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denied that the majority was emi- the whole responsibility attached to nently that of the Government it, and should give it his warmest employés? Be it remarked, too, , support. It was said that the that the number of public function- amendment not only attacked a aries who voted with the Opposi- number of hon. deputies, but even tion was yearly decreasing In the august personage at the head 1832, 1833, and 1834, there were of affairs. He had to reply to that about 60 in the Opposition ranks, objection, that in what was thus whereas at present the number proposed nothing personal was inwas not more than 40. Since last tended. How could it be supposed year there had been 20 new elec- that he and his friends could aim tions, and in these 14 of the suc- at attacking Royalty, when they cessful candidates were public func- had supported it under such trying tionaries. The evil was evidently circumstances ? The hon. deputy increasing, and ought to be put here again referred to the great redown. The conclusion that he volution at present being effected drew from these facts was, that in England, with such regularity, often in that Chamber political from both the Ministry and the feelings were sacrificed to personal Royal power, confining themselves interests. Functionaries, perceiv. strictly to the letter of the instiing that they often had the exist- tutions.

There was never any ence of the Cabinet in their hands, such thing heard of in England, eagerly sought for seats in the he observed, as

any enmity to Chamber. Such functionaries as the Queen. No one

ever said were possessed only by the spirit there, “the Queen will have this of their duty remained tranquil, done or that done ;' but simply, whilst others, impelled by ambition, • Sir Robert Peel is doing so and threw themselves into the Minis- so,' or Lord John Russell is terial ranks in order to arrive at carrying out such and such a measome higher place. Whenever a sure.' Did that mean that Engsituation fell vacant in the Court land, who had expelled the Stuarts, of Accounts, or the Court of Cassa- was willing to be subject to the tion in the Council of State, who of a cotton-spinner ? Cerwas almost sure to obtain it ? tainly not. It merely meant that without doubt a deputy ; and Sir Robert Peel was the will of this was

so well known, that it the country embodied in a single was sufficient to cause the employés, man. The Government yield to who were not deputies, to detest that will, not as to a riotous body, the Government for placing so but as enlightened reason obeys many members of the Chamber a truth which it has discovered over their heads. The hon. deputy and admitted. Sir R. Peel was, then examined the question in its then the country-made man! And details, which he considered fully could there be greater stability or justified. He next alluded to an a nobler attitude than that wbich amendment of M. Barrot, which was exhibited ? An immense rewent even further than that under volution was effected, and not a cry discussion, and he admitted that he against the Queen. She passed (M. Thiers) so fully approved of on with impunity in the midst of what that hon. deputy had done, all the agitation, respected and that he was ready to assume beloved ! Nay, even her death, if


it unfortunately should take place, long in coming, it is said. Be it would cause an immense affliction so; I shall not say any thing to in England, but would not pro- the contrary ; but, in allowing the duce the slightest alarm.” Such fact, I must call to mind the words was the sight he had desired to of a German author, who, in speakbehold at the Restoration. He was ing of causes that triumph slowly, then unknown, and, in his deep said I shall place my vessel on obscurity, was acquainted with the highest promontory of the neither the august occupant of the bank, and shall await the coming throne, nor him who was to suc- of the tide tó set me afloat, and ceed him. In 1829, he had writ- waft me off.' In the same way ten the phrase, “ The King reigns, I do not think that I am placing but does not govern.” He had my vessel so high that it will be written that in 1829, and he be- inaccessible.” lieved, in 1846, that his maxim was The Minister of the Interior reperfectly possible. He firmly be- plied. He maintained that the lieved that a true representative representative government was fully government was possible in France. and honestly practised at present Were it otherwise, the country in France. The fundamental rule ought to have been told so in 1830. of such a government was to have If the representative government it directed by the will of the mawas not possible in France, it would jority. That was what was dehave been better not to effect the manded under the Restoration, and revolution—if it was not possible, what was carried out in the prewhat they had previously was far sent day. It was said that the preferable. He looked on the re- Restoration had the majority. He volution of July as a step in ad

denied it. It was not when it had vance--as a progress, but he felt the majority that it fell, but when convinced that there was much it separated itself from the mamore to be done.

