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marks ; for, whether one attempted accomplish. She had, without inin a discussion to disparage one's tervention, put an end to the civil adversaries, or to eulogize one- war, and established a constituself, the effect must be to lessen tional government. Spain doubtthe value of important matters, less continued to experience many such as the general interest of difficulties, but he denied that she mankind, or the affairs of nations. was in a declining state ; on the The hon. gentleman, in his ob- contrary, she was in the way to servations on the policy of the Go- return to the good principles of vernment since 1830, had divided practical government. it into two heads, one in which he surprised to hear the hon. gentlehad, and the other in which he had man make use of the names of not, taken a part ; the former he parties connected with Spanish af. had approved of, and the latter he fairs, in a tone of bitterness which had criticized. He would observe, could not be made use of when with regard to the former, that in speaking of their own affairs. M. his opinion the .hon, deputy had Guizot here passed an eulogium not given it the full praise that it on General Narvaez, who, he obdeserved ; for a policy which, on served, had conferred great bethe morrow of a revolution, in the nefits on Spain. That officer might midst of the greatest agitation, have committed great faults, might had always remained master of it- have yielded to the brutal tradiself-prudent, just, and moderate tions of his country, but when pru-must certainly be called a great dent voices warned him that he policy. He must beg the Cham- was acting wrong, he at once gave ber to excuse him from not follow- way, and remained strictly within ing the hon. gentleman through the bounds of constitutional order. all the questions which he bad No person ought, therefore, to acraised, for there were many which cuse General Narvaez of having it was more desirable to leave for compromised the monarchy of his history to record ; for the great country. As to Queen Christina, responsibility falling on a minister who could tell by what views her frequently did not allow him to mother's heart had been moved in treat such questions as he might seeking a husband for her daughplease. With regard to the right ter ? She had too much good of search, he would ask whether, sense, and too much political exif the Cabinet had fallen under perience, not to sacrifice any perthat question, and the hon. M. sonal feelings of her own to the Thiers had concluded the conven- welfare of her country. Spain tion of 29th May, the Opposition was at present in the hands of would not have regarded it as a men who had given proofs of their great piece of success. The hon. devotedness to her interests. What gentleman, in alluding to the con- France owed them, and what she duct of the Government towards desired to afford them, was her Spain, expressed his astonishment moral support. IIe should not then that when the support of the pause to answer the observations of French Government was demanded, M. Thiers relative to Syria, for the the reply should have been to tell question would one of these days her to save herself ; that was, how- be brought forward, and discussed ever, what she had been able to at full length. He must, however, declare that M. Thiers was quite rantee. Such were the few words in error when he asserted that which he had deemed it necessary France had asked for a little hu- to utter on the foreign policy of manity for the Christians of that the


ernment. He should now country, and could not obtain it. proceed to discuss that of the Humanity had nothing to do with home administration, and as a prethe matter ; it was altogether a liminary step should observe, that question of organization in the in- on the accusation that the present terior of the Lebanon, on which Ministry wished for peace at any England and France held different price, he must declare that they opinions. He was convinced that did certainly aim at preserving the latter was right, and should be peace, as the only efficient means of able to prove it when the matter consolidating the power and greatwas discussed, but at present he ness of the country.

But there could not allow the question to be two modes of preserving misstated to be represented as peace ; one was to be uneasy, to one of humanity. With respect to fear the possibility of war, to conGreece, he should be just as brief tinually demand if it could be prein his remarks, as he had not long served --in fact, to show that war since declared that the whole cause was considered probable. This of the difference between France conduct in its turn produced doubt and England, relative to that coun- amongst the other powers, and at try, was that they had formed differ- last the result would be that war entopinions respecting the character would burst out. But there was of the ministry now in power. A another mode of preserving peace, difference of opinion might easily which was to do so with confidence, exist between the two Governinents with the conviction that it was to on such a point without leading to be observed, and that it would issue any grave results, and this was victoriously from all trials to which what had taken place in the pre- it might be subjected. After a sent instance. As to the question lapse of time every one would beof the United States, he certainly lieve in its continuance, and the did not expect to find it again al- favourable opinion thus felt would luded to in the tribune. Every exercise a most beneficial effect on word that he had ever uttered rela- the country. It was in this way tive to the United States, every that the present Government preact that he had sanctioned, might served peace. Let any one go be strictly examined, and nothing from that Chamber, and, proceedcould be found that did not testifying through France, listen to what to his great consideration and in- was said and regard what was terest for that country. He had done, and then declare if France maintained the independence of the had not gained strength immeapolicy of France, as he had thought surably within the last five years. it fitting for her interest, in a se- “ You,” said the hon. Minister, condary matter; and in a question turning to the Opposition benches, of a graver cast, he had been the “you and your friends are the first to proclaim a policy which no only persons who do not say so. person in that Chamber could gain- All others declare the contrary to say—a strict and real neutrality, you ; and this is the only way that surrounded by every kind of gua- we prove in what manner we un


