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per cent.

upon such articles as may bring Cloths, low flannels, bockings,

foreign produce into dangerous and baizes

38 30 Shirting, costing 6 cents. per

competition with American in their yard

95

30 own markets, and was carried in Cotton prints, or calicoes, cost,

that House by the majority of a ing 12 cents. the running

single vote ; the numbers being :yard

50

25 Mousseline de laine-cotton,

Ayes, 28; Noes, 27. In the worsted, 24 inches wide,

House of Representatives it passed costing 12 cents.

50 25 with less difficulty, and the numGlass - plain, moulded, or

bers there were :-Ayes, 115 ; pressed tumblers

137 30

Noes, 93. The
Cables and cordage, tarred 120 25
Unmanufactured hemp..... 39

30 finally adopted at the end of July, Coal

69 30 but was not to come into operation In the Senate the measure was

until the 1st of December. In vehemently attacked by Mr. September Mr. Bancroft, well Webster, who is one of the most

known as the author of a history prominent advocates in America of of the United States, was apa system of protection, and strongly pointed American Minister to this opposed to a reduction of duties country, in the place of Mr. Everett.

measure

was

...

CHAPTER XIII.

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UNITED STATES, continued.Message of the President to Congress

Topics embraced therein--History of the quarrel between the United States and Mexico-History of the Annexation of Texas to the States of the Union-Causes which led to the declaration of war against Mexico-Narrative of the successes of the American army-Question of letters of marque and reprisal issued by the Mexican GovernmentSpanish privateers to be treated as pirates - Report of the Secretary of the Treasury-Proposed loan-New Tariff BillQuestion of Protection duties---Act for the "better organization of the Treasury"Government of the Oregon territory-Report of the Secretary of the Navy-Report of the Postmaster General. MEXICO.-Revolution and overthrow of General HerreraGeneral Paredes becomes President of the Republic-Refusal of the Mexican Government to receive the American Minister-The latter demands his passport-War between Mexico and the United States,Santa Anna-General Taylor advances against Matamoras--Battles of Pala Alto, and Resaca de la Palma - Matamoras evacuated by the Mexican troops under General AristaBlockade of the Mexican coast by the American fleetAdrance of the American forces into the interior - Appearance of Santa Anna in Mexico -- Revolution and overthrow of General Paredes-Manifesto by Santa Anna-Capture of the city of Monterey by the American army under General Taylor-Surrender of Pampico. The Brazils.Opening of the Legislatire Chambers, and Speech of the Emperor. RIO DE LA PLATA.-Despatch from M. Guizot detailing grounds for English and French interference in the war against Monte VideoCombined operations of English and French against General Rosas, and gallant action in forcing the passage of the river Parana in November 1845 – Continuance of the siege of Monte Video.

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sage to Congress. This document of quarrel between the American exceeded in length any which had and Mexican Governments, and been written by his predecessors, enters largely into a justification of and they have hitherto enjoyed the the policy pursued by the United reputation of being the most prolix States on the question of the anstate-papers in the world. The nexation of Texas to the Federal present Message is, however, rather Union. We have selected the most

our

important passages, and such as anxiously desired to cultivate and we think are most likely to cherish friendship and commerce interest the attention of with every foreign Power. The readers :

spirit and habits of the American Fellow Citizens of the Senate

people are favourable to the main

tenance of such international harand of the House of Represent- mony. In adhering to this wise atives,

policy, a preliminary and para"In resuming your labours in the mount duty obviously consists in service of the people, it is a subject the protection of our national inof congratulation that there has terests from encroachment or sacribeen no period in our past history fice, and our national honour from when all the elements of national reproach. These must be mainprosperity have been so fully de- tained at any hazard. They admit veloped. Since your last Session of no compromise or neglect, and no afflicting dispensation has visited must be scrupulously and constantly our country, general good health guarded. In their vigilant vindihas prevailed, abundance has cation, collision and conflict with crowned the toil of the husband foreign Powers may sometimes beman, and labour in all its branches come unavoidable. Such has been is receiving an ample reward, while our scrupulous adherence to the education, science, and the arts are dictates of justice in all our foreign rapidly enlarging the means of intercourse, that, though steadily social happiness. The progress of and rapidly advancing in prosperity our country in her career of great- and power, we have given no just ness, not only in the vast extension cause of complaint to any nation, of our territorial limits and the and have enjoyed the blessings of rapid increase of our population, peace for more than thirty years. but in resources and wealth, and in From a policy so sacred to huthe happy condition of our people, manity, and so salutary in its effects is without example in the history upon our political system, we should of nations.

never be induced voluntarily to "As the wisdom, strength, and depart. beneficence of our free institutions “The existing war with Mexico are unfolded, every day adds fresh was neither desired nor provoked motives to contentment, and fresh by the United States. On the incentives to patriotism.

contrary, all honourable means “Our devout and sincere acknow. were resorted to to avert it. After ledgments are due to the gracious years of endurance of aggravated Giver of all good, for the number and unredressed wrongs on our less blessings which our beloved part, Mexico, in violation of solemn country enjoys.