Was it neces- jority, and desired to govern in a sary

to say what connection there sense contrary to its will. The was between all this and the present Government had been for amendment? The amendment de- six years in power, and had it ever, sired to have Royalty always he would ask, separated from the placed out of debate, and to see majority ? No! and, therefore, deputies vote fairly according to the fundamental principle of the their own opinions. But when re- Government had been satisfied. presentatives were to vote The hon. Minister then proceeded day after day, according to the to discuss the question on its own ideas of another—it was evident merits, and argued that it was usethat such a state of things was less, inasmuch as it would not attended with grave inconveni- attain its object, and would be atence. “ We had rather,'

” said tended with grave inconveniences. M. Thiers in conclusion, “sacri. Speaking of corruption used by the fice the King's aides-de-camp Government, the hon. Minister than the King himself, and we retorted the charge on M. Thiers' regard that as an advance in the Cabinet, denying that it was apcareer at the end of which we per- plicable in any way to the present, ceive the truth of representative He referred to the deputies apgovernment. That truth will be pointed since 1840, and defied Ñ.


Thiers or any other hon. member tained, furthermore, that the certo point out those shameful fall- tain effect of the amendment would ings-off from opinions which had be to give to the enemies of the been alluded to. He also called on institutions of the country a powerthem to examine the returns of ful weapon against Royalty. Government promotions, and show The proposition of M. de Remusat any examples of improper or illegi- was afterwards rejected by a matimate recompenses awarded for jority of 48. political apostasy. The hon. Mi- In the Chamber of Peers, on the nister also called in question the 19th of March, when the discussion calculations of M. Thiers with took place on the Secret Service respect to the number of deputies Money Bill, holding government situations. M. de Montalembert regretted There were not, he maintained, that he could not grant the 184 of such deputies in the Cham- Ministry a vote of confidence as reber, since generals on half-pay, spected its foreign policy, particumembers invested with merely larly with regard to Poland. He honorary functions, and such like,

came forward, he said, to defend ought not to be included under the the holiest legitimacy, the only one category just named. Besides, he he recognised--the right of every argued, whatever they were, they nation to exist and to be governed had been nominated by the elec- according to the laws of justice. tors. The motives put forward by The late insurrection, he mainthe author and the supporters of the tained, had not been excited from proposition the hon. deputy did not abroad. The Poles required no think were the real ones. The such excitation. Their oppression Chamber had now existed for a a perpetual cause of exciteperiod of five years, and during ment; it was their right to strive to that time the Conservative policy shake off an iron yoke ; it had been had triumphed. The Opposition their history during the last eighty now, at the moment of the Cham- years. He had not the courage, ber's dissolution, desired to see it like others, in presence of the repass on itself, just as it was about verses of the insurgents and the to appear before the electors, a blood they had just shed, to blame veritable act of discredit—it wanted their late attempt. Nobody in the majority to declare that for five France was placed in a condition years it had been wanting in dignity to appreciate the circumstances and morality. This, he wouldventure that led to the insurrection and to to say, the majority would not be judge of its opportunity. Those induced to consent to. The hon. who are deprived of all the blessMinister concluded by alluding ings enjoyed in other countries briefly to the amendment. He de- should not be lightly condemned for clared that a proposition to exclude not better biding their time, and the functionaries of the civil list calculating their chances of sucfrom the Chamber came with so cess. M. de Montalembert then much a worse grace from M. examined the situation of the Poles, Thiers, that it was he who had, in placed under the dominion of the 1836, nominated Baron Fain, the three Northern Powers, and greatly intendant of the civil list, a mem- commended the system pursued by ber of the Chamber. He main- Prussia towards her Polish sub


jects, who were at least freed from the latter expressed such inhuman bondage, and all forced labour. In feelings in the Chamber of DepuGalicia the people possessed no

ties. Poland, he maintained, thing, and could legally possess no

would resuscitate ; 22,000,000 of thing. The peasants were sub- souls were not easily exterminated, jected to the most arbitrary treat- and so long as justice should be dement, and it was not surprising nied to them they would revolt. that they had revolted against the And why should Poland cease to nobility. It was Joseph II. who hope, when she sees Greece and had estranged from the latter the Ireland, so long oppressed, and affection of the rural classes. That like her effaced from the


