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been made when the Lahore Go. chiefs to submit themselves to the vernment suddenly, and without a authority of the British Governpretext of complaint, invaded the ment, and by a return to good faith British territories. This unpro- and the observance of prudent counvoked aggression has compelled sels, enable the Governor-General the British Government to have to organize a Sikh Government in recourse to arms, and to organize the person of a descendant of its the means of offensive warfare ; founder, the late Maharajah Runand, whatever may now befall the jeet Singh, the faithful ally of the Lahore state, the consequences can alone be attributed to the miscon “ The Governor-General, at this duct of that Government and its moment of a most complete and army:
decisive victory, cannot give a “No extension of territory was stronger proof of the forbearance desired by the Government of India: and moderation of the British Gothe measures necessary for provid- vernment than by making this ing indemnity for the past and declaration of his intention ; the security for the future will, how- terms and mode of the arrangement ever, involve the retention by the remaining for further adjustment. British Government of a portion of “ The Governor-General, therethe country hitherto under the go- fore, calls upon all those chiefs vernment of the Lahore state. The who are the well-wishers of the extent of territory which it may descendants of Runjeet Singh, and be deemed advisable to hold will especially such chiefs as have not be determined by the conduct of the participated in the hostile proceedDurbar, and by considerations for ings against the British power, to the security of the British frontier. act in concert with him for carryThe Government of India will, ing into effect such arrangements under any circumstances, annex to as shall maintain a Sikh Governthe British provinces the districts, ment at Lahore, capable of conhill and plain, situated between trolling its army and proteeting its the rivers Sutlej and Beas; the subjects, and based upon principles revenues thereof being appropriated that shall provide for the future as a part of the indemnity required tranquillity of the Sikh states, shall from the Lahore state.
secure the British frontier against “ The Government of India has a repetition of acts of aggression, frequently declared that it did not and shall prove to the whole world desire to subvert the Sikh Govern- the moderation and justice of the ment in the Punjaub; and although paramount power of India. the conduct of the Durbar has been “ If this opportunity of rescusuch as to justify the most severe ing the Sikh nation from military and extreme measures of retribu- anarchy and misrule be neglected, tion, (the infliction of which may and hostile opposition to the British yet be required by sound policy, army be renewed, the Government if the recent acts of violence be not of India will make such other aramply atoned for and immediate rangements for the future governsubmission tendered,) neverthelessment of the Punjaub as the interthe Governor-General is still will. ests and security of the British. ing that an opportunity should be power may render just and exgiven to the Durbar and to the pedient.
When the news arrived at La- his colleagues that the offence hore of the complete overthrow of which had been committed was the Sikh army at Sobraon, the most serious, and that the conduct Ranee (Queen Mother) and her of the chiefs and army was most Durbar, or council, urged Rajah unwarrantable ; that this offence Gholab Singh to proceed imme- had been perpetrated without the diately to the British camp, and shadow of any cause of quarrel on entreat forgiveness in the name of the part of the British Governthe Lahore Government for the ment, in the face of an existing outrage which had been committed treaty of amity and friendship ; by the army ; and at the same and that, as all Asia had witnessed time endeavour to negotiate some the injurious conduct of the Sikh arrangement for the preservation nation, retributive justice required of the country from the utter ruin that the proceedings of the British impending over it.
Government should be of a chaThe Rajah first stipulated that racter which would mark to the the Durbar and the chief officers whole world that insult could not of the army, as well as the mem be offered to the British Governbers of the Punchayets, should ment, and our provinces invaded sign a solemn declaration that they by a hostile arniy, without signal would abide by such terms as he punishment. might determine on with the British The terms demanded and conGovernment. This is said to have ceded were the surrender, in full been immediately acceded to ; and sovereignty, of the territory, hill on the 15th, Rajah Gholab Singh, and plain, lying between the SutDewan Deena Nath, and Fakeer lej and Beas rivers, and the payNooroodeen, arrived in the British ment of one crore and a half of camp, at Kussoor, with full creden- rupees as indemnity for the extials from the Maharajah, and em penses of the war; the disbandment powered to agree, in the name of of the existing Sikh army, and its the Maharajah and the Govern- reorganization on the system, and ment, to such terms as the Go- regulations with regard to pay, vernor-General of India might which obtained in the time of the dictate. The Rajah was accom late Maharajah Runjeet Singh ; panied by the Baruk zie chief, the arrangement for limiting the Sultan Mahommed Khan, and se extent of the force to be thenceveral of the most influential Sirdars forth employed to be determined of the nation.
