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the British-some saying it was an legislative aid if he required it; American question, others turning but if not, and he preferred to it into a question of party politics manage it himself, he would allow and President-making among the him to do so, for he had a right to people. Mr. Heywood deprecated do so if he pleased, under the the idea of allowing the people to clauses of the constitution. Mr. have a share in the treaty-making Heywood, after expounding his power, which was reserved by the objections to the amendment of constitution exclusively for the Mr. Colquitt, recommending neExecutive department of the Go- gotiations and a compromise, advernment. This was southern de- vocated the adoption of the House mocracy; and if it were “Punic resolutions as covering an allfaith,” they might make the most sufficient ground. He wished no of it. He denied that the people, interference or advice with the organized by factions and instructed duties of the Executive, until the by demagogues, had a right to in- case should imperatively demand struct the Senate in the discharge it. He then extended his thanks of its public duties. If this was to the Senate for their indulgence ; democracy-as was held by some and said that if he had, perhaps, to be it was that democracy that wearied the Senate, his heart felt grows at the root, like the potato, lighter and his conscience easy. and not at the blossom; it was going He deprecated the consequences backward. If it were, however, to which would result from a rash or be viewed as a national question, precipitate, or unwise, or irregular he, in common with the Senate, action in any shape, and expressed would be found by the side of his bis faith in the controlling supercountry. But according to the vision of Providence. terms of the Baltimore Convention Mr. llannegan afterwards fa

- they went by the terms of the voured the Senate with the followConvention for the “ reannexation ing tirade : of Texas,” and for the “reoccu- “ If the President did desert the pation of Oregon." The 49th 54° 40' standard, he would become parallel was the highest degree to a traitor to his faith, and would which any American foot ever meet with an infamy so profound, went in Oregon. The south would a damnation so deep, that the rego for that ; and if that was surrection-trumpet would not wake “Punic faith” in going for the him! If the President was in the "reoccupation of Oregon,'' let them position in which the senator from make the most of it. He was in North Carolina had placed him, favour of the simple notice, but then had he spoken the words of would not vote in favour of the falsehood with the tongue of a resolution of the House. IIe also serpent.' objected to the propositions con- In the course of the same distained in the resolutions of some cussion Mr. Calhoun made a powersenators in the Chamber, and had ful speech of which the tone was a particular objection to the word most pacific. Ile began by an

forthwith,” which accompanied examination of the expediency of the resolutions from the

the notice. From the recommend. mittee on foreign relations. He ations of the President, it was was willing to give the President thought, at the beginning of the


in war.




Session, that the notice would lead pastime of an hour. He earnestly to a series of measures resulting desired a speedy adjustment by

Since that time the phase compromise; because, among other of affairs had materially changed. measures, the settlement of our There was no more an idea enter- controversy with Mexico depended tained now of war than that our upon the adjustment or non-adjusttitle was “clear and unquestion- ment of the conflicting claims to able" to the whole territory of Oregon between us and Great BriOregon. He opposed, notwith- tain. In the event of war upon standing, the unequivocal notice. this question, Mexico would at once He was opposed also to the equivo- act upon the offensive ; and by cal resolutions of the House ; and, Mexico on the south, under the if he should advocate the notice in discipline of British officers, and by any shape, it would be in the form British steamers along the seaof the senator from Georgia, (Mr. board, the Canadians on the north, Colquitt,) embracing a

a British fleet upon the lakes, and mendation for the settlement of the Indians on the west, we should the controversy by "compromise. be enfiladed on every side. There were two alternatives of On the 30th of March during settlement - war, or

