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The next paragraph discussed should have maintained the strictwas the sixth, referring to the est neutrality on the question. amicable relations which subsisted M. Guizot replied, that he would between the Governments of France support the amendment, if it did and Great Britain, and the conven- not contain an indirect blame of tion which had been concluded be- the past conduct of the Cabinet, tween them for the suppression of and distrust it for the future. He the slave-trade.

then justified the course pursued M. de Remusat proposed the by France in respect of Texas, insertion of the following words :-- which had not been hostile to the

“ But in order to consolidate United States, but perfectly indethose relations it is indispensable pendendent, moderate, and rethat the two Governments, at the served. same time that they will act in M. Thiers having here interconjunction in circumstances where rupted M. Guizot, the latter vathey have a common interest, cated the tribune, and was sucshould carefully preserve, in both ceeded by M. Thiers, who queshemispheres, the entire independ- tioned the truth of M. Guizot’s ence of their political action. declaration, and defied him to ad

M. de Remusat proceeded to duce a reasonable, a sufficient mosupport his amendment. It ex- tive to justify his interference in pressed, he said, sentiments already the affair of Texas. The policy of manifested by the Chamber of France, he said, had not been imPeers in their Address, with the partial and reserved ; more cirsilent approbation of the Cabinet. cumspection should have been obHe admitted that the alliance of served not to indispose an old and France with England presented natural ally to gratify an ally of a invaluable advantages, but the in- day. M. Thiers then ridiculed the terests of the two nations, he commercial reasons given by M. added, were so different, particu- Guizot to account for the opposilarly in America, that it was indis- tion of France to the annexation of pensable that each power should Texas, and the theory of the Amepreserve the entire independence rican balance of power which he of its political action. This had had developed on

a former day, not been the case in the question and contended that the interests of of Texas, when France had openly France and England were widely embraced a policy which had tended different in America, when Engto indispose the United States to- land wanted France, and France wards France. The increase of did not want England. the territorial power of America M. Guizot next rose, and after could give no umbrage to France, questioning M. Thiers' pretensions and she ought to view with plea- to a monopoly of good sense, prosure the increase of her maritime ceeded to expose the conduct of power, for France was interested France in reference to Texas. He in the development of the navies of had wished, he said, to prevent a all second-rate states. The Ame- collision between two great narican Union, besides, was her best tions, and had laid down the basis market, and were it only for that of the political neutrality of France, consideration, the Government with all the reserve due to a friendly people, and had she sided with the ment because it implied an indi. United States she would have as. rect, but real blame, of the conduct sumed a false position. It was at of the Cabinet, and distrusted it the request of the Texan Govern for the future. ment, and of its Chargé d'Affaires M. Remusat next rose to ex. at Paris, that she supported the plain. He had not, he said, reindependence of that country, and commended a union with the United not at the suggestion of England. States, but demanded that France France had recognised that State, should not adhere implicitly to the and concluded a commercial treaty policy of England, against the with it; and when its regular Go- United States, in the question of vernment called on her to interfere Oregon. Some words pronounced in its behalf, she would have been by M. Guizot, in the Chamber of wanting in all the rules of sound Peers, induced such a belief, and policy had she rejected that de- it was for that purpose he consimand. M. Guizot then contended dered a declaration necessary in that, in America as well as in the Address. Europe, the policy of France had His amendment was afterwards been independent of England. In put to the vote, and lost by a Spain, where the two Cabinets were majority of sixty-eight. not entirely of accord, France had M. Billault then rose, and adfollowed an independent policy. In dressed himself to that part of the Greece, the English Government, paragraph which alluded to the conhe thought, was deceived respect- vention for the suppression of the ing the situation of that king- slave-trade, and the replacing of dom; but at bottom it wished, like French commerce under the excluFrance, for the consolidation of the sive care of the national flag. He constitutional monarchy within its said that he could not admit that the present limits. She only differed convention of May 29th had replaced with her respecting the means of ar- the commerce of France under the riving at that end. Another instance national flag. Far from restoring of the independence of the policy of to it those guarantees which it rethe Cabinet, was afforded by Tunis. quired, the convention took away, France desired the maintenance of without any compensation in rethe status quo in that country, and turn, those which it had before enthe independence of the Bey, whilst joyed. He must maintain that England was inclined to favour the the faculty to verify the pretensions of the Porte, who were tionality of vessels was an innoanxious to reduce that Beylik to vation on the maritime rights of the condition of Tripoli. M. Gui- France; it was contrary to their zot, in conclusion, announced his fundamental principles ; France determination to persevere in the had never recognised it, and the line of policy he had hitherto pur- English had never admitted it sued, with the approbation of the either. The mode of proceeding majority of Parliament, and which in such verifications was more vexhe considered far more dignified atious than the former one. The than that recommended by the object of the search was the only Opposition, and declared that the thing changed ; for in place of enGovernment rejected the amend- deavouring to ascertain whether


