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CHAPTER XI.

PORTUGAL.—-Opening of the Session of the Cortes by a Royal Speech

Outbreak of Insurrection in the province of the Upper Minho--José Cabral, Minister of Justice, quits Oporto for Lisbon--Resignation of the Cabral Ministry-Castro and José Cabral take refuge on board a French man-of-war, and afterwards sail to Cadiz-Dissolution of the Cortes--Suspension of Cash Payments by the Bank of Lisbon-Formation of the Palmella Cabinet-Popular appointments made by the Ministry-- Abrupt dismissal of the Duke de Palmella and his Colleagues--New Ministry formed by the Marquis de Saldanha-Com. mencement of Civil War in Portugal --Revolutionary Leaders-Conflicts between the Insurgents and Queen's Troops--Defeat of the Rebel Leader da Bandiera near Chaves-Valença taken from the RebelsDas Antas besieged in Santarem by the Marquis Saldanha-The Duke de Palmella quits Lisbon, and goes on board an

English man-of-war. BELGIUM. ---New Ministry. PAPAL STATES.-Death of Pope Gregory XVI.-Candidates for the

vacant See-Election of Cardinal Mastei, who assumes the title of Pope Pius IX.Sketch of his Life-Liberal Measures of the new Pope-Popular demonstrations of joy at his Elevation--Cardinal

Gozzi appointed Secretary of State -New Commercial Tariff. GREECE.- Opening of the Greek Chambers by King Otho-Royal

Speech-Addresses voted in the two Houses-Extraordinary Statement made by the Minister of Finance Opening of the Third Session of

the Greek Parliament, and Speech from the Throne. POLAND.Insurrection in Silesia Suppression by the three Protecting

Powers"-Annexation of the Republic of Cracow to Austria-Edict of the Emperor --Cracow taken possession of by Count Castiglione and Count Maurice de Deyme in the name of the Austrian GovernmentManifesto by Count Castiglione.

TE

VIIE annual Session of the “I again behold with great

Cortes was opened by the pleasure the representatives of the Queen in person, on the 2nd nation assembled in this place. of January, with the following “ In the interval which has ocSpeech :

curred since the last Session, no · Noble Peers of the Realm, grave event has disturbed peace Gentlemen of the Deputies of the and public order, they continue unPortuguese Nation,

changed.

“Our relations with Foreign be accompanied, to the end that Powers are preserved in perfect the Government may be empowered harmony, corresponding to the care to proceed in the faithful discharge with which I have endeavoured to of the duties which are imposed on draw closer the ties of friendship, it in this most important departand to promote the development of ment of the public administration. our mutual commercial interests. "In determining the sea and

“ The dispositions of the treaty land forces you will keep in view of commerce and navigation which what the public safety and the was lately celebrated with Prussia, dignity of the nation require. have been extended in those "Regarding the various branches points which were applicable to of Public Service which call for lethe greater part of the States con- gislative measures, my Ministers stituting the Germanic League of will lay before you such proposals Custom Houses.

as may be deemed fitting, and ex“A consular convention has perience recommend. been concluded with Spain, for the I confide in the Chambers afregulation of the powers of the re- fording to my Government that spective consuls.

efficacious and enlightened co-ope“The firmness with which I ration, without which it is imposhave caused to be carried into effect sible to reap the advantages of a the decree of the 10th of Decem- representative Government. ber, 1836, and the treaty which - The Session is opened." binds this kingdom with Great Several disturbances occurred Britain in endeavours to effect the in the early part of the year in suppression of the traffic of different parts of Portugal, but slavery, have produced the hap- they led to no result. On the 10th piest results.

of May, however, an insurrection “The good faith with which the broke out of a more formidable Government has continued to dis- character, and attended by importcharge its liabilities, both at home ant consequences. It commenced and abroad, is producing the most in the province of the Upper Minho, satisfactory consequences in all and the immediate cause was the that has reference to the re-estab- opposition of the peasantry to a lishment and consolidation of public new health tax, including burial credit.

fees recently imposed, and every"By the budget for the ap- thing odious to the people. proaching economical year, with few days, the region of Alemtejo, which you will be presented, in con Beira Alta, the Trosos Montes, formity with the fundamental law and other places, were in arms of the Monarchy, you will learn against the Castro Cabral Governwhat are the charges and obliga- ment, and formed revolutionary tions of the State in the said year, juntas, according to the mode aland the means and resources from ways adopted in the Peninsula in which the same must be liqui- such emergencies. José Cabral, dated.