of Sovereign had charged the nobility Europe, resume their rank among with the exercise of the most oner- nations ? M. Montalembert deous and oppressive part of the Aus- clared, in conclusion, that Poland trian system of government. The was imperishable, and that he hoped Galician nobles had to carry into to live to witness her resurrection, effect the conscription law, to col- and to see M. Guizot himself come lect the taxes, to administer justice, forward to proclaim the legitimacy to preside at the infliction of cor- and equity of her revolution. poral chastisements, &c. The no- M. Guizot then rose to reply, bility vainly asked the Austrian and observed that he did not conGovernment to be relieved from sider it useful and expedient to such painful duties, and last year enter on the present discussion. It again they had forwarded an ad- was not, he said, the duty of the dress to that effect to that Govern- Government to interfere in favour, ment. It had been denied that or take part with the Polish insurAustria had set a price on the head rection ; all the Government could of the Galician nobles. He had re- possibly do was to afford a hospitceived a document which he pro- able refuge to Polish exiles, and duced, and from which it appeared give them all the assistance due to that that Government had actually their misfortune. A Government, offered a premium of 12f. to the after mature reflection, having peasant who should denounce the adopted a political resolution, should intrigues of the nobles to the Aus- shape its actions to its words. Now, trian police, and 25f. to those who the partition of Poland was an acshould deliver their landlords, hand- complished fact, upon the justice of cuffed, into the hands of the author- which the present Government had ities. This was a certain and in- not been called to pronounce, and controvertible fact. M. de Mon- which it had merely accepted with talembert then contended that the the rest of Europe. existence of Poland was indispen- The following passages, in a sable to the balance of European speech delivered on the 31st of power, and quoted a passage from March in the Chamber of Deputies a work of M. Salvandy, in which by M. Canin Gridaine, the Minister that truth was ably developed. M. of Commerce, while defending the de Salvandy does not, he said, dis- treaty of commerce between France own his former sentiments, and it and Belgium, will be read with inwas with sorrow he saw him re- terest, as showing the point of view main the silent accomplice of the in which the Free-Trade meaMinister of Foreign Affairs, when sures of the English Legislature

were looked upon in France. M. tageously competing with other Canin Gridaine said :

countries. So much for the treaty. Is it necessary for me to refer The economical reforms proposed to the causes which produced the in the British Parliament cannot ordinance of 1842, and the motives fail to have fixed the general atwhich determined the Government tention. Those who think that we not to render it applicable to linen, should not hesitate to imitate the thread, and cloth? The injury arose example given us by the English from the invasion of cloths and Parliament advise a premature threads from England; the impor- and dangerous act. England has tation of Belgium threads amounted never pursued any other line of to 500,000 kilogrammes. The in- conduct than that of her interest, portation of cloths remained sta- and she was right; it is in that tionary; there was no reason, then, particular we should imitate her. that we should not treat Belgium From the earliest period it has been as we have done. The treaty of the aim of England to extend her 1842 was concluded. Has our com- manufactures, her navy, her commerce been benefited by it? The merce, and to obtain in all cases an results show that it has. If we advantage over her competitors. examine the general movement of She did not suffer herself to be carour commercial relations with Bel- ried away by theories ; she congium between that period and the sulted facts; she studied her posiyear 1844, we find that in 1842 tion and compared it with that of the general commerce between other nations, and acted accordFrance and Belgium amounted to ingly. The prohibitive system was 144,000,000f. It rose in 1844 to long most rigidly pursued in Eng170,000,000f. The Government land; it may be traced as far back engaged itself not to renew the

1283. In the time of treaty of 1842 under the same con- Edward III. all foreign stuffs were ditions in which it was concluded. forbidden to be imported, and woolHas it observed its engagement, lens forbidden to be exported. The and obtained the best terms? Most protection upon iron came next. assuredly it has. The treaty of The present discussions in the 1842 accorded to Belgium the most English Parliament prove what we favourable conditions respecting its knew beforehand---namely, that by cloths and threads. The conven- maintaining certain onerous duties tion of the 13th of December im- in the tariff, England expects to poses a double limitation upon that make the nations interested purcountry. It has been said that we chase their repeal by obtaining have obtained nothing in favour of from them concessions favourable our produce and industry. That to her own manufactures. I must is not the case. We obtained the here remark, however, that Engmodification of the Royal ordinance land does not in any way modify her of 1843, which was so injurious to colonial system; that is to say, she our manufactures. We obtained continues to reserve for herself the more favourable terms for what manufactures, navigation, and comare called Parisian articles—a merce, which ought to administer larger reduction in the duties upon to the wants of 100,000,000 of salt. We obtained for our other consumers. All that explains itself. productions the means of advan- The more England produces, the


as the

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