on in communication with the BriSir Henry Hardinge in his tish Government ; the surrender to despatch dated “Camp Kanha, us of all the guns that have been Cuchwa, Feb. 19th,' stated, that pointed against us ; the entire rehe received the Rajah in Durbar as gulation and control of both banks the representative of an offending of the river Sutlej, and such other Government, omitting the forms arrangements for settling the future and ceremonies usually observed boundaries of the Sikli state, and on the occasion of friendly meet the organization of its administraings, and refusing to receive, at tion, as might be determined on at that time, the proffered nuzzurs Lahore. and complimentary offerings. He It was likewise determined that briefly explained to the Rajah and the young Maharajah Dhuleep Singh
should meet the Governor-General states as would tend to the benefit on the 18th, at Lulleeana, eleven of both, I broke up the Durbar. miles from Lahore. On that day “On his taking leave, I caused the Maharajah, attended by several the customary presents to be made chiefs, had an interview with Sir to the Maharajah ; and, on his Henry Hardinge at the place ap- retiring from my tent, the usual pointed, and the following is his salute was fired from our 24. account of the reception: pounders, drawn up at the bottom
“As on the occasion of Rajah of the street of tents for that purGholab Singh's visit, I omitted the pose. usual salute to the Maharajah, and
The remains of the Sikh army, curtailed the other customary cere
after the battle of Sobraon, remonies on his arrival at my tent, treated under the command of causing it to be explained that, Sirdar Tej Singh and Rajah Sall until submission had been distinctly Singh, in the direction of Lahore, tendered by the Maharajah in per- and were encamped at Raebam, son, he could not be recognised about eighteen miles east of Laand received as a friendly prince. hore, when the British troops ap
“Submission was tendered by proached that capital. On the the minister and chiefs who accom 20th of February our army, appanied the Maharajah, and the par- peared beneath the walls, and the don of the British Government was Maharajah, who had since his inrequested, on such conditions as I terview with the Governor-General should dictate, in the most explicit accompanied the British Camp, terms ; after which, I stated that, was conducted to his palace the conditions having been dis an escort of our troops. When he tinctly made known to the Minis- had reached the inner door of his ter Rajah Gholab Singh and the palace, in the interior of the citachiefs accredited with him, it was del, a salute of twenty-one guns unnecessary to discuss them in that
was fired by the British Horse place, and in the presence of the Artillery, and the escort returned young Maharajah, who was of too
to the camp. It was remarked at tender an age to take part in such the time that not a gun appeared matters ; and that, as all the re upon the walls, and all the embraquirements of the British Govern
sures were empty. On the 22nd ment had been acquiesced in, and a brigade of British troops, under their fulfilment promised in the the personal command of Sir Hugh name of the Maharajah and Dur- Gough, occupied the citadel of Labar, I should consider myself justi- hore, and the Governor-General fied in treating the young Maha- then issued the following general rajah from that moment as a prince order :-restored to the friendship of the “Foreign Department, Camp, Lahore, British Government. After some
February 22, 1846. remarks regarding the fame and « The British army has this day character of the late Maharajah occupied the gateway of the citadel Runjeet Singh, and a hope that the of Lahore, the
of Lahore, the Badshahee Mosque, young prince would follow the foot- and the Hoozooree Bagh. The resteps of his father, and my desiremaining part of the citadel is the that such relations should hence- residence of His Highness the forward exist between the two Maharajah, and also that of the
families of the late Maharajah “ The soldiers of the army of Runjeet Singh, for so many years the Sutlej have not only proved the faithful ally of the British their superior prowess in battle, Government. In consideration of but have on every occasion, with these circumstances, no troops will subordination and patience, enbe posted within the precincts of dured the fatigues and privations the palace-gate.
inseparable from a state of active “The army of the Sutlej has operations in the field.
