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and compelled to surrender. He and he was the bearer of a despatch was then formally instituted Rajah from the British Government apof Sarāwak, with the usual native pointing Mr. Brooke Agent of Her ceremonies, and afterwards pro Britannic Majesty in Borneo, and ceeded to the capital of Borneo, also a letter addressed to the Sulwhich lies on the coast to the north tan of Borneo, in reply to a requieast of Sarāwak, in order to ob- sition which had been sent by the tain the ratification by the Sultan latter to the British Government, of his newly acquired dignity. for assistance in the suppression of After some delay, the amount of piracy. In the meantime, the revenue which was to be paid by small island of Labuan, which lies Mr. Brooke, as the Rajah of to the north of Borneo, a short disSarawak, was settled, and the tance from the capital, had been sanction of the Sultan was for- ceded by the Sultan to the Queen mally obtained in a written in of Great Britain—with the view of strument, with which Mr. Brooke being occupied as a convenient returned to the seat of his Go naval station, on the high-road from vernment. The fruits of his wise the East Indies to China. Mr. and paternal rule soon appeared, Brooke proceeded to the town of and the people, prosperous and Borneo, and had several interviews happy, became warmly attached with the Sultan, who gave him a to their new Rajah.

friendly reception, and seemed sinhowever, surrounded by pirate cere in his desire to put a stop to neighbours, whose depredations the piracy of his subjects. There at last aroused the apathy of the were, however, two parties at the British Government, and at the Court, one of which, headed by conclusion of the Chinese war, Muda Hassim, was anxious to in the month of March 1843, conciliate the friendship of the H.M.S. Dido was ordered to English, and resolutely averse to cruise in the Straits of Malacca piracy-the other, to which, as the and the adjoining seas, for the sequel showed, the weak and impurpose of protecting trade and becile Sultan either inclined or was suppressing piracy. The Dido ar forced to yield, were our enemies, rived soon after at Sarāwak, and and false and hollow in their proCaptain Keppel, her commander, fessions. Mr. Brooke then sailed accompanied by Mr. Brooke, made to Singapore, and soon afterwards several successful attacks upon the accompanied Admiral Sir Thomas strongholds of different pirate Cochrane on board H.M.S. Agintribes, destroying their prahus and court, together with several other fortified stockades, and capturing vessels of war, including steamers, their guns and ammunition. He back to the capital of Borneo. The then sailed to Singapore, intending object of this visit on the part of to return, but was ordered to Eng- Sir T. Cochrane, was to demand land. He was succeeded by Sir E. reparation for the detention and Belcher, in H.M.S. Samarang, confinement of two British subjects. who conveyed the ex-Rajah Muda This act was disowned by the SulHassim and his followers to the tan, and the residence of the real Bornean capital. In the month of offender, Pangeran Usop, was deFebruary, 1845, Captain Bethune stroyed, as he refused to surrenarrived at Sarāwak from England, der. The Admiral then proceeded



against a strong body of pirates, to reconnoitre Borneo ; and who occupied a fortified position a treacherous attempt was made to few miles up the river, at the head induce that officer to enter the of Maludu Bay. The force de- capital, where there was every reatached from the ships on this ser son to believe it had been resolved vice consisted of 546 men, under to put him to death. On account of the command of Captain Talbot ; these threatening symptoms, Sir and on the 19th of August, 1845, Thomas Cochrane determined to they ascended the river in gun ascend the river to the city of boats and other small craft, and, in Brunè, the capital of Borneo Prothe face of a well-sustained fire per, and demand an explanation from eleven guns, cut through a

from the Sultan of his con: strongly constructed boom, laid duct. He hoisted his flag on board across the stream, which prevented H.M.S. Spiteful, on the 7th of July, the passage of the boats. They accomp

accompanied by Mr. Brooke, and then carried and totally destroyed taking in tow the Hazard and the the works and town, the pirates Royalist (Mr. Brooke's schooner), who occupied it having abandoned and preceded by the steamer Phleit and fled into the interior, when gethon, ascended the river. At they found that the boats had Palo Bungone five forts had been passed the boom. In this gallant erected to dispute the passage, and action our loss consisted of six these opened a spirited fire upon killed, and fifteen wounded. the vessels ; but our gun-boats soon This lesson, though a