Minister of Justice, the brother of “I feel assured you will lend the Castro Cabral, was then at Oporto ; most serious attention to the ex but as his life was unsafe, owing to amination of the Estimates, and the the fury of the populace, he hastily projects of law by which they will quitted that city for Lisbon, where

In a

he arrived on the 15th. Imme of three months, reckoned from the diately afterwards, Castro Cabral, date of this decree (23rd May), if accompanied by his brother, pro before the end of that term it ceeded to the palace, and tendered should not be possible for it to rethe resignation of himself and his sume the said payment. 2. Durcolleagues, which the Queen ac ing the said space of three months cepted. The Count de Villa Reale all the notes of the Bank of Lisbon was at first commissioned to form will have a forced circulation, and a Government, but he failed in the will be received for their nominal attempt ; and on the evening of the value as metallic money, as well 20th, the Duke de Palmella was in the payment of all taxes and sent for, and charged with the dif- public revenues as in transactions ficult task. On the 22nd, the between private individuals. The Queen, to conciliate her subjects, sole exception from this disposition issued a proclamation, in which is letters of exchange between Liswas promised a redress of griev- bon and foreign countries. 3. ances, including the restoration of The tribunal of the public Treasury the liberty of the press. The two is charged with fiscalising the conCabrals were obliged to quit the venient execution of this decree, capital. For some days they had and proposing to me, with all posremained under the protection of sible despatch, the measures which the police, and afterwards took re may deem opportune on this fuge in the hotel of the Spanish Am- important subject.” bassador, Senor Gonzales Brano, On the 26th, the new Ministry but they were not allowed to was definitively constituted as folexasperate the populace by their lows:presence in Lisbon, but were compelled to go on board a French President of the Council and man-of-war in the river, whence Minister of Finance, Duke de they removed into an English Palmella. steamer on her way to Cadiz, Minister of War, Marquis de Salwhere they disembarked.

danha. On the 26th of May, two Royal Minister of the Kingdom (Interior), proclamations appeared, by the Monsinho d'Albuquerque. first of which the Chamber of Minister for Foreign Affairs, Conde Deputies was dissolved, and the do Lavradio. Grand Cortes was convoked "ex Minister of Justice, Joaquim Fitraordinarily" for the 1st of Sep lippe de Soure. tember, before which time a gene- Minister of Marine and (ad interim) ral election was to take place. The of War, José Jorge Loureiro. other proclamation provided for a temporary suspension of cash pay Monsinho d'Albuquerque was ments by the Bank of Lisbon, on also appointed Civil Governor of account of the sudden run upon it the district of Lecria, which had occasioned by the insurrectionary taken a very prominent part in the movements. The decree consisted late insurrection, in the place of of the following articles :

Paredes, who held that office under “1. It is conceded to the Bank the Cabral Ministry; and at of Lisbon to suspend the general Viducia, Evora, Oporto, and other payment of its notes for a period places, the Governors who were ob.

noxious to the people were re time it was feared that the Queen moved, and popular officers ap- and Royal Family would be compointed in their stead.

pelled to abandon Lisbon, and seek The Palmella Cabinet continued safety in England. Four regiin power four months, when it was ments under General Vinhaes abruptly dismissed.

It had ex marched against Oporto, where perienced great difficulty in effect. Count das Antas had assumed the ing a loan which the necessities of military command of the rebels Government demanded, and on the under the revolutionary “ Supreme 6th of October the Duke de Pal. Junta of Government. The other mella was summoned to the palace, principal leaders were Counts Louli and asked by the Queen whether and Fornos, and Viscount Sà da he and his colleagues still found Bandiera, who were, by a Royal dethemselves unable to obtain the cree, deprived of their titles and money that was required. On his rank. In the latter part of October, stating that such was the case, the Queen's troops under Viscount Her Majesty at once announced her de Setubal, at Viana, and under determination to change her Minis- Baron Cazal, in Tras os Montes, ters, and as every thing appears to engaged and defeated the rebels. have been arranged beforehand for But the conflicts that took place their dismissal, the requisite de- between the Queen's troops and the crees were produced, and signed at insurgents led to no decisive result, the same interview. The next day and it is not our intention to give a the new Ministry was announced, detail of the obscure skirmishes and was composed of the following and unimportant actions that chamembers :

racterized the feeble efforts on both

sides. One of the principal sucPresident of the Council and cesses gained over the rebels was