the vessel was engaged in the vention entered into for the supslave-trade, it consisted in finding pression of the slave-trade with out if it displayed a false flag or that concluded with the United not. The honourable deputy then States, and contended that the proceeded to argue that this right latter power had known better how of verifying the nationality of ves- to make her flag respected, and to sels had never been admitted in protect her commerce. American France, and referred, in support of vessels, he observed, might be this opinion, to a declaration in really said to be under the sur1822 of the Duke de Broglie, say veillance of their own flag. The ing, that "

nations had undoubt- President had announced this reedly a right to effect the verifica- sult in his late Message, and Lord tion in question in time of war, but Aberdeen had said that England in time of peace the right ceased had neither demanded nor yielded to exist." Benjamin Constant, the any thing. He (M. Billault) conhonourable deputy observed, was tended that the late convention, of precisely the same opinion ; and and the intructions issued under the Government of the Restoration it, would cause great embarrasstook the same view of the question, ment to their shipping interests, as appeared from two despatches and that it was impossible to say addressed to the English Govern- that their commerce had been ment in 1829, by MM. Laval-Mont- placed under the surveillance of its morency and Polignac, in which national flag. He concluded by they protested against all attempts stating his opinion that the present to verify the nationality of vessels system employed was not the most sailing under French colours. The efficacious means that could be Government of July had also, he adopted to suppress the traffic in said, decided in the same way ;


He was, therefore, surand in the negotiations which pre- prised not to see the abolitionists ceded the first treaty on the right joining his friends in opposing the of search, MM. de Broglie and useless concessions made to EngSebastiani wrote to Lord Palmer- land. He feared that the future ston a despatch, declaring that maritime prosperity of France had vessels sailing under the French been compromised, and called on flag could not be regularly seized the Chamber to give the subject and proceeded against unless by its most serious attention. The French cruisers. So that the honourable member concluded by means imagined in 1845 could not announcing his intention of prohave been adopted in 1831. It posing an amendment in the sense was, therefore, perfectly correct to of the observations which he had say that the right of verifying the just delivered. It would not, he nationality of vessels was contrary knew, be adopted, but he consito French naval customs. The dered it right to leave on record English had not admitted such a his protest against the treaty to right, and the Duke of Wellington which he had alluded. himself protested against a Bill M. Peyramont, the next day, which should give England such undertook to reply to the speech an exorbitant power over Portu- delivered by M. Billault. The hoguese vessels. The honourable de- nourable member, he said, had proputy then compared the late con- duced arguments, which he ought Vol. LXXXVIII.


to have developed six months ago, pamphlet published whilst he was against the stipulations of the con- Minister of the United States at vention of the 29th of May, 1845, Paris, says that his Government when the Cabinet demanded and principally objected to the right of obtained from the Chambers the search because of the pretension of most explicit and most formal ad- England to press her seamen on hesion to its principle. That con- board of American vessels ; but vention had been attacked, and the that, if England were solemnly to article which conceded to England renounce that pretension, that mothe exclusive right of establishing ment the question of the right of cruisers on the eastern coast of search would be adjusted without Africa, was the only one that had any difficulty. M. Peraymont then been reproved. M. Dupin himself, discussed the stipulations of the whose opinion was an authority in convention of the 29th of May, and all legal matters, had expressed maintained that it had replaced the his approbation of the convention commerce of France under the exin the strongest terms.

