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went on to say, that whatever the project. There seemed to be might be the occasional popular a gross inconsistency in the posieffervescence in that country, or tions of the Government.
If they the fervour of debates there, he did not intend to compromise, the trusted that it would be found that result often predicted by the the Senate would come to a wise senator from Michigan must hapand temperate conclusion on this pen. Mr. Webster, in the course subject. There was a great desire of his remarks, said that a majority that action should take place to of the Senate would vote for the day, in order that the result might two propositions of Mr. Colquitt. be transmitted by the steamer, but The result of the long protracted he did not see its importance.
debates in the House of Repre-, Mr. Webster then said that he sentatives was, that it passed in did not differ a hair's breadth in February, by a majority of 163 opinion from
the honourable to 54, the following resolutions for senator from Kentucky as to the putting an end to the joint occupapropriety of the course that he
tion of Oregon. proposed.
He went on to say "1. Resolved by the House of that the exercise of the treaty Representatives of the United right to give the notice was .no States of America in Congress asjust cause of offence, but the cir sembled, that the President of the cumstances attending it were to United States cause notice to be be considered. The House accom given to the Government of Great panied the naked notice with a Britain, that the convention beproposition qualifying it. Some twcen the United States of America such proposition had been offered and Great Britain, concerning the here." It seemed to be the sense territory of the north-west coast of the Senate that some qualifica of America west of the Stony Mountion ought to be adopted. It was tains, of the 6th of August, 1827, now desirable that we should signed at London, shall be annulled know the opinion of the Executive and abrogated in twelve months Government as to the effect and after giving said notice. use of this notice. The President “2. And be it further resolved, did not expect war ; but how did that nothing herein contained is inhe propose to escape it? The tended to interfere with the right question must be settled, and, if and discretion of the proper authorso, by negotiation. But what was ities of the two contracting parties to be the basis of the negotiation ? to renew or pursue negotiations for What were to be the terms ? All an amicable settlement of the conthat we heard from the Govern
troversy respecting the Oregon ment was, that they claimed the territory.” whole of Oregon or
This resolution was sent up to could not understand the position the Senate, where it gave rise to of the Government. It would not another long discussion, which treat for any thing less than the lasted until the 13th of April. In * whole of Oregon, but propose ne the course of it, Mr. Revendy gotiation. Did they expect by Johnson moved the following resonegotiation to persuade Great Bri- lution as a modification of that tain to give us the whole of transmitted from the House of Oregon? He wished success to Representatives :
“ Whereas, by the convention prescribed in its second article, and concluded the 20th day of October, that the attention of the Govern1818, between the United States ments of both countries may be the of America, and the King of the more earnestly and immediately United Kingdom of Great Britain directed to renewed efforts for the and Ireland, for the period of ten amicable settlement of their differ. years, and afterwards indefinitely ences and disputes in respect to the extended and continued in force by said territory : another convention of the same “Resolved by the Senate and parties concluded the 6th day of House of Representatives of the August, in the year of our Lord United States of America in Con1827, it was agreed that any gress assembled, That the Presicountry that may be claimed by dent of the United States be, and either party on the north-west he is hereby authorized, at his discoast of America westward of the cretion, to give to the British GoStony or Rocky Mountains, now
vernment the notice required by its commonly called the Oregon terri- said second article for the abrogatory, should, together with its har- tion of the said convention of the bours, bays, and creeks, and the 6th of August, 1827.” navigation of all rivers within the This resolution was, after a sharp same, bc 'free and open' to the debate, adopted by the Senate; vessels, citizens, and subjects of the votes being : Yeas, 40; the two Powers, but without pre. Noes, 14 ; and it was then sent judice to any claim which either of back to the House of Representthe parties might have to any part atives for its concurrence. of the said country ; and with this On the 24th of March, a special further provision, in the second message was sent by the President article of the said convention of the to the Senate, in answer to a reso6th of August, 1827, that either lution of that body addressed to party might abrogate and annul him, and inquiring whether the said convention, on giving due foreign relations of the United notice of twelve months to the States required at that time an other contracting party :
increase of naval or military force. " And whereas it has now be- The President stated in his mescome desirable that the respective sage, that in his opinion a wise claims of the United States and precaution demanded such increase, Great Britain should be definitely and he thus expressed himself on settled, and that said territory may the Oregon question:no longer than necd be remain sub "A controversy respecting the ject to the evil consequences of the Oregon territory now exists bedivided allegiance of its American tween the United States and Great and British population, and of the Britain ; and while, as far as we confusion and conflict of national know, the relations of the latter jurisdictions, dangerous to the with all European nations are of the cherished peace and good under- most pacific character, she is makstanding of the two countries : ing unusual and extraordinary ar
* With a view, therefore, that maments and warlike preparations, the steps be taken for the abroga- naval and military, both at home tion of the said convention of the and in her North American posses6th of August, 1827, in the mode sions.
