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seems determined either to rule or preparation. Ile complained slightruin, and is indifferent which. ly of the general tone which perSelf-complacent as the senator vaded the remarks of Mr. Benton, from Missouri is, and confident as

which was not what their past he is that he holds the Agamemnon mutual relations justified. But the of our little band a prisoner upon senator had erected a fortification the 49th parallel, I, too, declare for him (Mr. Cass), and then batwith the senator from Michigan, tered it down with his own cannon. that if this boundary can be proved Ile denied having made the remark by the Treaty of Utrecht, I will imputed to him with regard to the abide by it-nay, more— I will give treaty of Utrecht ; he did not say up all of Oregon. Sir, the Treaty that, if the line of 49 degrees was of Utrecht established nothing the established boundary of that west of the Rocky Mountains. treaty, he would adopt it ; he had France and England could not expressed doubts about the estaconclude what Spain was a party blishment of this line; but the true to. I congratulate my friend from question was, did this line extend South Carolina that he has made west of the Rocky Mountains ? a convert of the senator from IIere was the issue. By stopping Missouri to his “masterly inac- at the Rocky Mountains, the senativity ;' it is a proud intellectual tor from Missouri stops just where achievement. Let me remind the our difficulties commence. Mr. senator from Missouri, that Aga- Cass said he felt very anxious to memnon and Ajax were not the redeem himself from the error into only actors at the siege of Troy. which he was supposed to have Achilles and Hector were there, fallen, and by which it was thought and our Achilles (here Mr. II. put he was made a prisoner for life ; his hand upon the vacant chair of and if he did not prove to the Mr. Cass in front of him) may yet satisfaction of every senator, and drag his Hector as a glorious every one who heard him, that trophy of victory.

his vindication was complete, he On the following day General would be content to come down to Cass explained. He remarked, the 49th parallel, and there stay,that in the course of his life he had an event which he should regard been twice captured, once while as the greatest calamity that could fighting against British pretensions befall him. Mr. Cass then proin time of war, and a second timc ceeded to reiterate much of his whilst struggling against British speech already made, and to compretensions in a season of peace. ment upon it, and to justify his On the first occasion he had been doubts about the establishment of liberated by his country ; and now the 49th parallel under the Utrecht he had come to set himself free. treaty. The senator from Missouri had Early in April, the following recharged him with having made a solution was passed by the Senate studied speech ; he acknowledged relative to the notice to be given that this was true, and hoped he to Great Britain for the terminashould never so far forget what tion of the joint convention respectwas due to himself and this Senate ing the Oregon territoryas to appear before it on a grave “Resolved, ---That by the convenquestion like this without propertion concluded the 20th day of


October, 1818, between the United more earnestly and immediately States of America and the King directed to renewed efforts for the of the United Kingdom of Great amicable settlement of all their Britain and Ireland, for the period differences and disputes in respect of ten years, and afterwards inde- to the said territory. finitely extended and continued in “ And be it further resolved, force by another convention of the that the President of the United same parties, concluded the 6th States be, and he is hereby authorday of August, in the year of our ized, at his discretion, to give to Lord, 1827, it was agreed that any the British Government the notice country that may be claimed by required by its said second article either party on the north-west for the abrogation of the said concoast of America, westward of the vention of the 6th of August, Stony or Rocky Mountains, now 1827." commonly called the Oregon ter When this resolution was sent ritory, should, together with its down to the House of Representharbours, bays, and creeks, and atives, two Amendments the navigation of all rivers within moved and carried, the object of the same, be free and open 'to which was to render it of a less the vessels, citizens, and subjects conciliatory nature, by omitting all of the two Powers, but without allusion to “an amicable settleprejudice to any claim which either ment of the dispute," and making of the parties might have to any it imperative on the President to part of the said country ; and with give the notice. The resolution this further provision, in the second as amended by the Lower House article of the said convention of corresponded with that of the the 6th of August, 1827, that Senate, as far as the words “ in either party might abrogate and the mode prescribed in its second annul the said convention, on give article," and then proceeded, “and ing notice of twelve months to the that the attention of the Governother contracting party ;-that it ment may be the more earnestly has now become desirable that the directed to the importance of a respective claims of the United speedy adjustment of all their difStates and Great Britain should be ferences and disputes in respect to definitively settled, and that said the said territory. territory may no longer than need " 2. And be it further rcbe remain subject to the evil con solved, that the President of the sequences of the divided allegiance United States be authorized and of its American and British popu- requested to give to the British lation, and of the confusion and Government the notice required conflict of national jurisdictions, by its said second article for the dangerous to the cherished peace abrogation of the said convention and good understanding of the two of the 6th of August, 1827.” countries; and, therefore, that steps The Senate refused to concur be taken for the abrogation of the in the resolution thus aniended, by said convention of the 6th of a majority of 29 to 22, upon which August, 1827, in the mode pre. a Committee of conference was apscribed in its second article, and pointed by each of the two Houses, that the attention of the Govern- consisting of three members of ment of both countries may be the cach :-Mr. Berryer, Mr. Hey,

