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mander, asking for an armistice perceive how great an
error I for six weeks, in order that a com- should commit in assuming the munication might be made with supreme magistracy, when my duty the Mexican Government. General calls me to the field to fight against Taylor answered that the only con the enemies of the Republic. I cession he could make was to give should disgrace myself, if, when the Mexican troops in Matamoras called to the point of danger, I until eight o'clock the next morn should spring to that of power. ing to evacuate the city. On the Neither my loyalty nor my honour following day, the army crossed requires the abandonment of inthe river, and, on reaching the gates terest so dear to me. The single of the town, found that General motive of my heart is to offer to my Arista and his forces had aban- compatriots the sacrifice of that doned the place, and had retired blood which yet runs in my veins. upon San Fernando about ninety I wish them to know that I consemiles distant.
crate myself entirely to their serIn the meantime the American vice, as a soldier ought to do ; and fleet had commenced a strict block- am only desirous to be permitted to ade of the Mexican coast, and the point out the course by which towns of Vera Cruz, Tampico, and Mexico may attain the rank to St. Juan d'Ulloa were closely which her destinies call her. watched by cruisers.
“In marching against the eneAfter the surrender of Mata- my, and declining to accept of moras, the American army con power, I give a proof of the sintinued to advance into the Mexican cerity of my sentiments ; leaving territory, and the towns of Rog- the nation her own mistress, to disnosa and Camargo fell into their pose of herself as she sees fit. The hands. The former yielded with- elections for members of Congress, out resistance, but the latter was to form the constitution which the taken by General Taylor. After people wish to adopt, are proslow and tedious marches the in- ceeding. The Congress will soon vading forces reached the import- convene; and while I shall be enant city of Monterey, on the 19th gaged in the conflict, in armed deof September, which was occupied fence of her independence, the naby a Mexican force under General tion will place such safeguards Ampudia, and immediately pre- around her liberties as may best suit pared to besiege it. In the mean- herself. If I should permit myself time another revolution had taken for a single moment to take the place in Mexico in August. Santa reins of government, the sincerity Anna had arrived in the Mexican of my promises would be rendered capital. General Paredes
was questionable, and no confidence deposed and banished from the could be placed in them.' country, and Santa Anna assumed The forces under General Taythe command of the Mexican lor, at the siege of Monterey, army. He refused this time to amounted to 6000 men, and havaccept the Presidency, and, in a ing constructed a battery, and letter published by him on the formed his troops in three divisions, 14th of September, gave the fol- he opened his fire upon the citadel lowing reasons for his conduct. He and town, on the morning of the said
21st of September. The AmeYour Excellency will at once ricans advanced at the same time
to the attack, in order to carry the modore Connor. When the smaller place by storm. The contest was vessels from the squadron containcarried on in the streets hand to ing the attacking force reached the hand, and before night-fall the city, it was met by a deputation Americans succeeded in establish- from the citizens offering to suring themselves in a position within render the place, provided that the city. Next day was occupied by their laws, institutions, and procannonading on both sides, and perty were respected. The Amesuccessful attempts on the part of ricans took possession of the place, the assailants to capture several and occupied it with a garrison. batteries of the enemy.
These were the chief incidents in On the morning of the 23rd, it the war between the United States was found that the Mexicans had and Mexico up to the close of the evacuated the forts and defences year, when there seemed to be a east of the city ; but they still prospect of its tedious continuance; continued to contest possession of although there can be little doubt the town. The Americans had that, unless terms of peace are now gained the grand square ; offered and accepted, the American in which, with the neighbouring arms will be ultimately victorious, citadel, the Mexicans had concen and Mexico subdued. trated their strength. Throughout the night, considerable execution
THE BRAZILS- On the 3rd of was done with a mortar which had May, the
third Session of the sixth been brought to bear upon
the Mexicans in the grand square.