“ It cannot be disguised that, garded as a warlike measure ; and however sincere may be the desire I cannot withhold my strong conof peace, in the event of a rupture, viction that it should be promptly these armaments and preparations given. The other recommendawould be used against our country. tions are in conformity with the Whatever
have been the existing treaty, and would afford to original purpose of these prepara American citizens in Oregon no tions, the fact is undoubted that more than the same measure of they are now proceeding, in part protection which has long since at least, with the view to the con been extended to British subjects tingent possibility of a war with in that territory. ” the United States. The general The Message then adverted to policy of making additional war the unsettled state of the relations like preparations was distinctly an with Mexico as follows:rounced in the Speech from the “Since the meeting of Congress Throne, as late as January last, another revolution has taken place and has since been reiterated by in that country, by which the Gothe Ministers of the Crown in both vernment has passed into the hands Houses of Parliament. Under this of new rulers. This event has aspect of our relations with Great procrastinated, and may possibly Britain, I cannot doubt the pro defeat, the settlement of the differ. priety of increasing our means of ences between the United States defence both by land and and that country. The Minister This can give Great Britain no of the United States to Mexico, at cause of offence, nor increase the the date of the last advices, had danger of a rupture. If, on the not been received by the existing contrary, we should fold our arms authorities. Demonstrations of a in security, and at last be sud character hostile to the United denly involved in hostilities for the States continue to be made in maintenance of our just rights, Mexico, which has rendered it without any adequate preparation, proper, in my judgment, to keep our responsibility to the country nearly two-thirds of our army on would be of the gravest character. our south-western frontier.' Should collision between the two On the 4th of March, the order countries be avoided, as I sincerely of the day in the Senate being the trust it may be, the additional consideration of the various amendcharge upon the Treasury in mak- ments proposed in reference to the ing the necessary preparations will abrogation of the convention with not be lost, while, in the event of Great Britain, establishing the joint such a collision, they would be in- occupation of the Oregon territory, dispensable for the maintenance of Mr. Heywood made a long and our national rights and national vigorous speech, which excited honour.
much attention at the time, and “I have seen no reason to change of which we give an outline as a or modify the recommendations of specimen of the peculiar nature of my annual Message in regard to transatlantic oratory :-he said the Oregon question. The votice he should discuss the subject in to abrogate the treaty of the 6th the love of man and in the fear of of August, 1827, is authorized by God. He denounced that spirit the treaty itself, and cannot be re which had sought to take the sub
ject of our foreign relations from with a view of shutting off all comthe authority of the Executive promise, the Executive had, indeed, department—that spirit of faction incurred a fearful responsibility. which would break down great men
But the line of 49° was not now and great measures for the eleva- inadmissible. Mr. Heywood chaltion of very little men into great lenged any senator to show that offices. He justified the patriotic 54° 40' was mentioned in the Premotives of the President in the sident's Message. No, Sir, if the policy he had pursued. He dis- line of 49° is proposed to him, he is approved of the reproduction in bound to accept it ; a different this debate of a certain old speech policy would provoke certain differof Colonel Benton, which had been ences, a national dishonour and irabridged, but not improved. He remediable war. The door of nestrongly denounced the practice, gotiations was still open. Mr. which had become so notorious, Heywood had said so at the openof decrying and carping against ing of the Session ; he said so now. the treaty of Washington, for the He was prepared for a compromise settlement of the north-east bound- at 49° without disputing about ary, and wondered why some one inches. He was prepared, then, of the thirty-nine senators voting to go for the notice with a view to for that treaty had not refuted the facilitating a pacific adjustthe factious clamours by which ment. He wanted no finesse in they had been assailed. He did this matter; he believed there not (to use a familiar term) like would be none; that there was this singing of old psalms over dead none on the part of the Adminis. horses ; that in this treaty we had tration. Our title, however “clear been overreached, and chcated, and and unquestionable,” was not unthe country dishonoured. No, the questioned. It had been in disPresident, in adopting that treaty pute for forty years. Forty years resolved all hazards of this sort ago, we
