney-General for the whole hureign corn. If, then, all former man race. Adverting to Mr. Colprecedents justified the suspension quhoun's assertion that he had not of the Corn Laws in emergencies in this measure established a great similar to the present, let the House principle, he remarked that, if such consider the laws to be suspended, were the case, no man in the emand what the case would be then. pire ought to be more indebted to His conviction was strong that it him. Mr. Colquhoun had voted would be utterly impracticable, after both for and against the repeal of suspending the Corn Laws for six the Corn Laws. He had been months, to bring them again into since 1841 a determined advocate operation. It was an utter misap- for a fixed duty; and yet during prehension of the state of public the subsequent interval he had done opinion to suppose that any Go- all that he could to support a sliding vernment, after the country had scale. IIe wondered how he should tasted for six months the sweetness have fared with Mr. Colquhoun, of free importation, would be en- if, after he had carried the suspenabled to re-enact the existing Corn sion of the existing law, he had got Laws in all their provisions. Would up and said, that Government would any sane man advise this Govern- stake its existence upon restoring ment to give a guarantee, in case the Corn Laws at the period when of its suspending the Corn Laws the suspension ended. But this for six months, that it would renew was mere trifling. The real questhem at the expiration of the sus tion before the House was, Is pension ? He then proceeded to this measure right?" If it be, notice the arguments which had vote for it ; if it be wrong, vote been offered against his plan by the against it, and withhold your condifferent speakers in debate. Mr. fidence from the men who proposed T. Baring had recommended it. compromise on this subject. What He then entered upon a dissecwas a compromise but a new law? tion of the speeches of Mr. Miles and was this a time for producing a and Mr. S. O'Brien, controverting new law which would satisfy no the statistical returns of the former, party? Referring to Mr. F. Scott's and turning into ridicule the pacurious notion of the relation exist. thetic colloquies of the latter with ing between a Sovereign and his the tenant-farmers of his district. Minister, which he had compared Both those gentlemen, and, indeed, to that of a client and his counsel, every speaker on their side, had he observed that there was this treated the question as a Corn Law difference between the counsel and question ; but, in point of fact, it the Minister—that the Minister was not a Corn Law, but a great took an oath to give his Sovereign national and commercial question. the best counsel that his judgment That portion of his measure which could dictate, and that the counsel related to the Corn Laws might be did no such thing. Mr. Scott had rejected, and the other portion acspoken of him as the counsel of a cepted, or vice versa. He wished

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Let them look at the whole, and rejected or accepted as moral, social, physical, and geosuch. It was also the intention of graphical advantages which God the Government to adhere to its and nature had given to this counown proposal. He stated this, try; let them also look at their achowever, distinctly to the House, quired advantages; let them reflect that if the agricultural body should on their capital, their skill, their be of opinion that immediate was free press, their inimitable constipreferable to deferred repeal, and tution, and let them say, whether if, by uniting with the Anti-Corn- this was the country which ought Law League, they placed him in a to dread competition? What was minority, he should only consider it they had to dread? Which would what course he ought to take to be their motto, “Advance” or “Regive effect to the law so amended at trograde?” Other countries were their instance. He would do all he watching their example. could to carry the proposition of the was no reason for expecting that Government. He preferred it. He every where they would be met with did not pretend to say now, what a hostile tariff. Sardinia and effect success in the House of Com- Naples had both adopted liberal mons might produce elsewhere; systems. Prussia was already but bis opinion that it was neces shaken. The most sound and sensary to procure a final adjustment sible thinkers in France were instiof this question was so strong, that gating a willing Government, which he should prefer immediate repeal was desirous to follow that of Engso earried against him to the chance land and to reciprocate advantages of throwing the country into con- with it. They were giving enfusion by postponing for six months couragement in the United States the settlement of a question which to the party which was seeking to was now paramount to all others. procure a more liberal tariff. Even The great question was, “Shall we if that party was unsuccessful, he advance in the relaxation of protec- advised the House not to punish ittion and in the removal of pro- self by seeking to be revenged on hibitory duties, or shall we stand others. His earnest advice to the still?" Mr. Miles said, “Stand gentlemen of England, founded not still ;” but for the House of Com on the experience of three years mons to stand still on such a ques- merely, but on the experience of tion was to condemn every previous every previous relaxation of restep which it had taken in a liberal striction, was to persevere in the career of commercial policy. course upon which they had en