Minister of War, Marquis de the defeat, on the 16th of November, Saldanha.

of a body of them amounting to Minister of the Kingdom and (ad 2000 men under the command of

interim) of Finances, Viscount Sà da Bandiera, by Baron Casal d'Oliveira.

and Viscount Vinhaes, near Chaves, Justice, J. J. Valente Farinho. in the province of Minho. During Marine and Colonies, D. Manoel de the action two regiments deserted Portugal e Castro.

from the enemy and joined the Foreign Affairs, Viscount da Car- Queen's troops. The insurgents reira.

lost a considerable number of men,

and Sà da Bandiera rapidly reThroughout the rest of the

year treated

upon Oporto, which concivil war raged in Portugal, and the tinued until the end of the year, King Consort himself assumed the to be the head-quarters of the post of Commander-in-Chief of the enemy. The strong fortress of army. Oporto, Coimbra, Evora, Valença in the Upper Minho, which Braza, Penafiel, and many other had been occupied by the rebels, places, carly in November, had was wrested from them at the begin“pronounced” against the Govern- ning of December, and Don ment, and wide-spread disaffection Antonio Pereira, who had been apcaused the utmost alarm. At one pointed Royal Commissioner of the

provinces of the Upper Minho and February, 1831, and assumed the Tras os Montes, took possession of name of Gregory XVI. it for the Queen. Das Antas shut Such an event would in former himself

up in Santarem, where he times have engrossed the interest was closely besieged by the Marquis of Christendom, but now-it hardly de Saldanha, who remained before excited attention in the political the town until the close of the world ; so much has the temporal year.

power of Papacy been diminished, Early in December, the Duke and its influence upon the affairs of de Palmella hastily quitted Lisbon other nations destroyed. The at the instigation (as was believed) candidates for the vacant tiara, of the Queen, and went on board were — Cardinal Fransoni, aged one of the English men-of-war seventy-one ; Cardinal Castruccio which were then in the Tagus, Castracane, sixty-seven ; Cardinal under the command of Admiral Orioli, sixty-eight; Cardinal Micara, Parker.

seventy-one ; Cardinal Polidori,

sixty-eight; and Cardinal Mastei, BELGIUM.—In April a change fifty-four. The election took place of Ministry took place, and the new on the 16th of June, and the choice Cabinet was composed of the fol. fell upon the last, who was crowned lowing members :

Pope on the 21st, and assumed the M. de Theux, Minister of the In• title of Pius IX. His name was terior.

John Maria Mastei Ferretti, and he M. Deschamps, Minister of Fo was born at Sinigaglia, in the reign Affairs.

Roman States, on the 13th of May, M. Malon, Minister of Finance. 1792. He was of a noble family, M. de Bavay, Minister of Public and in early life served in the Works.

army as one of the body-guard of General Prisse, Minister of War. the then existing Pope, but, owing Baron d’Anethan, Minister of (as it is said) to the death of a lady Justice.

to whom he was attached, he quitted

the profession of arms for the PAPAL STATES.—The most church, andafterwards distinguished important event that occurred himself as a zealous missionary in this year in Italy was the death of South America. He returned to Pope Gregory XVI., who ex- Italy, and in the year 1832 was pired on the 1st of June, at Rome. made Bishop of Imola ; and proHis name, before he was elevated claimed Cardinal on the 14th of to the triple Crown, was Mauro December, 1840. He seems to be Capellari, and he was born at a Pontiff of the most liberal and Belluno in 1765. He was raised enlightened views, and one of his by Leo XII., in 1825, to the dig- first acts was to publish a general nity of a Cardinal, and not long amnesty for political offences. The afterwards he was placed at the preamble of this interesting and head of the Propaganda College. important document speaks well for He was elected Pope by the Col- the benevolence of the new occupant lege of Cardinals, in opposition to of St. Peter's chair.

It says, Cardinal Pacca, the candidate In these days, when our heart favoured by Austria, on the 2nd of is moved to see public joy mani

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