derstand and practise the policy take M. Thiers as their leader. of peace.” With regard to the It was not long since that that domestic policy of the Govern- hon. Member designated himment, the first reproach made self under that character. Не against it by the hon. gentleman should leave that question to be was, that it was not a parliament- settled among themselves ; but he ary government. It had acquired must be permitted to believe that a majority. It was admitted that the example of the Conservative it had passed through many diffi- party, and the necessity felt for cult trials, which it had got over strengthening themselves, had led with much success, and yet it was to that result, which he should not a parliamentary government; consider as a mark of progress, it was a party, and governed but in which it appeared they had

a party. If by this it was not advanced as much as he meant to say that the majority had thought. The Government had acquired a firmness, an organ- was told that it certainly had the ization, and a unity which was majority, but that this advantage fitting to it, the Government con- was obtained by means of corrupgratulated itself on it. The Con- tion, and at the expense


represervative party, in fact, for the sentative government. The Oplast five years, must be regarded position allowed that it had confias the principal constitutional force dence in the institutions of the of the country. A constitutional country, and that it admired them. government required a majority But had not these institutions been possessing those principles, and in force for the last fifteen years? faithfully following under the same Was not every one in his place ? standard. Great efforts and great Was not the combat that was going sacrifices had been made to attain on between the several parties rethat end. As hon. Members did gulated by these institutions ? And not appear to understand the sa- when a new species of liberty had crifices he alluded to, he would ex- been admitted, that of public votplain that they had sacrificed the ing in the Chamber, had the Godearest friendships, and the warmest vernment and the Conservative allies, to maintain the unity of the party suffered from it ? UnConservative party. This had pro- doubtedly not. But it was not duced on the side of the Opposition alone in the Chamber that the inwhat had been called a fusion. He stitutions were in force ; throughconsidered they were very far out the whole length and breadth from forming a party fit to govern, of the territory they prevailed, in for they were wanting in the ideas, councils general, in municipal the sentiments, and the habits, councils, in the National Guard, which constituted such a party. everywhere they had their influThey had, however, started in that ence, and everywhere the Governroad, and he much preferred seeing ment had the majority! Well, it so, to witnessing the disunion, then, here were free and powerful the impuissance, and the inco- institutions used by every one at herence which formerly reigned in full liberty, and yet the Opposition the ranks of the Opposition. They went the length of declaring that had done right to constitute them- they were annihilated by corrupselves into a great party, and to tion ! What greater insult could be offered to those institutions and quite satisfied as to the principles to the country! If amongst the of the Government which held the various Governments that had suc- reins of power, and, being so, it ceeded each other in France, any tranquilly transacted its daily busisingle one, the Empire for instance, ness. Let not then hon. gentlewith the immense powers at its men attribute to administrative disposal, had endeavoured not to

maneuvres such great results. Becorrupt, but simply to seduce ; he tween the Government and the could comprehend its being re- Opposition the country had to proached with exercising an ascend- choose, and it preferred the former, ancy over the institutions of the and that was the sole cause of the country ; but in the present day, former's force. He should now with the means now at the service