wood, and Mr. Corwen, represent was a signal victory gained by ing the Senate ; and Mr. Inger- the moderate party over their opsoll, Mr. Owen, and Mr. Hildyard, ponents, and led immediately, as the House of Representatives. will be seen, to a final and satis

The result was that they agreed factory settlement of the whole to submit to their respective Houses question. the concluding part of the resolu On the 18th of April, a Bill protion in the following shape: viding for the occupation of the

“ And whereas, it has now be- Oregon territory, passed the House come desirable that the respective of Representatives by a majority claims of the United States and of 103 against 46. It was entitled Great Britain should be definitely A Bill to Protect the Rights of settled, and that said territory may American Settlers in the territory no longer than need be remain sub- of Oregon, until the termination of ject to the evil consequences of the the Joint Occupation of the same." divided allegiance of its American The first section enacted “That and British population, and of the the jurisdiction of the Supreme confusion and conflict of national Court of the territory of Iowa, and jurisdictions dangerous to the the laws of said territory, so far as cherished peace and good under the same may be applicable, as standing of the two countries- they now exist, are hereby extended with a view, therefore, that steps over all that portion of the territory be taken for the abrogation of the of the United States which lies said convention of the 6th of west of the Rocky Mountains ; and August, 1827, in the mode pre- also over all that portion of the inscribed in its second article, and termediate country west of the that the attention of the Govern- Missouri river, and between the ments of both countries may be 40th and 43rd parallels of north more earnestly directed to the latitude. Provided, that this act adoption of all proper measures for shall not be construed nor executed the speedy and amicable adjust- in such a manner as to deprive the ment of the difficulties and dis- subjects of Great Britain of any of putes in relation to said terri- the rights and privileges secured tory:

by the treaty signed in London, * Resolved,-That the Presi- October 20, 1818, and continued dent of the United States be, and in force by the treaty of August 6, he is hereby, authorized at his dis- 1827.” cretion to give to the British Go On the 11th of May, the Presi. vernment the notice required by its dent transmitted to Congress a said second article for the abroga- Message of great length, in which tion of the convention of the 6th of he entered fully into the history of August, 1827.”

the differences between the United On the 23rd of April, this reso States and Mexico ; the result of lution was adopted in the Senate which was a proclamation of war by a majority of 42 to 10 ; and in by him, on account of the “longthe House of Representatives on continued and unredressed wrongs the same day, by a majority of and injuries committed by the 142 to 46. On the 27th, it was Mexican Government on citizens of submitted to the President, and the United States, their persons ratified by his signature. This and property.'

At the conclusion of the Mes- they consult the best means under sage, the President said, “The the blessing of Divine Providence most energetic and prompt mea of abridging its calamities, that sures, and the immediate appear- they exert themselves in preserving ance in arms of a large and over- order, in promoting concord, in powering force, are recommended maintaining the authority and the to Congress as the most certain efficacy of the laws, and in supand efficient means of bringing the porting and invigorating all the existing collision with Mexico to a measures which may be adopted by speedy and successful termination. the constituted authorities for at

In making these recommenda- taining a speedy, a just, and an tions, I deem it proper to declare honourable peace. that it is my anxious desire not “In testimony whereof, I have only to terminate hostilities speedily, hereunto set my hand, and caused but to bring all matters in dispute the seal of the United States to be between this Government and affixed to these presents.” Mexico to an early and amicable When official intelligence of the adjustment ; and in this view I resolution come to by the American shall be prepared to renew nego- Legislature on the subject of Oregon tiations whenever Mexico shall be reached England, Lord Aberdeen ready to receive propositions or to thought that a favourable oppormake propositions of her own.” tunity had arrived for effecting a