He then entered into an eloquent tered. By passing these measures defence of his past, and into a lucid they would take another guarantee explanation of his own present re- for the content, and love, and willlaxations in our tariff. After show. ing obedience of the population ; ing that in every case the removal and if a calamitous time should of prohibition had contributed, not come, when we must offer them exonly to the welfare of the consumer, hortations to bear their destiny but also to that of the producer, he with fortitude, it would be a concalled upon them calmly to reflect solation for us to reflect that we on what was the policy best suited had relieved ourselves from the neto a great commercial empire like cessity of regulating the supply of


food in a time of famine; and that of a terrified Cabinet, hurried in a period free from clamour and through a mystified Parliament into excitement, we had anticipated dif a premature law-but submitted ficulty and removed every impedi- to the patient discussion and free ment to the free circulation of and calm verdict of the English

Sir Robert Peel, after people ; without which, a measure a speech which occupied two hours of such a revolutionary character and three quarters in its delivery, could not be productive of present resumed his seat amid loud cheer- good, or of lasting benefit. After ing

the speech which had been deLord John Manners, who spoke livered by Sir Robert Peel, Lord next after Sir R. Peel, deplored John Manners was at a loss to see the disadvantageous position which how the Government could have a Member occupied who could en- adopted any other course than that list neither under the banner of the which they had pursued : but how Member for Northamptonshire, (Mr. different would have been the posiS. O'Brien), nor under that of the tion of Ministers if the right hoMember for Stockport (Mr. Cob- nourable Baronet had opened the den). He deprecated the idea of ports during the past winter, and deciding a question, involving the if upon the meeting of Parliament food of a people, upon the princi- he had told then, to use his own ples of political economy. Count metaphor, that he would no longer Carli, President of the Council of steer the ship in the same course? Public Economy at Milan, a great Then he might have well vindicated authority, entertained a similar the full performance of bis duty. opinion; remarking, in his cele- But, unfortunately, it would seem brated work, that statesmen ought that the members of his Cabinet to separate the subject of food from were not prepared to support him. all questions of a merely commer

Sir Robert Peel had stated very cial naturo. Men, he observed, unfairly the argument touching the could do without wine or oil ; but resumption of the Corn Laws after the first necessary of life—that the opening of the ports : he asked, which was essential to human ex did they wish for a guarantee that istence-ought not to be subjected to the Corn Laws would be restored ? the ordinary rules of commercial in. Why, every Member knew that no tercourse. The consequences likely guarantee of the kind could be to arise from free trade had been given; for the ports could not be greatly exaggerated; and Lord closed, after having been opened, John was therefore anxious to con without the consent of Parliament. sider any proposition for a settle Even now, if the danger were so ment of the question, whether it imminent and the remedy so easy, proceeded from Lord John Russell the shortest course would be to or Sir Robert Peel.

But he was

open the ports before the end of the persuaded that any such proposi- week, with the consent of Parliation, to be satisfactory or success- ment, and leave it to the good ful, should be made not on narrow, sense of the people of England to temporary, evanescent, suspicious, determine whether the law should or self-contradictory grounds, but be revived. placed on broad, great, and gene

Lord John Manners gave it as ral principles--not as the expedient his opinion that a scheme which

admitted the produce of the Colo- That speech was wafted on the nics and Indian corn duty-free, and wings of scores of thousands of other foreign corn at a moderate newspapers to every part of the fixed duty, would place the corn- kingdom and of the world; and it trade on å basis satisfactory to the would be carried to the abodes of mercantile interests of the country, the labourers, conveying to them would bind the members of our vast joy and hope. This was the man Colonial empire to us by the closest whom the Protectionists had chosen ties of interest, and would afford to be their leader. They placed security to the English farmer. him in office : but they should reThis view he fortified by a quota- member that a man in office was tion from the circular of Messrs. not the same man as he was in opFergusson and Taylor, of Man- position ; they ought to consider chester, suggesting a fixed duty of the responsibilities of office. "There 58. or 6s. Lord John Manners is not a man among you, condeprecated all rash and hasty in- tinued Mr. Bright, who would terference with the great interests have the valour to take office and which had grown up under the raise the standard of Protection, system of protection ; and advised and cry •Down with the Anti-Cornthe House not to lend itself, under Law League, and Protection for the dictation of the Minister, to a ever!' There is not a man in your policy calculated to alienate the ranks who would dare to sit on that sympathies and affections of the bench as the Prime Minister of rural classes. While, therefore, he England pledged to maintain the was not afraid of free trade, and existing law. (Loud cheers from most anxious for a settlement of the Free-traders.) The right hothe great question at issue, he nourable Baronet took the only should nevertheless give his most bonest course-he resigned. He hearty vote for an appeal to the told you by that act, I will no longer country, and his most determined do your work. I will not defend opposition to the proposal that the your cause. The experience I have Ilouse do now go into committee. had since I came into office renders