had offered that line into the sense of moderation, and as the boundary westward, as it prudence, and national justice, was eastward to the Rocky Mounthat forms the higher character of tain. The convention of 1818 had this Senate. Mr. Heywood de- been approved by a vote of 38 nounced the clamorous spirit of to 1, and yet in the opinion of discord which had characterized gentlemen all but the one man the discussions in Congress upon
were traitors to their country. this subject—which would urge the This was the necessary
conclusion President to issue his mandate of from their opinions of the treaty. defiance against all the nations of The convention with Russia was the earth. The great and patrio- held with an especial design to tic question which now presented negotiate Great Britain to the conitself was, what shall we do for the cession of the 49th degree ; and country, and what is our position ? in the very treaty with Russia, setOn the 12th of August, 1845, the ting the northern boundary of the President stood on the line of 49°; territory at 54° 40', which under he offered it ; it was refused. The the Spanish claims should have British Government had offered ar been at the 61st degree, our ancesbitration, and that had been refused ters had sanctioned a dismemberby the Executive ; and if this were ment of the union ; we had been
bullied, so to speak, by Russia, all that has transpired to a conout of our national rights. And trary conclusion, be inexorably yet that treaty passed by a vote of fixed at 54° 40', then, God knows, 41 to 1. (Voices :-“Who was I 'll turn away from it." he? Who was that one, pray?'') wood then said, in opposition to Mr. De Wolf. He was from Rhode the Radicals, that if truth was Island, and was therefore, perhaps, logic—if there was faith in public in favour of large states. In 1826 servants, and meaning in the our Minister at London renewed English language, he should dethe efforts of our Government for monstrate that the Administration a settlement upon the line of 49 was open to all compromise on the he almost implored that settle- Oregon question. If there was an ment. Had he threatened, he Englishman there, if you were an might, for all we know, have had Englishman (looking to a senator), better
The treaty of and it was proposed to kick you 1818 was adopted by the Senate out of a territory (north of 49°), by a full, a very ful two-thirds, which you had occupied exclusively notwithstanding the opposition and for forty years—would you not the prophecies of the senator from fight, Sir ? It was useless to talk Missouri (Colonel Benton), and about it. President Tyler had under that convention we have been negotiated for the line of 49°; and living ever since. When was the there had been no complaint. discovery made that all these pro- Mr. Heywood afterwards adverted ceedings, so often renewed by our to the Baltimore Convention, predecessors, involved a surrender where, in fact, two conventions of the national soil, of the national
were held. honour, and the rights of the Mr. Johnson, Three, if you people? Where was the warning please. voice against Mr. Jefferson, Mr. Mr. Heywood.-Yes, the “ TyMonroe, and Mr. Adams? Are all ler Convention” was the third. As these lofty precedents to beoverruled to the charge of “Punic faith" by the dictation of the Baltimore against the south, which it was Convention? and are we to assume stated had been bound by the that the Government is now released Baltimore Convention, he repu. from its policy and concessions of diated that charge. Ile should be forty years?
The President was glad to know if the President himright in his offer of 49o. Ile felt self knew the terms of the Baltithat his official character was of more Convention when be accepted greater moment than the declara the nomination ? He had not tions of James K. Polk. The known the terms, for he had only President and James K. Polk were time to respond to the nomination. two different personages. And if He was merely asked, “Will you the President was right in offering accept the nomination ?” and he the line 49°, he was right in hold answered as quick as the magnetic ing himself in readiness to meet that telegraph," I will, to be sure ; and offer. The President was not re I wish you may elect me.” Much leased by the pitiful appeal to the declamation had been used, much Baltimore Convention. He took discussion in distrusting political occasion to say, that “ if the opponents—some saying it was a Administration, as assumed, after western question-others damning