caused it to slacken, and when the one, did not produce any lasting crews were landed the garrison effect; and in the early part of the abandoned the batteries and fled. present year the conduct of the These forts were afterwards deSultan of Borneo was such as to stroyed. A heavy battery had been draw down upon him and his capital erected à feur d'eau about 800 signal punishment. Acting under yards from the river, which pointed the advice of chiefs who were hos- towards a bend which it made betile to Muda Hassim, and those tween the forts and the city. Sir who advocated a peaceful policy, Thomas Cochrane says in his deshe caused an attack to be trea- patch, that no sooner did the cherously made at night upon both ships open the point, than the bathis uncles, Muda Hassim and Bun- teries commenced a sharp and exdureen, in their own houses, when tremely well-directed fire, and at they were slain, together with a the same time a play of musketry great number of their families from the woods on our right, and and dependents. He then imme- to which the Spiteful was obliged diately began to increase the

increase the to submit without retaliation. The strength of his fortifications ; and critical situation in which she was it was evident that he was in- placed (with the beach but a few fluenced by an insane delusion that yards beyond her paddle boxes, the he might be able to set at defiance Royalist in tow, and the boats any British force which his conduct filled with the whole of the landing might provoke to attack him. force) required the utmost silence About this time, Commander Eger- and attention to prevent the whole ton, in H.M.S. Hazard, was been thrown on shore. But the sent by Sir Thomas Cochrane Phlegethon very promptly returned VOL. LXXXVIII.


the fire from her own guns, which, whole of the proceedings that had with the battery of field pieces taken place between us during the placed round her bows, and the last twelve months, pointing out admirable fire from the brigade of the unprincipled and dishonest conrockets planted upon her bridge, duct of the Sultan-showing how (both field-pieces and rockets un- entirely he and they were at my der the immediate command of

mercy—yet still holding out the Lieut. Paynter,) together with the olive branch to him, but declaring now rapid progress of the whole my determination to act with the force directly up the river, so as extreme of vigour should he ever tonished and dismayed the enemy, again evince hostility to Great Brithat they fled before the steamers tain." could reach their works, or the A document to that effect was storming party carry out the ser- accordingly prepared and transvice intended for it. As quickly lated into the Malay language, as possible the landing was ef- which was read to the principal infected, and the marines, under habitants assembled on board the Capt. Hawkins, immediately took Spiteful, and after this Sir J. possession of the heights which Cochrane sailed away to visit some command the town."

of the ports to the north of the The Sultan and all the inhabit. city of Brunè, and thence to proants filed when our troops ap- ceed to the coast of China. proached the city, so that it was entirely deserted ; but in the course NEW ZEALAND. Before of a few days the people returned, Captain Fitzroy, the late Governor and seemed to exhibit the utmost of the Colony, left Auckland upon confidence and good will. The his recall, as stated in our last voSultan retired into the interior of lume, he was waited upon with an adthe country, and an expedition sent dress from some of the inhabitants, up the Borneo river for the pur- which, although ostensibly professpose of capturing him, under the ing to be testimony to the incommand of Captain Mundy, was tegrity of his principles," seems to unsuccessful. Sir. J. Cochrane have been intended also as a resays in another despatch that, proach upon his government.

having remained eleven days at his reply, dated December the 5th, the city without any prospect of 1845, Captain Fitzroy thus exsecuring a definite and satisfactory pressed himself upon the fruitful arrangement, it became a matter

cause of quarrel between himself for consideration as to the next and the inhabitants of the colony, best course to be adopted that as well as the New Zealand Comwould hold out any hope of my pany in England, namely, the line leaving the city, and those friendly of policy he had observed towards to the English, even in a tem- the Aborigines : porary state of security ; and Mr. “You express fears that, * in Brooke concurred with me in think the fervency of my zeal to promote ing that the effect might be good the interests of the Aborigines, I were I to address a sort of procla- should have unconsciously injured mation to the chief persons actually the objects of my solicitude, by in the place, to be given to the losing sight of the fundamental Sultan on his return, detailing the principles, that indulgence may be



abused, and forbearance miscon- ment, and it had become absolutely strued.'

necessary for the welfare of this “I am not aware in what manner important colony to entrust its gothe Aborigines have been too much vernment in abler hands. The indulged by me. I cannot regret appointment of Captain Grey gave any forbearance shown to them by general satisfaction, and his arrival the local Government. Had I not at New Zealand was hailed as the treated them with consideration, advent of a new era in the politics, and had not the public authorities as well as in the financial and combeen very forbearing, the destruc- mercial prosperity of the settletion of Auckland and Wellington ment. He lost no time in sumwould have been matters of history moning the Legislative Council, before this period. Anoverpowering and when they were assembled, on multitude have been restrained hi- the 12th of December last year, therto by moral influence. Had he addressed them in the following physical force been tried in earnest speech :when there were but two small de. tachments of troops in the island,