clusive surveillance of her flag, and M. Dupin here interrupted M. that all the naval officers, members Peyramont, and said that he had of the House, would, he was sure, approved it because he conceived concur in the opinion delivered, in it to have the meaning attached to 1842, by the late Admiral Lalande, it by the Americans.

that the visitation of all vessels M. Peyramont then proceeded to suspected of having hoisted false demonstrate that the new conven- colours, was a wise, just, and pertion really, efficaciously, and com- fectly legal measure. pletely suppressed the right of Other speakers followed, and a search, and replaced the trade of ballot then took place, when there France under the exclusive sur- appearedveillance of the national flag, on conditions perhaps more advan- For the amendment 144 tagcous than those obtained by the Against it

. 217 Americans. He next entered into an account of the negotiations Majority for Ministers 73 which had led to the conclusion of the treaty between Great Britain The sixth paragraph was then and the United States, for the voted with the substitution of the repression of the slave-trade ; and word “ infamous” for “ odious,” contended that, although no men- applied to the slave-trade. tion was made in it of the right When the paragraph which reof search, England had not aban- ferred to the joint interference of doned that faculty, which she no France and England to put a stop longer claimed, it was true, as a to the war on the banks of the right, since she admitted the prin- Rio de la Plata was read. ciple of an indemnity; but, in her M. Aylies proposed to replace it instructions to the cruisers, she by the following amendment :positively directed them to visit all

“ We

st that France and suspicious vessels. Mr. Webster, England, by a

action, the American Minister, consented already cemented by generous efto the exercise of that faculty, forts, will at length restore peace and General Cass himself, in a on the banks of the Plata, and,




especially, succeed in consolidating Madagascar, the question, neverit for the future, by insuring the theless, had seriously preoccupied loyal execution of treaties, and the the Committee, the majority of development of commercial rela- which had been of opinion that tions freed hereafter from all ob- the expedition was inopportune, structions.'

and thought that the

communiM. Drouin de Lhuys said, that cation with Madagascar might he could not share the confidence be reopened by pacific means. and satisfaction expressed by the The Committee, however Committee at the course pursued vinced of the inutility of the exby the Cabinet in the affairs of la pedition, would not take the iniPlata. He then entered into a tiative, reserving itself to adhere history of the events that had taken to any amendment expressive of place in that quarter for the last that sentiment which the Chamfive years, and denounced the in- ber might propose. That moved action of the Ministry in presence by M. Dangeville, conveying that of the horrors and spoliations com- expression, had been approved mitted by the agents of Rosas, to with the following alteration :the prejudice of the French citi- “ France expects, from the pruzens, who had been reduced to the dence of your Government, that necessity of arming themselves for it will not engage, without a wellthe defence of their lives and pro- founded necessity, in distant and perties ; and contended that it was onerous expeditions." only when England, feeling ag. M. Dangeville assented to the grieved, had resolved on an armed modification proposed, and was interference, that France had succeeded by M. Berryer, who deemed it expedient to alter her advocated the right of sovereignty policy with regard to the savage of France over Madagascar. ruler of Buenos Ayres.

M. Guizot, who rose to reply, After M. Drouin had concluded, admitted the necessity of assumM. Aylies withdrew his amend- ing a strong attitude, in order to ment, and a discussion afterwards enforce respect for the rights of arose upon one proposed by

France. The expedition had no M. Dangeville, who moved the other object; it was intended to addition of the following paragraph give a severe lesson to the savages relative to Madagascar :

who had insulted the French flag, “France is ready to make any to re-establish the communications, sacrifice required of her to promote and not to undertake any inland such important interests ; but she enterprise which might be attendwould view with uneasiness the ed with disastrous inconveniences. undertaking without a well-founded The Government had ever mainnecessity of those distant expedi- tained the status quo, as respecttions."

ed the rights of France, and the M. Vitet, as reporter of the French and English officers, who Committee to which the amend- united to chastise the Hovas, had ment has been referred for exa- repaired to Tamatave to avenge mination, informed the Chamber common affronts, without any prethat, although the Speech from vious concert. The same thing the Throne had made no men- might again occur, should the Gotion of the expedition against vernment allow the English alone

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