Mr. Bright supported the motion, it impossible for me at once to mainwith a warm eulogium on the Prime tain office and the Corn Laws. Minister. Sir Robert Peel had The right honourable Baronet rebeen called a traitor. It would ill signed- he was then no longer your become him to defend the right Minister. He came back to office honourable Baronet, after the as the Minister of his Sovereign speech which he delivered last and of the peoplenot the Minister night-a speech which, he would of a class who first raised him into venture to say, was more powerful office for their own special and priand more admirable than

any speech
vate purposes.

Why, the right ever delivered in that House within honourable Baronet did not use you the memory of any man in it. badly: he offered no obstacle to (Cheers.) He watched the right your taking office.”

your taking office.” (Loud cries honourable Baronet last night go of Hear, hear!”). out of the House ; and he must Mr. Disraeli assailed the cond u say-it was the first time he did it of Sir Robert Peel, in bringing for

- he envied him the feelings which ward such a measure as the present, must have animated his breast. with great severity and keenness

of invective. He said, whatever tracing the influence of that cause doubts had been expressed upon on the import of all our colonial other points in the course of this commodities last year, he proceeded debate, there had been none as to to notice and controvert the arguwhether Her Majesty's Ministers ment which Sir R. Peel had drawn had changed their opinions. Sir R. from the present condition of the Peel had complained that a great silk trade in favour of free trade. He part of the present discussion had (Mr. Disraeli) asserted, that after been wasted on the subject of party. twenty years of relaxation, we did not He (Mr. Disrael) considered party now import more pounds of silk than as public opinion embodied, and we did in the last year of protection. protested against Sir R. Peel's It was true Sir R. Peel maintained conduct, not because he had de- that the importation had risen from ferred too much to party or public 3,000,000 to 6,000,000 pounds ; opinion, but because he had out- but, even if that were correct, all raged it by the abandonment of his the increase was not to be attributed past principles, and by the flagrant to commercial regulations, but some scandal of carrying a measure which part of it at least must be assigned the majority of his Cabinet resisted. to the industry and enterprise of Sir Robert had then indicated what, Englishmen. He admitted the fact, in his opinion, ought to be the pro- which Sir R. Peel had laboured per subject of discussion in the

so effectually to establish in his Hlouse, and had called upon it to last speech, namely, “ that, for meet an emergency, and to con- thirty years, we had relaxed prostruct a system. Now, could there tection, and that the country was be a stronger contrast than between flourishing." That was his (Mr. a system which was permanent, Disraeli’s) case. The country was and an emergency which must be fourishing, because you had given precipitate? We had now a Pro- it a just, judicious, and moderate tection Cabinet and a Free Trade protection. Could Sir R. Peel Premier ; and perhaps some of the fight hostile tariffs with free imProtectionists in that Cabinet would ports? If so, why had he made so explain to the House what were many lamentations over the failure the reasons which induced them to of his diplomatic negotiations for come to the conclusion that the commercial treaties? He conpresent system of Corn Laws ought cluded, from Sir R. Peel’s language to cease. Passing from that sub- the other night, that he was not so ject, Mr. Disraeli noticed Sir R. well satisfied on that point as the Peel's declaration, that in conse- pupils of the Manchester school. quence of the removal of prohibitory Why else did he hope so much that and the relaxation of protective other nations would follow our good duties, accompanied by the regula- example? He (Mr. Disraeli) could tions of his tariff, in 1841, there assert, from his personal knowledge had been a great and simultaneous of the leading men in France, and increase of exports and imports. from his perusal of the works of Now, when a great change was re German writers on statistics, that commended on the ground of the Sir R. Peel was much mistaken as increase in the exports and imports, to the feelings of France and Prusit became necessary to analyze the sia ; and in America it was notocause of that increase. After rious, that ever since the question

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