a debate on the following resolupromise." In every point of view

In every point of view tion moved in the Senate by Mr. the latter was the preferable mode. Clayton :War would involve us in an inex- “ Resolved, -That the President tricable national debt, lead to the of the United States be requested establishment of a rotten paper to communicate to the Senate system, concentrate all the power3 copies of any correspondence that of the State into a Federal Govern- may have taken place between the ment, and terminate in a central authorities of the United States military despotism. Peace would and those of Great Britain since give momentum to the great work the last document transmitted to of progress; it would extend our Congress, in relation to the subcommerce ; it would increase our ject of the Oregon territory, or so internal wealth ; it would erect our much thereof as may be communiroads and canals ; it would relieve cated without detriment to the the States ; it would extend our public interest.' Mr. Webster borders ; it would preserve us rose and said, there could be no Oregon ; it would establish doubt that letters had been received beneficial fraternity of interest be- from Mr. M‘Lane ; but as the tween the two great nations upon chairman for the committee for whose exertions the civilization of foreign relations had opposed the the world mainly depends—the resolution, he presumed that GoUnited States and Great Britain. vernment found it inconvenient to Mr. Calhoun regretted the impa- communicate those letters to the tience of the senators of the west ; Senate at the present moment. but he felt assured that they them- A great mistake had been comselves were, perhaps, beginning to mitted in calling on Congress to think that our title to the whole authorize notice to England of the territory was not so clear and un- discontinuance of what has been questionable as they had at first called the joint occupation, until imagined, and war was not the negotiation had been exhausted,


called upon.

Negotiation should have been tried spect on other grounds than those first; and when that had failed, which they had stood on under his and finally failed, then and not till predecessors, and with the concurthen should Congress have been rence of all branches of the Govern

Great embarrass. ment for so many years ; for it is ment had arisen from the extreme not to be doubted that the United pretensions and opinions put for- States Government has admitted, ward by the President in his in- through a long series of years, that augural Address, and in his Mes- England has rights in the northsage of last December. But for western parts of this Continent, these, notice would have been which are entitled to be respected. harmless, and perhaps would have “ One who has observed attenbeen authorized by both Houses tively what has transpired here and without much opposition, and re-. in England within the last three ceived by England without dis- months must, I think, perceive satisfaction. But the recommenda- that public opinion in both countries tion of the notice, coupled with is coming to a conclusion that this the President's repeated declara- controversy ought to be settled, tions that he held our title to the and is not very diverse, in the one whole of the territory to be “clear country and the other, as to the and unquestionable,” alarmed the general basis of such settlement. country. Congress was not pre- That basis is the offer made by the pared, and he did not think the United States to England in 1826. country was prepared to make the It appears to me that there is a President's opinion of a clear and concurrence of arguments, of conunquestionable right to the whole siderations, in favour of regarding territory an ultimatum. Did the the 49th parallel as the line of dePresident mean to adhere to that, marcation, which both countries even to the extremity of war? If might well respect. It has for so, he should have known that, many years been the extent of our after what has happened in years

claim. We have claimed up to past, the country was not likely to 49 degrees, and nothing beyond sustain him. Did he mean to say it. We have offered to yield everythis, and afterwards recede from thing north of it. It is the it? If so, why say it at all? When boundary between the two countries the President declared that, in his on this side of the Rocky Mounjudgment, their title to the whole of tains, and has been since the purOregon was - clear and unques

chase of Louisiana from France. tionable," did he mean to express

“ The Government of the United an official or a mere personal opi. States has never offered any line nion? If the latter, it certainly south of 49 degrees, (with the had no place in an official commu- navigation of the Columbia,) and it nication. If the former-if he in- never will. It behoves all contended a solemn official opinion, cerned to regard this as a settled upon which he was resolved to act point. As to the navigation of the officially-then it is a very grave Columbia, permanently or for a question how far he is justified, term of years, that is all matter without new lights, or any change for just, reasonable, and friendly of circumstances, to place the negotiation. But the 49th parallel claims of this country in this re- must be regarded as the general VOL. LXXXVIII.


line of boundary, and not to be de. to place himself among those who parted from for any line further marched up to the Russian bounsouth. As to all straits, and dary. Mr. Cass then took a cursounds, and islands, in the neigh- sory review of many of the speeches bouring sea, all these are fair sub- that had been made, and devoted jects for treaty stipulation. If the especial attention to that of Mr. general basis be agreed to, all the Calhoun. He upbraided the senarest, it may be presumed, may be tor from South Carolina for having accomplished by the exercise of a said, and said in the Senate, that spirit of fairness and amity. a war with England would require

And now, Mr. President, if from us 200,000 men, every dollar this be so, why should this settle- we could raise, and that it would ment be longer delayed ? Why last for ten years. If, said Mr. should either Government hold Cass, we could not drive England back longer from doing that which out of her colonial possessions on both, I think, can see must be this continent in one quarter of done, if they would avoid a rup- the time named, we should be ture?