treaty stipulations, and of every It is a source of high satisfac- principle of justice recognised by tion to know that the relations of civilized nations, commenced hosthe United States with all other tilities; and thus, by her own act, nations, with a single exception, forced the war upon us. Long are of the most amicable character. before the advance of our army to Sincerely attached to the policy of the left bank of the Rio Grande, peace, early adopted and steadily we had ample cause of war against pursued by this Government, I have Mexico; and had the United States

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resorted to this extremity, we might would cease, and that Mexico would have appealed to the whole civilized be restrained by the laws which world for the justice of our course. regulate the conduct of civilized

“The wrongs which we have suf. nations in their intercourse with fered from Mexico almost ever each other, after the treaty of since she became an independent amity, commerce, and navigation Power, and the patient endurance of the 5th of April, 1831, was conwith which we have borne them, cluded between the two republics, are without a parallel in the history but this hope soon proved to be of modern civilized notions.

vain." “ Scarcely had Mexico achieved The Message then goes into a her independence, which the United long detail of the grievances comStates were the first among the mitted by Mexico against the nations to acknowledge, when she United States; and thus procommenced the system of insult ceeds :and spoliation which she has ever "Such is the history of the since pursued. Our citizens en wrongs which we have suffered and gaged in lawful commerce were patiently endured from Mexico imprisoned, their vessels scized, through a long series of years. So and our flag insulted in her ports. far from affording reasonable satisIf money was wanted, the lawless faction for the injuries and insults seizure and confiscation of our we have borne, a great aggravation merchant vessels and their cargoes of them consists in the fact, that was a ready resource, and if to while the United States, anxious accomplish their purposes it be to preserve a good understanding came necessary to imprison the with Mexico, have been constantly, owners, captains, and crews, it but vainly, employed in seeking was done. Rulers superseded redress for past wrongs, new outrulers in Mexico in rapid succession, rages were constantly occurring, but still there was no change in which have continued to increase this system of depredation. The our causes of complaint and to Government of the United States swell the amount of our demands. made repeated reclamations on be. While the citizens of the United half of its citizens, but these were States were conducting a lawful answered by the perpetration of commerce with Mexico under the new outrages. Promises of redress guarantee of a treaty of “amity, made by Mexico in the most solemn commerce, and navigation,” many forms were postponed or evaded. of them have suffered all the inThe files and records of the Depart- juries which would have resulted ment of State contain conclusive from open war. This treaty, inproofs of numerous lawless acts stead of affording protection to our perpetrated upon the property and citizens, has been the means of persons of our citizens by Mexico, inviting them into the ports of and of wanton insults to our na Mexico, that they might be, as they tional flag. The interposition of have been in numerous instances, our Government to obtain redress plundered of their property and dewas again and again invoked, under prived of their personal liberty if circumstances which no nation they dared insist on their rights, ought to disregard.

Had the unlawful seizures of "It was hoped that these outrages American property, and the viola.

In so

tion of personal liberty of our facts connected with the revolution citizens, to say nothing of the in- by which Texas became independent sults to our flag, which have oc of Mexico. That this may be the curred in the ports of Mexico, more manifest, it may be proper to taken place on the high seas, they advert to the causes and to the would themselves long since have history of the principal events of constituted a state of actual war that revolution. between the two countries.

Texas constituted a portion of long suffering Mexico to violate her the ancient province of Louisiana, most solemn treaty obligations, ceded to the United States by plunder our citizens of their

pro France in the

year 1803. In the perty, and imprison their persons year 1819 the United States, by without offering them any redress, the Florida Treaty, ceded to Spain we have failed to perform one of all that part of Louisiana within the first and highest duties which the present limits of Texas; and every Government owes to its Mexico, by the revolution which citizens; and the consequence has separated her from Spain, and been, that many of them have been rendered her an independent nation, reduced from state of affluence to succeeded to the rights of the bankruptcy. The proud name of mother country over this territory. American citizen, which ought to In the year 1824 Mexico estaprotect all who bear it from insult blished a federal constitution, under and injury throughout the world, which the Mexican Republic was has afforded no such protection to composed of a number of sovereign our citizens in Mexico. We had states, confederated together in a ample cause of war against Mexico federal union similar to our own. long before the breaking out of Each of these states had its own hostilities. But even then we for- Executive, Legislature, and judibore to take redress into our own ciary, and for all, except federal hands, until Mexico herself be- purposes, was as independent of the came the aggressor by invading general Government, and that of our soil in. hostile array and shed the other states, as is Pennsylvania ding the blood of our citizens. or Virginia under our constitution.

“Such are the grave causes of Texas and Coahuila united and complaint on the part of the United formed one of these Mexican states. States against Mexico

The state constitution which they which existed long before the an- adopted, and which was approved nexation of Texas to the American by the Mexican confederacy, asUnion ; and yet, animated by the serted that they were “free and love of peace and a magnanimous independent of the other Mexican moderation, we did not adopt those united states, and of every other measures of redress which, under power and dominion whatsoever ;" such circumstances, are the justified and proclaimed the great principle resort of injured nations.

of human liberty, that “the so“ The annexation of Texas vereignty of the state resides orito the United States consti ginally and essentially in the getuted no just cause of offence to neral mass of the individuals who Mexico. The pretext that it did compose

it.

To the Government so is wholly inconsistent, and irre under this constitution, as well as concilable with well-authenticated to that under the federal consti.

causes

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