The nanow brought its operations in the tive troops of this army have also field to a close, by the dispersion proved that a faithful attachment of the Sikh army, and the military to their colours and to the comoccupation of Lahore, preceded by pany's service is an honourable a series of the most triumphant fcature in the character of the
ever recorded in the British Sepoy. The Governormilitary history of India. The General has repeatedly expressed, British Government, trusting to on his own part and on that of the faith of treaties, and to the the Government of India, admiralong subsisting friendship between tion and gratitude for the importthe two States, had limited mili- ant services which the army has tary preparations to the defence of rendered. The Governor-General its own frontier. Compelled sud- is now pleased to resolve, as a deply to assume the offensive, by testimony of the approbation of the unprovoked invasion of its ter- the Government of India of the ritories, the British army, under bravery, discipline, and soldier-like the cominand of its distinguished bearing of the army of the Sutlej, leader, has in sixty days defeated that all the generals, officers, nonthe Sikh forces in four general ac- commissioned officers, and privates, tions ; has captured 220 pieces of shall receive a gratuity of twelve field artillery; and is now at the months' batta. Every regiment capital, dictating to the Lahore which, in obedience to its orders, Durbar the terms of a treaty, may have remained in posts and the conditions of which will tend forts between Loodiana and Feto secure the British provinces rozepore, and was
not present from the repetition of a similar in action—as in the case of the outrage.
troops ordered to remain at Mood“ The Governor-General, being kee to protect the wounded, and determined, however, to mark with those left in the forts of Ferozereprobation the perfidious character pore and Loodiana---shall receive of the war, has required, and will the gratuity of twelve months' exact, that every remaining piece batta. Obedience to orders is the of Sikh artillery which has been first duty of a soldier ; and the pointed against the British army Governor-General, in affirming the during the campaign shall be sur- principle, can never admit that abrendered.
sence caused by the performance “ The Sikh army, whose insub- of indispensable duties, on which ordinate conduct is one of the chief the success of the operations in causes of the anarchy and misrule the field greatly depended, ought which have brought the Sikh State to disqualify any soldier placed in to the brink of destruction, is about these circumstances from particito be disbanded.
pating in the gratuity given for
the general good conduct of the I have reluctantly consented to army in the field. All regiments leave a British force in garrison and individuals ordered to the at Lahore, until time shall have frontier, and forming part of the been afforded for the reorganizaarmy of the Sutlej, which may tion of the Sikh army, by which have reached Loodiana or Bus assistance the stipulations of the sean before the date of this order, treaty may be more easily carried will be included as entitled to the into effect. gratuity.”
In no case can I consent that It now remained to adjust the the British troops shall remain in terms of the treaty between the garrison for a longer period than two Governments; and on the 8th
the end of this year. of March this important instru 'I state this publicly that all ment was signed in the Governor the world may know the truth, General's tent. The next day he and the motives by which I am held a public Durbar in great state,
actuated in this matter." when the Maharajah, attended by The treaty consisted of sixteen his principal officers and a articles, of which the following is merous suite, was present, and the brief summary:treaty was ratified and exchanged 1. There is to be perpetual with the usual ceremonies. The peace and friendship between the Governor-General then addressed contracting parties. the assembled chiefs in a speech 2. All claim on the part of the which was translated to them as Lahore Government to, or commuit was delivered. In the course of nication with, the territories lying it he said.
to the south of the Sutlej, re“ For forty years it was the nounced. policy of Runjeet Singh's time to 3. The Maharajah cedes the cultivate friendly relations between sovereignty of all the country the two Governments, and during between the Beas and the Sutlej. the whole of that period the Sikh 4. The Lahore Government, nation was independent and happy. being unable to pay the full Let the policy of that able man to amount of indemnity demanded wards the British Government be by the British, cede, as an equithe model for your future imitation. valent for one crore of rupees,
" The British Government in no all the hill country between the respect provoked the late war. It Beas and the Indus, including had no objects of aggrandizement Cashmere and Iluzarah. to obtain by hostilities. The proof 5. The Maharajah agrees to of sincerity is to be found in its pay fifty lacs of rupees on or bemoderation in the hour of victory. fore the ratification of this treaty.
“ A just quarrel, followed by a 6. The mutinous troops of the successful war, has not changed the Lahore army to be immediately policy of the British Government. disbanded ; and the regular or The British Government does not Acen Infantry regiments to be desire to interfere in your internal reorganized, and paid as in the affairs. I am ready and anxious time of Runjeet Singh. to withdraw every British soldier 7. The Lahore army to be lifrom Lahore. At the earnest so- mited for the future to twentylicitation of the Sikh Government, five battalions of infantry of 800