assembly of the Legislative Cham
ber in the Brazils was opened by Early on the morning of the the Emperor with the following 24th, General Taylor sent a flag of
speech :truco to General Ampudia, offering terms for a capitulation. The
“ Honourable and Most Worthy whole day was spent in corre
Representatives of the Nation,spondence, and in discussion at a personal interview between the
“It is with the most lively saGenerals ; but eventually, in the tisfaction that I perceive collected afternoon, the Mexican commander around me the national representaccepted the terms. They in- atives. cluded permission for the garrison “ This event, looked forward to march out with a portion of their to with just confidence by all arms beyond a distant line of ter- Brazilians, annually presents to ritory ; and an armistice of eight your zeal for the interests of the weeks, subject to the decision of country the means of promoting the national governments.
its welfare and its prosperity. The armistice, however, was not Agreeably to the communicaconfirmed by the United States tion I made to you when I adGovernment, and General Taylor dressed you at the close of the was ordered to advance into the last Session, I have visited the country and prosecute the war with provinces of St. Catharina, St. the utmost vigour.
Pedro, the Rio Grande, and St. On the 14th of November, the Paulo. town of Tampico surrendered to a “ The demonstrations all these detachment from the American provinces afforded me of adhesion feet under the command of Com- to my imperial person and family,
and to the political constitution of “My Government protested the empire, have secured them my against such Act, and made all gratitude.
foreign Powers acquainted with “ The progress they exhibit in that protest. Faithful to the encivilization, industry, and the re. gagements entered into to put an sources with which nature has en end to the traffic in Africans, my dowed them, give assurance of the Government will, notwithstanding, rapid development of their pro- not cease to defend the prerogasperity.
tives of my Crown and our na" Peace prevails throughout all tional rights. To attain such just the provinces ; this blessing of ends I confide in your loyal and Providence will contribute to and patriotic co-operation. facilitate the execution of such “ The struggle, unfortunately, measures as your intelligence and still continues in the Republics of patriotism may judge necessary or the River Plate, which has occaexpedient to foster the riches of sioned dissensions and protracted the country.
the war between them. I earn“I most sincerely regret the estly pray for the re-establishment evils which the drought has in- of peace and order in our neighflicted on the northern provinces, bouring states ; and in accordance particularly Coara. My Govern- with the interests of our country ment promptly supplied such means and with the principles of neuas were at its disposal to alleviate trality my Government have the distress which my subjects suf- adopted, I look forward to an end fered in those provinces. Accord- being put to circumstances so ing to the most recent accounts, afflicting to humanity. the rains had commenced, and “ The budget or estimate of the were very abundant ; but, never revenue and expenditure for the theless, it will not be possible to ensuing financial year will be laid repair, at once, all the damage before you, by which you will be resulting from the drought ; nor enabled to ascertain the increase can the Government suspend the which has taken place in the forsuccours of which those provinces mer, and the exertions my Gostill stand in need.
vernment has made to establish, “I have endeavoured to culti- by means of judicious reductions vate amicable relations with all the in the latter, the indispensable Governments of Europe and Ame- equilibrium between the receipts rica.
and expenses of the State, without “ The expiration of the con- the onus of imposing fresh burvention between Brazil and Great dens. Britain for the suppression of the “ From the reports of the reSlave Trade was duly notified by spective departments you will see my Government to that of Her the actual state of each, and the Britannic Majesty. After such measures requisite to be adopted notification was given, the British for the benefit of the nation. Parliament passed an Act for subjecting Brazilian vessels, suspected
Honourable and Most Worthy of being engaged in the trade, to
Representatives of the Nation, the jurisdiction of the English tri. " You have always given my bunals,
Government, with patriotic solici.
tude, your loyal support, and the Video, which has defended itself benefit of your enlightened mind. with obstinacy. The King's GoI thank you sincerely for such im- vernment has often been pressed portant assistance, and I rely on during the last four years to inthe continuation thereof, whereby terfere once more in this contest; you will contribute to raise the it has always refused to do so. empire to that state of prosperity Two principal reasons have deterand glory to which it is destined mined it to abstain—first, the by Providence.