The formal proclamation of war compromise ; and he lost no time was dated at Washington, the 13th in transmitting to the British Miof May, and was as follows : nister, at Washington, a proposition

Whereas, the Congress of the which he hoped would put an end United States, by virtue of the to the difference between the two constitutional authority vested in countries. The event justified his them, have declared by their act expectations ; for the offer made by bearing date this day, that by the Lord Aberdeen was submitted by act of the Republic of Mexico, a the American Government to the state of war exists between that Senate, and approved of by them Government and the United by a large majority. The PresiStates:'

dent immediately accepted the “Now, therefore, I, James K. terms, and the Oregon question Polk, President of the United ceased from that time to be a cause States of America, do hereby pro- of quarrel. This happy terminaclaim to all whom it may concern,

tion of the dispute took place in and I do specially enjoin on all June, and Lord Aberdeen's propersons holding offices, civil or posals were embodied in a treaty military, under the authority of consisting of the following arthe United States, that they be ticles : vigilant and zealous in discharging “ Art. I.-From the point on the duties respectively incident the 49th parallel of north latitude, thereto. And I do, moreover, ex where the boundary laid down in hort all the good people of the existing treaties and conventions United States, as they love their between Great Britain and the country, as they feel the wrongs United States terminates, the line which have forced on them the last of boundary between the territories of resort of injured nations, and as IIer Britannic Majesty and those of

the United States shall be continued of the Hudson's Bay Company, westward along the said 49th pa- and of all British subjects who may rallel of north latitude to the mid- be already in the occupation of dle of the channel which separates land or other property lawfully acthe continent from Vancouver's quired within the said territory, Island; and thence southerly, shall be respected. through the middle of the said “ Art. IV.— The farms, lands, channel, and of Fuca's Straits, to and other property of every dethe Pacific Ocean ; provided, how- scription, belonging to the Puget's ever, that the navigation of the Sound Agricultural Company, on whole of the said channel and the north side of the Columbia river, straits south of the 49th parallel of shall be confirmed to the said north latitude remain free and open Company. In case, however, the to both parties.

situation of those farms and lands “ Art. II.- From the point at should be considered by the United which the 49th parallel of north States to be of public and political latitude shall be found to intersect importance, and the United States the great northern branch of the Government should signify a desire Columbia river, the navigation of to obtain possession of the whole the said branch shall be free and or any part thereof, the property open to the Hudson's Bay Company, so required shall be transferred to and to all British subjects trading the said Government at a proper with the same, to the point valuation, to be agreed upon bewhere the said branch meets the tween the parties. main stream of the Columbia, and In the onth of July, a new thence down the said main stream Tariff Bill gave rise to an animated to the ocean, with free access into debate in both Houses. The oband through the said river or ject of this Bill was to effect a conrivers ; it being understood, that siderable reduction in the import all the usual portages along the duties upon all articles, except line thus described shall in like such as may be classed under the manner be free and open.

head of luxuries. The following “In navigating the said river or instances show the nature of the rivers, British subjects, with their benefit conferred upon the imgoods and produce, shall be treated porter. on the same footing as citizens of the United States ; it being, how- Bar or bolt iron reduced from 73 to 30 ever, always understood, that no Nail or spike rods

30 thing in this article shall be con

Cut or wrought-iron spikes


116 Hoop-iron

30 strued as preventing, or intended Blacksmiths' hammers and to prevent, the Government of the


52 30 United States from making any Iron chains other than chain regulations respecting the naviga


101 30 tion of the said river or rivers, not

Wrought for ships, locomotive,
and steam-engines

81 30 inconsistent with the present treaty. Salt

76 “ Art. III.-In the future ap- Velvets, cotton


30 propriation of the territory south Carpeting, treble ingrain


30 of the 49th parallel of north lati

ingrain ...


Cloths of wool, broad cloths, tude, as provided in the first article

cassimeres, coatings, and of this treaty, the possessory rights padding ..

.... 40


per cent





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