unworthy of our name and birthNext day General Cass addressed right, and, having done this, the the Senate in a speech of great rest of the contest would be little length. He began by defending else than predatory excursions upon himself, and those who thought with the sea. But it was said that two him, from the charges of ultra policy great nations, in this cnlightened and intemperate zeal in this Oregon age, could not go to war. What matter. He quoted from a speech were two great nations now doing of Lord Brougham, in which abu- in La Plata ? What was France sive allusions to him (Mr. Cass) doing in Africa, and England in were made; and expressed his belief India ? Iluman nature was much that on the score of decorum the the same now that it was when we debate in the Senate would com- had our two wars—we were not so pare favourably with that in the much better than our fathers as British Parliament. In alluding some seem to think-the time had to the wide difference between the not come when the Lion and the President's friends in their con- Eagle could lie down together. IIe struction of his Message, he said referred to a distinguished and “Non nos componere tantas lites;” venerable man of a past generation, but he thought that no one could as having waked up from a politihave read the Message without cal slumber of a quarter of century, feeling, what he did at the time he to oppose a war, and believed that introduced his resolutions, that the the same individual (Mr. Gallatin) foreign affairs of the country, as had tried to damp the zeal of his regarded this subject, were in a country in the last war. critical juncture. With regard to On the following day Mr. Benthe parallel of 49 degrees as the ton, one of the committee on miliboundary of our claim, he believed tary affairs, spoke, taking the that it had only been fixed upon more moderate side of the quesfrom an erroneous impression that tion. He said, the senator from it was settled by the treaty of Michigan (Mr. Cass) had promised Utrecht. Not believing himself yesterday that he would be gothat it was thus settled, he intended verned by the fact of the establish


ment, or non-establishment, of the and small, must share his fate. line of 49 degrees by the treaty Ilis great speech now disappears, of Utrecht. If it could be proved and with it he and they. There that this line had been adopted, he is no longer occasion for warlike promised to abandon his present preparations. The inaction of the position. Mr. Benton said he was committee upon the 30,000,000 desirous of fixing this point, and dollars of military estimates is now feared that the character of the proved to have been, if not masSenate for sense and intelligence terly, at least lucky. War was no would be cheapened in the eyes of longer inevitable, but clearly evitthe world by leaving it longer in able-peace, peace, is now inevitdoubt. In the very first despatch able—there is no way to avoid to our Minister at London, after it. In conclusion, Mr. Benton the acquisition of Louisiana, Mr. said he was an adherent of this Madison being then Secretary of Administration, and, as soon State to Mr. Jefferson, it was as- he knew the position of the sumed as certain that the line of President, meant to sustain him, 49 degrees was the established if in his conscience and judgboundary, but, ignorant of the ment he could; but he would neither particulars, our Minister was di- put himself before him, nor atrected to examine what had been tempt to lead him. done by the commissioners ap- Mr. Hannegan then rose and depointed to run this line. (IIere livered a short but severe philippic Mr. Benton read numerous extracts against Mr. Benton. He (Mr. from a volume of the State Papers, Hannegan) would not have spoken all bearing upon this point, and at all but for the unkind allusion showing that the 49th parallel was to himself. For thirty years he the line of the treaty referred to, had looked up to the senator from and that Mr. Jefferson had earn- Missouri, and from him he had estly pressed its final adoption, learnt his principles about Oregon thinking it a great object to secure -he learnt them from the speech this boundary as against Great of that senator upon the AshburBritain.) He claimed now that ton treaty, in which he denounced, the senator from Michigan should with a bitterness not yet assuaged, redeem his pledge by reversing his the negotiator and all who voted opinion. This pledge had been for it. The senator from Missouri given in a speech made after three was the Gamaliel at whose feet he months' deliberation, well studied, had sat to be taught, but he could and almost committed to heart-a not unlearn him. In this contest, speech on the darling side of the said Mr. Hannegan, I am not even question, and well mixed with other Ajax, but an humble, private topics calculated to inflame the soldier ; and far rather would I be country. This, then, was the con- such than one (looking towards dition into which he had brought Mr. Benton) who holds himself so himself-Ulysses was caught in high that he hardly deigns to obhis toils. The Agamemnon him- serve those beneath him — who self was a prisoner upon the 49th carries himself so loftily that the parallel, and (looking on each side very earth he treads seems to him at Messrs. Allen and Hannegan) too mean for his footstep, and one the Ajaxes and Achilles, great who is so greedy for fame that he

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