right to meddle, without absolute “ The Session is commenced.” necessity, in the affairs of the two
independent states had not been RIO DE LA PLATA.-The acknowledged ; secondly, there war which has so long been carried has always been, moreover, suffion by the Dictator Rosas against cient reason for believing that the the republic of Monte Video, and question would soon terminate of them
inconveniences resulting itself by the close of the war. from the blockade of that city, After having spoken of a proinduced the Governments of Eng- posal of mediation made by Brazil land and France to interpose in to France and England, M. Guizot the course of the present year. proceeds :The circumstances which led to “We are therefore disposed, as this intervention are detailed by well as the English Government M. Guizot in a despatch to the (which has already notified to us French Ambassador at the Court as much), to receive the overtures
St. James's, dated Jan. 21st, of the Brazilian Government, but 1845, and laid by him before the taking care to determine beforeChamber of Deputies in the early hand what the nature of our course part of this year.
of action shall be. We cannot “ You are aware of the ferocious entertain the idea of recommencing warfare which desolates the left the situation which it was the bank of La Plata. In consequence object of the treaty of the 29th of its disputes with the Govern- of October, 1840, to terminate. ment of the republic of Buenos We do not intend to interpose in Ayres, the King's Government favour of either of the two states had allowed itself to be drawn of La Plata against the other, or into an interference in the local in favour of any local faction struggles which more particularly against another. We desire, in divide the republic of Monte Video. concert with the Governments of By the treaty of the 29th of Oc- England and Brazil, to stop the tober, 1840, France made peace effusion of blood, to re-establish with General Rosas ; at the same the regular course of commerce, time she renounced all participa- to prevent the progress of the tion in the internal quarrels of the barbarism that an endless war country, on condition that the in- always draws after it, and not to dependence of the republic of impose a Government of our own Monte Video should be respected. choice upon independent countries; Since that period war has con we wish, in fine, to come to the tinued. A former President of assistance of those of our fellowthe republic of Buenos Ayres has countrymen, who are ruined by the laid siege to the city of Monte war, and not to give satisfaction
to those who have adopted a river Parana, which had long been course in opposition to us.
closed by the command of General Already have the two agents Rosas. of England and France in La The passage forced is the narPlata proposed their amicable me rowest point, forming a sort of diation ; it has been refused. The elbow, about 800 yards wide ; hour for an armed mediation ap- downwards it gradually widens, and pears to have arrived. It is in above it expands to the left. On this sense that the English Am- the right bank were four batteries, bassador has spoken to me re at nearly equal distances from each specting the views of his Govern- other, mounting from twenty-four ment. I have shown myself dis- to thirty guns, most of them 24posed to entertain them.
pounders. Three of the batteries “I need not say that the in- were established at the narrowest dependence of the state of Monte point facing downwards athwart Video, reorganized by the treaty the stream, and the fourth was of October 1840, should be, in above the others, at a projection our opinion, the necessary point of commanding the length and breadth departure in every negotiation : of the Parana. The background that independence is, in reality, was covered with thick woods. disputed by nobody.
Between the second and third bat“ It should be, at the same time, teries, and close to the second, distinctly understood that none twenty-four or twenty-five small of the three mediatorial Powers vessels were moored directly across would seek to obtain either in- the river to the opposite bank, and crease of territory or any separate these were strongly secured to. advantage.
gether by three frigates' chain ca“We might merely demand, as bles. There were no batteries on the accessory consequence of our the left bank, but just above this intervention, the application of the bridge of small vessels, on the left principles laid down by the Con- bank, General Rosas's brig, the gress of Vienna, for the free Republicano, was moored broadnavigation of the rivers or streams side across the river.
This brig that descend from the frontiers of had six guns of heavy calibre, and Brazil and of Paraguay into the so placed as to enfilade the Rio de la Plata.”
opposing ships. Under the second All amicable negotiation having battery, and close to the bridge of failed, the combined forces of Eng- boats, four fireships were staland and France were, at the latter tioned. end of the preceding year, brought On the morning of the 20th the to bear against General Rosas attacking parties moved up the with the result which might have river towards the point. They were been anticipated. On the 20th of formed into three divisions. The November, 1845, an action took first was composed of the Procida place on the river Parana, at the (French) brigantine, Capt. De la Puente del Obligado. The im- Rivière ; the Philomel, 6 (Engmediate object of the English and lish), Commander Sullivan ; the French commanders, Captains Fanny, brigantine (English), Hotham and Trehouart, was to Lieutenant-Commander Astley C. force open the navigation of the Key, Second Lieutenant of the Vol. LXXXVIII.