come to another reproach raised of the Government--so slight, so by M. Thiers against the doinferior—to suppose that it could mestic policy of the Government, succeed in putting down the great that of falsifying the representafree institutions of France, was tive system. The policy practised certainly going too far. It was by the Government was every day certainly quite out of character for attacked ; it was stated to be rethe Opposition, who boasted of trograde and counter-revolutionary perfectly understanding the great at home, and weak and humiliating interests, the generous sentiments abroad ; and, after thus stigmatizof the country, to accuse the Go- ing the policy of the Government, vernment of using corruption by it was said that it was not its own, means of tobacco shops, and super- and that if the Opposition would have numeraries' places, and of obtain- followed the same course, it might ing by such insignificant instru- have been in its place. That was ments the great results at which the language that had been made it has arrived ; that surely was not use of ; but it was evident that possible, it was an insult to the in that case the responsibility country to suppose it. He was was not misplaced. M. Thiers well aware how the Opposition ex- had certainly too much experience plained this anomaly; they said not to know that good intentions the country slumbered—was indif- did not always prevent bad conseferent-allowed matters to take

quences. He admitted the right their course. The Restoration was which the hon. gentleman had not very far from the present time; claimed to examine into the inthe Government then disposed of fluence exercised by the different more numerous means of influence powers of the state; but that right than at present—the liberties of ought to be made use of for the the country were less extensive and interest of the country, and under less active. But the country did certain circumstances. Had, then, not slumber, nor did it remain in- that right been used, under existing different. And why? Because it circumstances, in a manner condistrusted the Government, and formably to the principles of a rewas uneasy respecting its princi- presentative government, and to ples, for that reason it became vigi- the interests of the country? They lant and on the defensive. Why were all labouring to found a mowas the country not in the same narchical establishment. This was state of alarm now? Because it was the fourth attempt within fifty years.


There was the monarchy of 1791; In order to effect this, it was nethe imperial monarchy of 1804 ; cessary for them to treat with all, that of the restoration ; and, lastly, with the Crown as with the Chanthat of 1830. They were, there- bers, to make them accept the confore, engaged in their fourth at- ditions of common accord. This tempt, and that proved two things: was the light in which he regarded that a monarchy was necessary, representative government. In since it was always returned to; order to perform the part which he and, at the same time, that it was had here pointed out, it was necesvery difficult to establish it on a sary to possess much independence. firm and durable basis. He be- He had lived under many Governlieved that the last of the four ments, many of whom he had monarchies he had mentioned, served, and he was confident that offered the best conditions of suc- no one had ever found him either

If France had been told in servile or complaisant. He had, 1830 that, at the end of fifteen he confessed, much respect for the years, she would find herself in powers which governed the country, the situation in which she was now and if he happened to find himself placed, she would have congratu- opposed to one of them, far from lated herself more than she did at allowing them to see it, he was a moment when she had extricated anxious to conceal it. It was not herself from a state of anarchy; proper to make the country acBut, in founding a durable and quainted with those intestine strugsolid monarchy, it was not too gles ; the weaknesses of the powers much to find, in addition to the should be concealed. He would energetic assistance of all the great never allow his vanity to be grapowers of the State, that of the tified by such conduct, at the exCrown equally with the rest, and pense of his independence. There it was a great happiness for the was another point which separated present monarchy at its very com- him from M. Thiers : it was this, mencement to meet with in the that in his opinion the duty of the Crown so much wisdom, firmness, counsellors of the Crown was, to and devotedness to the country. attribute to the Crown all that it What he had just uttered was re- did of good, but never to assign to peated commonly, not only in it anything of evil. The Crown France, but throughout the whole never responsible for what world, and he could not see any was ill ; it was it that effected every just reason why he should be pre- good. vented from proclaiming it in that The Marquis de Larochejaqueassembly. There was much dif- lin.--And 1830 ! ference of opinion as to the duties M. Guizot continued. He was of advisers of the Crown. For his well aware that in all times and part, he believed that the duties of countries there were Crown counMinisters in a monarchy were to sellors, who endeavoured to elevate maintain the accord between the themselves by pursuing a differgreat powers of the State ; not to ent course ; such conduct neither make one preponderate over the suited his taste nor his sense of other, but to maintain an equili- duty. He believed, on the conbrium between them, to bring them trary, that it was his duty to stand to the same desire, the same will. aside before the Crown. By such


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