Gentlemen of the Legislative and no places for either refuge or

Council, defence, the overthrow and ruin of our settlements must have been “ I have assembled you at this the inevitable consequence.

early period after my arrival in the “ Published despatches show colony, for the purpose of introthat additional effective forces were ducing into the Council a Bill for repeatedly refused to the reiterated placing restrictions upon the imapplication of successive Governors portation and sale of arms, gunof New Zealand ; and that even a powder, and other warlike stores. resolution of the Parliamentary It is not my intention to Committee, in July 1844, was submit at present any other legisrendered nugatory by the Secre. lative measures for your consideratary of State's subsequent declara- tion ; indeed, nothing but the extion, that the‘military forces in New treme urgency and necessity of the Zealand must still continue limited case could have induced me in amount, and must, as far as shortly after my arrival in the possible, be concentrated at the colony to have proposed any law principal settlements.'

for your adoption. I should have “My object always was to avoid preferred, before I had assembled bringing on a trial of physical the Legislative Council for the desstrength with those who, in that patch of business, to have visited respect, were overwhelmingly our each portion of the colony, and to superiors ; but gradually to gain have made myself acquainted with the necessary influence and autho. the state and requirements of each rity by a course of scrupulous jus- settlement. With the experience tice, truth, and benevolence.' which I should thus have gained

Whatever may have been the of the wants and resources of New intentions of Captain Fitzroy—and Zealand, and of the present condiwe have no reason to doubt that tion and necessities of that portion they were pure and disinterested of the Queen's subjects whose haphe was most unfortunate in alien- piness and welfare the Queen bas ating all confidence in his judg- confided to my care, I should have

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felt greater confidence in recom consistent with the peace and welmending for your adoption laws fare of the colonists of European which I might have considered descent, and from which it would applicable to the present circum- be impossible rudely and abruptly stances of the colony.

to divorce them, I am instructed, I hope yet to be able to pursue both in the structure and administhis course before submitting to tration of the law, to respect as far you any other measure than the

as possible these opinions and feelBill which I am about to lay on the ings. table.

"y Subject, however, to these “ I feel it to be due alike to the general rules, it will be my duty interests of both races of her Ma- to require from this people an imjesty's subjects within this colony, plicit subjection to the laws, and to take this, the first public oppor- to enforce that submission by the tunity that bas been afforded me, use of all powers, civil and miliof stating, in the most explicit tary, which have been placed at terms, that I have been instructed my command. most honourably and scrupulously “ The financial condition of the to fulfil the conditions of the treaty colony has necessarily already enof Waitangi ; by which the full, gaged my anxious attention, and I exclusive, and undisturbed posses. have felt it to be proper to lose no sion of their lands and estates, time in affording you the most forests, fisheries, and other pro- complete information in my power perties which the chiefs and tribes upon a subject of great importance of New Zealand, and the respective to yourselves and all who have families and individuals thereof, an interest in New Zealand. may collectively or individually pos “ You will perceive, from the resess, was confirmed and guaranteed turns which I have directed to be to them, so long as it may be presented to you, that a debt of their wish and desire to retain the considerable amount is already due

by the Local Government, and that “I have been further instructed the expenditure at present very to omit no measure within the largely exceeds the total income reach of prudent legislation, or of which is derived from the colony, a wise administration of the law, the parliamentary grant, and every for securing to the Aborigines the other source—that a large addition present freedom and safety to is constantly being made to that which they are entitled, and the debt, and must continue to be so, most unrestrained access to all the until I can determine upon the means of knowledge and of civiliza measures which it will be absotion provided for them by the pious lutely requisite should be taken to zeal which has established, and equalize in some degree the inwhich principally maintains, an come and expenditure of the coepiscopal see, and Christian mis- lony. sionaries for their instruction.

• It will be my earnest desire at In reference to the opinions, all times to co-operate with you feelings, and prejudices of the na most cordially in any measures tives of this country, which are not which may tend to promote the in themselves opposed to the fun- prosperity and happiness of her damental laws of morality, nor in- Majesty's subjects in this colony.


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